Read by QxMD icon Read

Bacillus thuringiensis

Galen P Dively, P Dilip Venugopal, Dick Bean, Joanne Whalen, Kristian Holmstrom, Thomas P Kuhar, Hélène B Doughty, Terry Patton, William Cissel, William D Hutchison
Transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes reduce pests and insecticide usage, promote biocontrol services, and economically benefit growers. Area-wide Bt adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. However, the offsite benefits to growers of other crops from such regional suppression remain uncertain. With data spanning 1976-2016, we demonstrate that vegetable growers benefit via decreased crop damage and insecticide applications in relation to pest suppression in the Mid-Atlantic United States...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xin Zhang, Tantan Gao, Qi Peng, Lai Song, Jie Zhang, Yunrong Chai, Dongmei Sun, Fuping Song
Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria show insecticidal activities that rely upon the production of insecticidal crystal proteins, which are encoded by cry or cyt genes and can target a variety of insect pests. It has been shown that cry1Ac is the only cry gene in B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73 (B. thuringiensis HD73) and its expression is controlled by both σE and σK . Here, we report a novel σE -dependent strong promoter of a non-cry gene (HD73_5014), which can direct strong cry1Ac gene expression in B...
March 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Rajesh Padumane Shastry, Stephen K Dolan, Yassmin Abdelhamid, Ravishankar Rai Vittal, Martin Welch
The quorum quenching (QQ) activity of endophytic bacteria associated with medicinal plants was explored. Extracts of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. CS66 possessed potent N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) hydrolytic activity in vitro. Using degenerate primers, we PCR-amplified an open reading frame (denoted aiiE) from CS66 that was 96% identical to the well-characterised AHL-lactonase AiiA from Bacillus thuringiensis, but only 30% identical to AHL-lactonases from other Gram-negative species. This confirms that close AiiA homologs can be found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Viktoria I Pauker, Bryan R Thoma, Gregor Grass, Pauline Bleichert, Matthias Hanczaruk, Lothar Zöller, Sabine Zange
Discrimination of highly pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis , from closely related species based on molecular biological methods is challenging. We applied Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to a collection of B. anthracis strains and close relatives in order to significantly improve the statistical confidence of identification results for this group of bacteria. Protein mass spectra of 189 verified and diverse Bacillus strains of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group were generated using MALDI-TOF MS and subsequently analyzed with supervised and unsupervised statistical methods, such as shrinkage discriminant analysis (SDA) and principle component analysis (PCA)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Guillaume Méric, Leonardos Mageiros, Ben Pascoe, Dan J Woodcock, Evangelos Mourkas, Sarah Lamble, Rory Bowden, Keith A Jolley, Ben Raymond, Samuel K Sheppard
Bacterial plasmids can vary from small selfish genetic elements to large autonomous replicons that constitute a significant proportion of total cellular DNA. By conferring novel function to the cell, plasmids may facilitate evolution but their mobility may be opposed by co-evolutionary relationships with chromosomes or encouraged via the infectious sharing of genes encoding public goods. Here, we explore these hypotheses through large-scale examination of the association between plasmids and genomes in the phenotypically diverse Bacillus cereus group...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Xingyun Wang, Qingsong Liu, Michael Meissle, Yufa Peng, Kongming Wu, Jörg Romeis, Yunhe Li
Genetically engineered (GE) rice lines expressing Lepidoptera-active insecticidal cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed in China. Field surveys indicated that Bt rice harbours fewer rice planthoppers than non-Bt rice although planthoppers are not sensitive to the produced Bt Cry proteins. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. Here we show that the low numbers of planthoppers on Bt rice is associated with reduced caterpillar damage. In laboratory and field-cage experiments, the rice planthopper Nilapavata lugens had no feeding preference for undamaged Bt or non-Bt plants but exhibited a strong preference for caterpillar-damaged plants whether Bt or non-Bt...
