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Bacillus thuringiensis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933563/effects-of-exogenously-applied-salicylic-acid-and-putrescine-alone-and-in-combination-with-rhizobacteria-on-the-phytoremediation-of-heavy-metals-and-chickpea-growth-in-sandy-soil
#1
Naeem Khan, Asghari Bano
The present attempt was made to study the role of exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and putrescine (Put) on the phytoremediation of heavy metal and on the growth parameters of chickpea grown in sandy soil. The SA and Put were applied alone as well as in combination with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPRs, isolated from the rhizosphere of chickpea were characterized on the basis of colony morphology and biochemical traits through gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and identified by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus megaterium...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928675/larval-mid-gut-responses-to-sub-lethal-dose-of-cry-toxin-in-lepidopteran-pest-achaea-janata
#2
Vinod K Chauhan, Narender K Dhania, R K Chaitanya, Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran, Aparna Dutta-Gupta
The lack of homogeneity in field application of Bacillus thuringiensis formulation often results in ingestion of sub-lethal doses of the biopesticide by a fraction of pest population and there by promotes the toxin tolerance and resistance in long term. Gut regeneration seems to be one of the possible mechanism by which this is accomplished. However, the existing information is primarily derived from in vitro studies using mid-gut cell cultures. Present study illustrates cellular and molecular changes in mid-gut epithelium of a Bt-susceptible polyphagous insect pest castor semilooper, Achaea janata in response to a Cry toxin formulation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927441/insecticide-susceptibility-of-aedes-albopictus-and-ae-aegypti-from-brazil-and-the-swiss-italian-border-region
#3
Tobias Suter, Mônica Maria Crespo, Mariana Francelino de Oliveira, Thaynan Sama Alves de Oliveira, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo-Santos, Cláudia Maria Fontes de Oliveira, Constância Flávia Junqueira Ayres, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues Barbosa, Ana Paula Araújo, Lêda Narcisa Regis, Eleonora Flacio, Lukas Engeler, Pie Müller, Maria Helena Neves Lobo Silva-Filha
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are two highly invasive mosquito species, both vectors of several viruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. While Ae. aegypti is the primary vector in the tropics and sub-tropics, Ae. albopictus is increasingly under the public health watch as it has been implicated in arbovirus-transmission in more temperate regions, including continental Europe. Vector control using insecticides is the pillar of most control programmes; hence development of insecticide resistance is of great concern...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926817/safety-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1c-protein-for-daphnia-magna-based-on-different-functional-traits
#4
Yi Chen, Yan Yang, Haojun Zhu, Jörg Romeis, Yunhe Li, Yufa Peng, Xiuping Chen
Cry1C is a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal protein and it can be produced by transgenic rice lines developed in China. Cladocera species are common aquatic arthropods that may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in Bt-transgenic plants through ingestion of pollen or crop residues in water. As the cladoceran Daphnia magna plays an important role in the aquatic food chain, it is important to assess the possible effects of Bt crops to this species. To evaluate the safety of the Cry1C protein for D...
September 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919015/activity-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ie2-cry2ac7-vip3aa11-and-cry7ab3-proteins-against-anticarsia-gemmatalis-chrysodeixis-includens-and-ceratoma-trifurcata
#5
Rubina Mushtaq, Robert Behle, Rongmei Liu, Lin Niu, Ping Song, Abdul Rauf Shakoori, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes
Transgenic soybean producing the Cry1Ac insecticidal protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is used to control larvae of the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner) and the soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)]. The main threat to the sustainability of this technology is the development of resistance, which could be delayed by using pyramiding of diverse Bt insecticidal genes. We report high activity of Cry2Ac7 and Vip3Aa11 but not Cry1Ie2 against larvae of A. gemmatalis and C...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912316/draft-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-aizawai-hd133
#6
Zujiao Fu, Rong Xiao, Rongjun Luo, Zhan Hu, Hua Yang, Zhaohui Guo, Ping Lei, Shiping Shan
We report here the 6,512,057-bp draft genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai HD133. This strain contains at least 6 cry genes and 13 candidate biosynthetic gene clusters.
September 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901209/the-distinct-properties-of-natural-and-gm-cry-insecticidal-proteins
#7
Jonathan R Latham, Madeleine Love, Angelika Hilbeck
The Cry toxins are a family of crystal-forming proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Their mode of action is thought to be to create pores that disrupt the gut epithelial membranes of juvenile insects. These pores allow pathogen entry into the hemocoel, thereby killing the insect. Genes encoding a spectrum of Cry toxins, including Cry mutants, Cry chimaeras and other Cry derivatives, are used commercially to enhance insect resistance in genetically modified (GM) crops. In most countries of the world, such GM crops are regulated and must be assessed for human and environmental safety...
