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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331576/normative-distribution-of-substance-p-and-its-tachykinin-neurokinin-1-receptor-in-the-medullary-serotonergic-network-of-the-human-infant-during-postnatal-development
#1
Fiona M Bright, Roger W Byard, Robert Vink, David S Paterson
Substance P (SP) and its tachykinin NK1 receptor (NK1R) function within key medullary nuclei to regulate cardiorespiratory and autonomic control. We examined the normative distribution of SP and NK1R in the serotonergic (5-Hydroxytryptamine, [5-HT]) network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development, to provide a baseline to facilitate future analysis of the SP/NK1R system and its interaction with 5-HT within pediatric brainstem disorders in early life. [125I] labelled Bolton Hunter SP (BH-SP) tissue receptor autoradiography (n = 15), single label immunohistochemistry (IHC) and double label immunofluorescence (IF) (n = 10) were used to characterize the normative distribution profile of SP and NK1R in the 5-HT network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development...
January 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328505/substance-p-as-a-putative-efferent-transmitter-mediates-gabaergic-inhibition-in-mouse-taste-buds
#2
Anthony Y Huang, Sandy Y Wu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Capsaicin-mediated modulation on taste nerve responses is thought to be produced indirectly by actions of neuropeptides, e.g., calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), onto taste cells implying playing a role in taste sensitivity. During processing gustatory information in taste buds, CGRP shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling. The underlying assumption has been that SP exerts its effects on taste transmitter secretion in taste buds of mice...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315653/group-1-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#3
Ildiko Rita Dunay, Andreas Diefenbach
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that carry out important functions in immunity to infections and in organ homeostasis at epithelial barrier surfaces. ILCs are innate immune cells that provide an early source of cytokines to initiate immune responses against pathogens. Cytotoxic ILCs (i.e., conventional (c)NK cells) and several subsets of helper-like ILCs are the major brances of the ILC family. Conventional NK cells and group 1 ILCs share several functions such as surface receptors and the ability to produce IFN-γ upon activation but they differ in their developmental paths and in their dependence on specific transcription factors...
January 9, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302585/high-intensity-interval-training-increases-natural-killer-cell-number-and-function-in-obese-breast-cancer-challenged-mice-and-obese-women
#4
Nicole G Barra, Isabella Y Fan, Jenna B Gillen, Marianne Chew, Katarina Marcinko, Gregory R Steinberg, Martin J Gibala, Ali A Ashkar
High intensity interval training (HIIT) boosts natural killer (NK) cell number and activity in normal weight breast cancer patients; however, whether this occurs in obese individuals is not well established. The goal of this study was to determine whether HIIT effectively boosts NK cells as a therapeutic strategy against breast cancer in an obese mouse model and in overweight/obese women. Diet induced female C57Bl/6 obese mice were assigned to undergo HIIT for four weeks or remain sedentary. Female participants were subjected to a six weeks HIIT protocol...
December 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279967/nk2-and-nk1-receptor-mediated-effects-of-nka-and-analogs-on-colon-bladder-and-arterial-pressure-in-anesthetized-dogs
#5
Nadia M J Rupniak, Mary Katofiasc, Lesley Marson, Karl B Thor
Tachykinin NK2 receptor (NK2R) agonists have potential to alleviate clinical conditions associated with bladder and gastrointestinal under activity. The effects of agonists with differing selectivity for NK2R over NK1Rs on colorectal, bladder, and cardiovascular function were examined in anesthetized dogs. Intravenous (IV) administration of NKA, LMN-NKA ([Lys5,MeLeu9,Nle10]-NKA(4-10)), and [β-Ala8]-NKA(4-10) caused a dose-related increase in colorectal pressure (up to 98 mmHg) that was blocked by pretreatment with the NK2R antagonist GR 159897 (1 mg/kg), and hypotension (decrease in mean arterial pressure of ~40 mmHg) that was blocked by the NK1R antagonist CP-99,994 (1 mg/kg)...