March 6, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Samuel Julio Martins, Geisiane Alves Rocha, Hyrandir Cabral de Melo, Raphaela de Castro Georg, Cirano José Ulhôa, Érico de Campos Dianese, Leticia Harumi Oshiquiri, Marcos Gomes da Cunha, Mara Rúbia da Rocha, Leila Garcês de Araújo, Karina Santana Vaz, Christopher A Dunlap
Agriculture accounts for ~ 70% of all water use and the world population is increasing annually; soon more people will need to be fed, while also using less water. The use of plant-associated bacteria (PAB) is an eco-friendly alternative that can increase crop water use efficiency. This work aimed to study the effect of some PAB on increasing soybean tolerance to drought stress, the mechanisms of the drought tolerance process, and the effect of the PAB on promoting plant growth and on the biocontrol of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum...
March 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Donghai Peng, Danfeng Wan, Chunsheng Cheng, Xiaobo Ye, Ming Sun
Parasitic nematodes of animals and plants cause worldwide devastating impacts on people's lives and agricultural crops. The crystal protein Cry5B produced by Bacillus thuringiensis has efficient and specific activity against a wide range of nematodes. However, the action mode of this toxin has not yet been thoroughly determined. Here, a nematode-specific cadherin CDH-8 was demonstrated to be a receptor for Cry5B toxin by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, providing evidence that the cadherin mutant worm cdh-8(RB815) possesses significant resistance to Cry5B, and the CDH-8 fragments bind specifically to Cry5B...
March 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Man Zhao, Yunhe Li, Xiangdong Yuan, Gemei Liang, Bingjie Wang, Chen Liu, Myint Myint Khaing
With the commercialization of transgenic cotton that expresses Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins, mirid bugs have become key pests in cotton and maize fields in China. Genetically engineered (GE) crops for controlling mirids are unavailable owing to a lack of suitable insecticidal genes. In this study, we developed and validated a dietary exposure assay for screening insecticidal compounds and for assessing the potential effects of insecticidal proteins produced by GE plants on Apolygus lucorum, one of the main mirid pests of Bt cotton and Bt maize...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
E A Chertkova, E V Grizanova, I M Dubovskiy
Dopamine (DA) is known as a hormone neurotrasnmitter molecule involved in several stress reactions in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Following infections with the fungi Metarhizium robertsii or Beauveria bassiana and the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, dopamine the concentration was measured at different time points in the haemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata and the larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. The infection with M. robertsii increased (4 to 12-fold) DA concentrations in the haemolymph of the potato beetle larvae and the oral infection by B...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Guillaume Tetreau, Stéphanie Grizard, Chandrashekhar D Patil, Florence-Hélène Tran, Van Tran Van, Renaud Stalinski, Frédéric Laporte, Patrick Mavingui, Laurence Després, Claire Valiente Moro
BACKGROUND: Insect microbiota is a dynamic microbial community that can actively participate in defense against pathogens. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a natural entomopathogen widely used as a bioinsecticide for pest control. Although Bt's mode of action has been extensively studied, whether the presence of microbiota is mandatory for Bt to effectively kill the insect is still under debate. An association between a higher tolerance and a modified microbiota was already evidenced but a critical point remained to be solved: is the modified microbiota a cause or a consequence of a higher tolerance to Bt? METHODS: In this study we focused on the mosquito species Aedes aegypti, as no work has been performed on Diptera on this topic to date, and on B...
March 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Rubina Mushtaq, Abdul Rauf Shakoori, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes
Insecticidal proteins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ac7 from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) belong to the three-domain family of Bt toxins. Commercial transgenic soybean hybrids produce Cry1Ac to control the larvae of the soybean looper ( Chrysodeixis includens ) and the velvet bean caterpillar ( Anticarsia gemmatalis ). The specificity of Cry1Ac is determined by loops extending from domain II and regions of domain III in the three-dimensional structure of the toxin. In this study, we constructed a hybrid toxin (H1...
February 27, 2018: Toxins
Tilottama Biswas, Gerrit Joop, Charlotte Rafaluk-Mohr
Host-parasite coevolution can influence interactions of the host and parasite with the wider ecological community. One way that this may manifest is in cross-resistance towards other parasites, which has been observed to occur in some host-parasite evolution experiments. In this paper, we test for cross-resistance towards Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas entomophila in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum , which was previously allowed to coevolve with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana ...