September 13, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900215/highly-effective-broad-spectrum-chimeric-larvicide-that-targets-vector-mosquitoes-using-a-lipophilic-protein
#8
Dennis K Bideshi, Hyun-Woo Park, Robert H Hice, Margaret C Wirth, Brian A Federici
Two mosquitocidal bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Ls) are the active ingredients of commercial larvicides used widely to control vector mosquitoes. Bti's efficacy is due to synergistic interactions among four proteins, Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, Cry11Aa, and Cyt1Aa, whereas Ls's activity is caused by Bin, a heterodimer consisting of BinA, the toxin, and BinB, a midgut-binding protein. Cyt1Aa is lipophilic and synergizes Bti Cry proteins by increasing midgut binding...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899808/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-nematicidal-bacillus-thuringiensis-mybt18247
#9
Jacqueline Hollensteiner, Anja Poehlein, Cathrin Spröer, Boyke Bunk, Anna E Sheppard, Philip Rosenstiel, Hinrich Schulenburg, Heiko Liesegang
The Gram-positive spore forming bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis MYBT18247 encodes three cry toxin genes, (cry6Ba2, cry6Ba3 and cry21-like) which are active against nematodes. For a better understanding of the evolution of virulence and cry toxins, we present here the complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis MYBT18247. Various additional virulence factors such as bacteriocins, proteases and hemolysins were identified. In addition, the methylome and the metabolic potential of the strain were analyzed and the strain phylogenetically classified...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894124/effects-of-purified-or-plant-produced-cry-proteins-on-drosophila-melanogaster-diptera-drosophilidae-larvae
#10
Simone Haller, Jörg Romeis, Michael Meissle
Although genetically engineered crops producing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown worldwide, few studies cover effects of Bt crops or Cry proteins on dipteran species in an agricultural context. We tested the toxicity of six purified Cry proteins and of Bt cotton and Bt maize tissue on Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as a surrogate for decomposing Diptera. ELISA confirmed the presence of Cry proteins in plant material, artificial diet, and fly larvae, and concentrations were estimated...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888766/a-natural-hybrid-of-a-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry2a-toxin-implicates-domain-i-in-specificity-determination
#11
Changlong Shu, Fengjiao Zhang, Guihua Chen, Lazarus Joseph, Aminah Barqawi, Jacob Evans, Fuping Song, Guoxun Li, Jie Zhang, Neil Crickmore
A PCR-RFLP method was used to identify cry2A toxin genes in a collection of 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. From 81 genes identified, the vast majority appeared to be cry2Aa or cry2Ab, however three showed a different pattern and were subsequently cloned and sequenced. The gene cloned from strain HD395 was named cry2Ba2. Since the proteins encoded by the genes cloned from LS5115-3 and DS415 shared >95% sequence identity with existing toxins their genes were named cry2Aa17 and cry2Ab29 respectively by the toxin nomenclature committee...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887475/noble-uv-protective-agent-for-bacillus-thuringiensis-based-on-a-combination-of-graphene-oxide-and-olive-oil
#12
Shahab Maghsoudi, Elham Jalali
The focus of this study is investigating the performance of graphene oxide (GO) in the protective effect of olive oil on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) after being exposed to UV radiations. Biological pesticides Bt subsp. Kurstaki is one of the most important biological control agents. We compared the protective effect of two UV protectant; GO and olive oil and also the combination of both, on the stability of the formulation of Bt after exposure to UV radiations. Spore viability was measured for protective effect and bioassay test was performed on the formulations of Bt...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883440/mechanism-and-dna-based-detection-of-field-evolved-resistance-to-transgenic-bt-corn-in-fall-armyworm-spodoptera-frugiperda
#13
Rahul Banerjee, James Hasler, Robert Meagher, Rodney Nagoshi, Lucas Hietala, Fangneng Huang, Kenneth Narva, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes
Evolution of resistance threatens sustainability of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a devastating pest of corn in the Western Hemisphere initially controlled by transgenic Bt corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein (event TC1507). However field-evolved resistance to TC1507 was observed in Puerto Rico in 2007 and has subsequently been reported in a number of locations in North and South America...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871265/expression-of-a-chimeric-gene-encoding-insecticidal-crystal-protein-cry1aabc-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l-confers-resistance-to-gram-pod-borer-helicoverpa-armigera-hubner
#14
Alok Das, Subhojit Datta, Shallu Thakur, Alok Shukla, Jamal Ansari, G K Sujayanand, Sushil K Chaturvedi, P A Kumar, N P Singh
Domain swapping and generation of chimeric insecticidal crystal protein is an emerging area of insect pest management. The lepidopteran insect pest, gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera H.) wreaks havoc to chickpea crop affecting production. Lepidopteran insects were reported to be controlled by Bt (cryI) genes. We designed a plant codon optimized chimeric Bt gene (cry1Aabc) using three domains from three different cry1A genes (domains I, II, and III from cry1Aa, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac, respectively) and expressed it under the control of a constitutive promoter in chickpea (cv...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866859/toxin-gene-contents-and-activity-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-strains-against-two-sugarcane-borer-species-diatraea-saccharalis-f-and-d-flavipennella-box
#15
L M Silva, M C Silva, S M F A Silva, R C Alves, H A A Siqueira, E J Marques
Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) bears essential characteristics in the control of insect pests, such as its unique mode of action, which confers specificity and selectivity. This study assessed cry gene contents from Bt strains and their entomotoxicity against Diatraea saccharalis (F.) and Diatraea flavipennella (Box) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Bioassays with Bt strains were performed against neonates to evaluate their lethal and sublethal activities and were further analyzed by PCR, using primers to identify toxin genes...