December 26, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232860/innate-lymphoid-cells-ilcs-as-mediators-of-inflammation-release-of-cytokines-and-lytic-molecules
#6
REVIEW
Noha Mousaad Elemam, Suad Hannawi, Azzam A Maghazachi
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are an emerging group of immune cells that provide the first line of defense against various pathogens as well as contributing to tissue repair and inflammation. ILCs have been classically divided into three subgroups based on their cytokine secretion and transcription factor profiles. ILC nomenclature is analogous to that of T helper cells. Group 1 ILCs composed of natural killer (NK) cells as well as IFN-γ secreting ILC1s. ILC2s have the capability to produce TH2 cytokines while ILC3s and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTis) are subsets of cells that are able to secrete IL-17 and/or IL-22...
December 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215791/protective-effects-of-carbonyl-iron-against-multiple-low-dose-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rodents
#7
Milica Vujicic, Tamara Saksida, Marija Mostarica Stojkovic, Neda Djedovic, Ivana Stojanovic, Stanislava Stosic-Grujicic
Particulate adjuvants have shown increasing promise as effective, safe, and durable agents for the stimulation of immunity, or alternatively, the suppression of autoimmunity. Here we examined the potential of the adjuvant carbonyl iron (CI) for the modulation of organ-specific autoimmune disease-type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) that initiates beta cell death and triggers immune cell infiltration into the pancreatic islets. The results of this study indicate that the single in vivo application of CI to MLDS-treated DA rats, CBA/H mice, or C57BL/6 mice successfully counteracted the development of insulitis and hyperglycemia...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209570/car-t-cell-immunotherapy-of-met-expressing-malignant-mesothelioma
#8
Thivyan Thayaparan, Roseanna M Petrovic, Daniela Y Achkova, Tomasz Zabinski, David M Davies, Astero Klampatsa, Ana C Parente-Pereira, Lynsey M Whilding, Sjoukje Jc van der Stegen, Natalie Woodman, Michael Sheaff, Jennifer R Cochran, James F Spicer, John Maher
Mesothelioma is an incurable cancer for which effective therapies are required. Aberrant MET expression is prevalent in mesothelioma, although targeting using small molecule-based therapeutics has proven disappointing. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) couple the HLA-independent binding of a cell surface target to the delivery of a tailored T-cell activating signal. Here, we evaluated the anti-tumor activity of MET re-targeted CAR T-cells against mesothelioma. Using immunohistochemistry, MET was detected in 67% of malignant pleural mesotheliomas, most frequently of epithelioid or biphasic subtype...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209567/dendritic-cells-pulsed-with-tumor-cells-killed-by-high-hydrostatic-pressure-inhibit-prostate-tumor-growth-in-tramp-mice
#9
Romana Mikyskova, Marie Indrova, Ivan Stepanek, Ivan Kanchev, Jana Bieblova, Sarka Vosahlikova, Irena Moserova, Iva Truxova, Jitka Fucikova, Jirina Bartunkova, Radek Spisek, Radislav Sedlacek, Milan Reinis
Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines pulsed with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-inactivated tumor cells have recently been shown to be a promising tool for prostate cancer chemoimmunotherapy. In this study, DC-based vaccines, both pulsed and unpulsed, were as effective as docetaxel (DTX) in reducing prostate tumors in the orthotopic transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. However, we did not observe any additive or synergic effects of chemoimmunotherapy on the tumor growth, while only the combination of DTX and pulsed dendritic cells resulted in significantly lower proliferation detected by Ki67 staining in histological samples...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207919/enhancement-of-natural-killer-activity-and-ifn-%C3%AE-production-in-an-il-12-dependent-manner-by-a-brassica-rapa-l
#10
Kana Yamamoto, Kanon Furuya, Kazuki Yamada, Fuka Takahashi, Chisato Hamajima, Sachi Tanaka
Certain food components possess immunomodulatory effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the immunostimulatory activity of Brassica rapa L. We demonstrated an enhancement of natural killer (NK) activity and interferon (IFN)-γ production in mice that were orally administered an insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. The insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. significantly induced IFN-γ production in mouse spleen cells in an interleukin (IL)-12-dependent manner, and NK1.1+ cells were the main cells responsible for producing IFN-γ...