February 26, 2018: Insects
Lionel Makart, Annika Gillis, Pauline Hinnekens, Jacques Mahillon
The entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis displays peculiar conjugative transfer capabilities, accounted for by the large conjugative plasmid pXO16 (350 kb). The efficient and fast conjugative transfers are accompanied by a macroscopic aggregation of bacterial partners. Moreover, pXO16 has proven capable of effective mobilization and the retro-transfer of both mobilizable and "non-mobilizable" plasmids. In this work, the aggregation phenomenon is shown to promote pXO16 transfer while not being mandatory for transfer...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Yang Fu, Zhaoqing Yu, Shu Liu, Bo Chen, Li Zhu, Zhou Li, Shan-Ho Chou, Jin He
C-di-GMP has been well investigated to play significant roles in the physiology of many Gram-negative bacteria. However, its effect on Gram-positive bacteria is less known. In order to more understand the c-di-GMP functions in Gram-positive bacteria, we have carried out a detailed study on the c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes and their physiological functions in Bacillus thuringiensis , a Gram-positive entomopathogenic bacterium that has been applied as an insecticide successfully. We performed a systematic study on the ten putative c-di-GMP-synthesizing enzyme diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and c-di-GMP-degrading enzyme phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in B...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Javad Karimi, Surendra K Dara, Steven Arthurs
Biological control programs with arthropods have been in practice in Iran since the 1930s. However, development and registration of microbial biopesticides is much more recent. Currently, about 15 biopesticide products are registered or pending registration for commercial use on various crops. Products based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki are most widely sold for lepidopteran pest control, followed by B. thuringiensis subsp. isralensis against dipteran pests in vector control programs. Additionally, mycoinsecticides based on Lecanicillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana, against various arthropod pests, and a mycofungicide based on Trichoderma harzianum for controlling soilborne diseases are also registered...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Wenjing Zhong, Guanghui Li, Xiaolu Yu, Min Zhu, Likun Gong, Yakun Wan
Bt Cry1B toxin, a residue in insect-resistant transgenic plants, has been identified to be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is urgent to detect the Cry1B toxin level in each kind of transgenic plant. Nbs, with prominently unique physiochemical properties, are becoming more and more promising tools in the detection of target antigens. In this study, an immune phage display library that was of high quality was successfully constructed for the screening of Cry1B-specific Nbs with excellent specificity, affinity, and thermostable...
February 24, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Yan Yang, Bing Zhang, Xiang Zhou, Jörg Romeis, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
Assessing the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically engineered (GE) plants on collembolans is important because these common soil arthropods may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in GE plants by ingestion of plant residues, crop pollen, or root exudates. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the potential effects of two Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt )-rice lines expressing Cry1C and Cry2A in pollen and leaves and of their non- Bt conventional isolines on the fitness of the collembolan Folsomia candida and on the activities of its antioxidant-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, and of its detoxification-related enzymes, glutathione reductase and glutathione S -transferase...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zoltán Pálinkás, Mihály Zalai, Ágnes Szénási, Zita Dorner, József Kiss, Samuel North, Guy Woodward, Adalbert Balog
Arthropods from four genetically modified (GM) maize hybrids (coleopteran resistant, coleopteran and lepidopteran resistant, lepidopteran resistant+herbicide tolerant and coleopteran resistant and herbicide tolerant) and non-GM varieties were sampled during a two-year field assessment. A total number of 363 555 arthropod individuals were collected. This represents the most comprehensive arthropod dataset from GM maize, and together with weed data, is reasonable to determine functional groups of arthropods and interactions between species...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Data
Yinghua Shu, Jörg Romeis, Michael Meissle
In the agroecosystem, genetically engineered plants producing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) interact with non-target herbivores and other elements of the food web. Stacked Bt crops expose herbivores to multiple Cry proteins simultaneously. In this study, the direct interactions between SmartStax® Bt maize producing six different Cry proteins and two herbivores with different feeding modes were investigated. Feeding on leaves of Bt maize had no effects on development time, fecundity, or longevity of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and no effects on the egg hatching time, development time, sex ratio, fecundity, and survival of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"