September 2, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865796/ph-regulates-pore-formation-of-a-protease-activated-vip3aa-from-bacillus-thuringiensis
#16
Thittaya Kunthic, Hirokazu Watanabe, Ryuji Kawano, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Boonhiang Promdonkoy, Min Yao, Panadda Boonserm
Vip3Aa insecticidal protein is produced from Bacillus thuringiensis and exerts a broad spectrum of toxicity against lepidopteran insect species. Although Vip3Aa has been effectively used as part of integrated pest management strategies, the mechanism of the toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of pH in a range from 5.0 to 10.0 on the pore-forming activity of the trypsin activated Vip3Aa (actVip3Aa) by in vitro pore-forming assays. Based on calcein release assay, actVip3Aa could permeabilize the artificial neutral liposomes under all the pH tested, except pH10...
September 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852435/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-nematicidal-bacillus-thuringiensis-mybt18246
#17
Jacqueline Hollensteiner, Anja Poehlein, Cathrin Spröer, Boyke Bunk, Anna E Sheppard, Philip Rosentstiel, Hinrich Schulenburg, Heiko Liesegang
10.1601/nm.5000 is a rod-shaped facultative anaerobic spore forming bacterium of the genus 10.1601/nm.4857. The defining feature of the species is the ability to produce parasporal crystal inclusion bodies, consisting of δ-endotoxins, encoded by cry-genes. Here we present the complete annotated genome sequence of the nematicidal 10.1601/nm.5000 strain MYBT18246. The genome comprises one 5,867,749 bp chromosome and 11 plasmids which vary in size from 6330 bp to 150,790 bp. The chromosome contains 6092 protein-coding and 150 RNA genes, including 36 rRNA genes...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843598/health-effects-of-feeding-genetically-modified-gm-crops-to-livestock-animals-a-review
#18
Clazien J de Vos, Manon Swanenburg
A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota...
August 31, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822489/evolution-of-host-resistance-to-insect-pathogens
#19
REVIEW
Jenny S Cory
Insect pathogens are widely used as a tool for sustainable pest management. Their complex mode of action was thought to make them immune to the evolution of resistance; however, several examples of field-based resistance to the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and a granulovirus have been recorded. Here I review the scenarios where resistance has evolved and discuss the likelihood of it occurring in other entomopathogens. I highlight recent research on the factors which might influence the evolution of resistance to insect pathogens, including the role of pathogen diversity, host nutrition and transgenerational effects...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821431/bacillus-thuringiensis-cyt2aa2-binding-on-lipid-cholesterol-bilayer-depends-on-protein-concentration-and-time
#20
Sudarat Tharad, Alberto Moreno-Cencerrado, Öykü Üzülmez, Boonhiang Promdonkoy, Jose L Toca-Herrera
Bacillus thuringiensis produces cytolytic proteins (Cyt) that show toxicity against dipteran insect larvae acting directly on the cell membrane. Up to now, two different models have been proposed to explain the interaction mechanism of the cytolytic protein Cyt2Aa2 on lipid membranes: pore-forming and detergent-like action. Here we report on the interaction of Cyt2Aa2 with lipid/cholesterol bilayers at early stage (far from equilibrium) as a function of protein concentration. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements showed that the rate of protein adsorption increased with concentration, although the mass of the final protein-lipid was similar after two hours...
October 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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