December 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206103/a-population-of-innate-myelolymphoblastoid-effector-cell-expanded-by-inactivation-of-mtor-complex-1-in-mice
#11
Fei Tang, Peng Zhang, Peiying Ye, Christopher A Lazarski, Qi Wu, Ingrid L Bergin, Timothy P Bender, Michael N Hall, Ya Cui, Liguo Zhang, Taijiao Jiang, Yang Liu, Pan Zheng
Adaptive autoimmunity is restrained by controlling population sizes and pathogenicity of harmful clones, while innate destruction is controlled at effector phase. We report here that deletion of Rptor in mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells causes self-destructive innate immunity by massively increasing the population of previously uncharacterized innate myelolymphoblastoid effector cells (IMLECs). Mouse IMLECs are CD3-B220-NK1.1-Ter119- CD11clow/-CD115-F4/80low/-Gr-1- CD11b+, but surprisingly express high levels of PD-L1...
December 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203965/the-preventive-effect-of-the-impaired-liver-function-for-antiemetic-therapy-against-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients
#12
Tomohiro Nishikawa, Akira Asai, Norio Okamoto, Hidetaka Yasuoka, Ken Nakamura, Keisuke Yokohama, Hideko Ohama, Yusuke Tsuchimoto, Shinya Fukunishi, Yasuhiro Tsuda, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Kazuhide Higuchi
Transarterial chemoembolization and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy are recommended for the treatment in patients with intermediate stage of hepatocellular carcinoma. Impaired liver function was sometime observed in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. However, what kinds of factors deeply influence in impaired liver function are not clear. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the risk factors of impaired liver function in cisplatin-naïve patients treated with these therapies using cisplatin...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200685/a-study-on-utilization-and-evaluation-of-antiemetics-in-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting
#13
Gayathri Baburaj, Ansha Mariya Abraham, Lija George, Vijith Shetty, Rovin M Thempalangad, K S Rajesh, K C Bharath Raj
Purpose: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are the major adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the utilization of antiemetics in CINV and to assess the emetogenicity of chemotherapy and to investigate the incidence of acute and delayed CINV. Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out in patients undergoing chemotherapy. A suitable data collection form was designed to collect data regarding patient's demographics, cancer type, chemotherapy regimen, antiemetic prescribed, and incidence of CINV according to the standard methods utilizing morrow assessment of nausea and emesis form...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161255/neurogenic-mediators-contribute-to-local-edema-induced-by-micrurus-lemniscatus-venom
#14
Luciana Lyra Casais-E-Silva, Catarina Teixeira
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Micrurus is one of the four snake genera of medical importance in Brazil. Coral snakes have a broad geographic distribution from the southern United States to Argentina. Micrurine envenomation is characterized by neurotoxic symptoms leading to dyspnea and death. Moreover, various local manifestations, including edema formation, have been described in patients bitten by different species of Micrurus. Thus, we investigated the ability of Micrurus lemniscatus venom (MLV) to induce local edema...
November 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158025/oligomycins-a-and-e-major-bioactive-secondary-metabolites-produced-by-streptomyces-sp-strain-hg29-isolated-from-a-saharan-soil
#15
N Khebizi, H Boudjella, C Bijani, N Bouras, H-P Klenk, F Pont, F Mathieu, N Sabaou
An actinobacterial strain, HG29, with potent activity against pathogenic, toxigenic and phytopathogenic fungi was isolated from a Saharan soil sample of Algeria. On the basis of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the strain was classified in the genus Streptomyces. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed a similarity level of 99.3% with Streptomyces gancidicus NBRC 15412(T). The comparison of its cultural and physiological characteristics with this species revealed significant differences...
November 17, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130344/neurokinin-1-receptor-antagonists-in-the-prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-focus-on-fosaprepitant
#16
Bernardo L Rapoport, Karin Jordan, Cindy Weinstein
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains a challenge in cancer care. Improved understanding of CINV pathophysiology has triggered the development of new antiemetic therapeutic options, such as selective neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists (RAs), which effectively prevent CINV when added to a standard antiemetic regimen (serotonin-3 RA and dexamethasone). Aprepitant and its water-soluble prodrug, fosaprepitant dimeglumine, are the most widely used NK1 RAs, with extensive clinical use worldwide...
November 13, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107510/substance-p-attenuates-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-apoptosis-via-the-akt-signalling-pathway-and-the-nk1-receptor-in-h9c2cells
#17
Ying Xu, Qin Gu, Jian Tang, Yajun Qian, Xiao Tan, Zhuxi Yu, Chen Qu
BACKGROUND: Myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with coronary heart disease. During I/R injury, cardiomyocytes undergo cell death including apoptosis and necrosis with increased frequency, and this leads to compensatory cardiac hypertrophy, dysfunction, ventricular remodelling, and ultimately, heart failure. Accumulating evidence indicates that substance P is cardio-protective following I/R primarily due to its potent coronary vasodilator actions...
October 12, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092012/a-randomized-phase-3-study-evaluating-the-efficacy-of-single-dose-nepa-a-fixed-antiemetic-combination-of-netupitant-and-palonosetron-versus-an-aprepitant-regimen-for-prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-cinv-in-patients-receiving-highly-emetogenic
#18
L Zhang, S Lu, J Feng, A Dechaphunkul, J Chang, D Wang, S Chessari, C Lanzarotti, K Jordan, M Aapro
Background: Co-administration of multiple antiemetics that inhibit several molecular pathways involved in emesis is required to optimize CINV control in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). NEPA, a fixed combination of a highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA), netupitant (300 mg), and the pharmacologically distinct 5-HT3RA, palonosetron (PALO 0.50 mg), has shown superior CINV prevention compared to PALO in cisplatin and anthracycline/cyclophosphamide-based settings...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091759/cd5-nk1-1-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-that-develop-in-a-bcl11b-independent-manner-participate-in-early-protection-against-infection
#19
Shinya Hatano, Tesshin Murakami, Naoto Noguchi, Hisakata Yamada, Yasunobu Yoshikai
We recently found that a unique subset of innate-like γδ T cells develops from the DN2a stage of the fetal thymus independently of the zinc-finger transcription factor B cell leukemia/lymphoma 11b (Bcl11b). Herein, we characterize these Bcl11b-independent γδ T cells in the periphery as CD5(-)NK1.1(+) and Granzyme B(+), and we show that they are capable of producing interferon (IFN)-γ upon T cell receptor stimulation without Ca(2+) influx. In wild-type mice, these cells were sparse in lymphoid tissues but abundant in non-lymphoid tissues, such as the liver...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075004/from-receptor-binding-kinetics-to-signal-transduction-a-missing-link-in-predicting-in-vivo-drug-action
#20
Indira Nederpelt, Maria Kuzikov, Wilbert E A de Witte, Patrick Schnider, Bruno Tuijt, Sheraz Gul, Adriaan P IJzerman, Elizabeth C M de Lange, Laura H Heitman
An important question in drug discovery is how to overcome the significant challenge of high drug attrition rates due to lack of efficacy and safety. A missing link in the understanding of determinants for drug efficacy is the relation between drug-target binding kinetics and signal transduction, particularly in the physiological context of (multiple) endogenous ligands. We hypothesized that the kinetic binding parameters of both drug and endogenous ligand play a crucial role in determining cellular responses, using the NK1 receptor as a model system...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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