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Bacillus thuringiensis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929397/a-p-glycoprotein-is-linked-to-resistance-to-the-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry3aa-toxin-in-a-leaf-beetle
#1
Yannick Pauchet, Anne Bretschneider, Sylvie Augustin, David G Heckel
Chrysomela tremula is a polyvoltine oligophagous leaf beetle responsible for massive attacks on poplar trees. This beetle is an important model for understanding mechanisms of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins, because a resistant C. tremula strain has been found that can survive and reproduce on transgenic poplar trees expressing high levels of the Cry3Aa Bt toxin. Resistance to Cry3Aa in this strain is recessive and is controlled by a single autosomal locus. We used a larval midgut transcriptome for C...
December 5, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928937/microbial-degradation-of-total-petroleum-hydrocarbons-in-crude-oil-a-field-scale-study-at-the-low-land-rainforest-of-ecuador
#2
Naga Raju Maddela, Laura Scalvenzi, Venkateswarlu Kadiyala
A field-level feasibility study was performed to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degrading potential of two bacterial strains, Bacillus thuringiensis B3 and B. cereus B6, and two fungi, Geomyces pannorum HR and Geomyces sp. strain HV, all soil isolates obtained from an oil-field located in north-east region of Ecuador. Crude oil-treated soil samples contained in wooden boxes received a mixture of all the four microorganisms, and were incubated for 90 days in an open low-land area of Amazon rainforest...
December 8, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923385/field-effectiveness-of-microbial-larvicides-on-mosquito-larvae-in-malaria-areas-of-botswana-and-zimbabwe
#3
Mulamuli Mpofu, Piet Becker, Kaka Mudambo, Christiaan de Jager
BACKGROUND: The successful control of malaria vectors requires the control of both the larval and adult stages. The adult control methods through indoor residual spraying (IRS) and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) continue to be widely used with some high measure of success. Larval control methods are also being used by a number of National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) with limited understanding of its contribution. Larval control might be needed in some areas to move from malaria control to elimination...
December 6, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918112/validation-of-adam10-metalloprotease-as-a-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry3aa-toxin-functional-receptor-in-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#4
V M Ruiz-Arroyo, I García-Robles, C Ochoa-Campuzano, G A Goig, E Zaitseva, G Baaken, A C Martínez-Ramírez, C Rausell, M D Real
Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) are insecticidal pore-forming toxins that bind to specific receptor molecules on the brush border membrane of susceptible insect midgut cells to exert their toxic action. In the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), a coleopteran pest, we previously proposed that interaction of Cry3Aa toxin with a CPB ADAM10 metalloprotease is an essential part of the mode of action of this toxin. Here, we annotated the gene sequence encoding an ADAM10 metalloprotease protein (CPB-ADAM10) in the CPB genome sequencing project, and using RNA interference gene silencing we demonstrated that CPB-ADAM10 is a Cry3Aa toxin functional receptor in CPB...
December 5, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914782/co-metabolism-of-substrates-by-bacillus-thuringiensis-regulates-polyhydroxyalkanoate-co-polymer-composition
#5
Subhasree Ray, Vipin Chandra Kalia
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by Bacillus thuringiensis EGU45 was studied by co-metabolism of crude glycerol (CG) (1%, v/v), glucose (0.05-0.5%, w/v) and propionic acid (0.05-0.5%, v/v) under batch (shake flask) culture conditions. Glycerol+PA combination resulted in 15-100mg/L PHA co-polymers with a HV content of 33-81mol%. The addition of NH4Cl (0.5%, w/v) to CG+PA enhanced PHA production by 1.55-fold, with a HV content of 58-70mol%. The time period of incubation of PA to the feed: CG+glucose was optimized to be 3h after initiation of fermentation...
November 23, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908637/response-of-three-cyprinid-fish-species-to-the-scavenger-deterrent-factor-produced-by-the-mutualistic-bacteria-associated-with-entomopathogenic-nematodes
#6
Ramalingam Karthik Raja, Dilipkumar Aiswarya, Baris Gulcu, Manickam Raja, Pachiappan Perumal, Sivaperumal Sivaramakrishnan, Harry K Kaya, Selcuk Hazir
The symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus associated with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively, produce a compound(s) called the Scavenging Deterrent Factor (SDF). SDF deters a number of terrestrial insect scavengers and predators and one bird species from feeding on host insects killed by the nematode-bacterium complex but has not been tested against aquatic vertebrates. Moreover, the Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus association is believed to have evolved in an aquatic environment...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907843/triphenyltin-degradation-and-proteomic-response-by-an-engineered-escherichia-coli-expressing-cytochrome-p450-enzyme
#7
Wenying Yi, Kunliang Yang, Jinshao Ye, Yan Long, Jing Ke, Huase Ou
Although triphenyltin (TPT) degradation pathway has been determined, information about the enzyme and protein networks involved was severely limited. To this end, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase (CYP450) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), namely E. coli pET32a-CYP450, whose dosage at 1gL(-1) could degrade 54.6% TPT at 1mgL(-1) within 6 d through attacking the carbon-tin bonds of TPT by CYP450. Sequence analysis verified that the CYP450 gene had a 1214bp open reading frame, encoding a protein with 404 amino acids...
November 28, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903292/evaluation-of-long-lasting-microbial-larvicide-for-malaria-vector-control-in-kenya
#8
Yaw A Afrane, Nixon G Mweresa, Christine L Wanjala, Thomas M Gilbreath Iii, Guofa Zhou, Ming-Chieh Lee, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Outdoor malaria transmission is becoming an increasingly important problem in malaria control in Africa. Larval control is a promising intervention as it can target both indoor and outdoor biting mosquitoes. However, the currently available biolarvicide formulations have a short effective duration, and consequently larval control incurs a high operational expense due to the requirement for frequent re-treatment of larval habitats. Formulations of biolarvicides with long-lasting effects is highly desired...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898733/correction-necrotrophism-is-a-quorum-sensing-regulated-lifestyle-in-bacillus-thuringiensis
#9
Thomas Dubois, Karoline Faegri, Sébastien Gélis-Jeanvoine, Stéphane Perchat, Christelle Lemy, Christophe Buisson, Christina Nielsen-LeRoux, Michel Gohar, Philippe Jacques, Nalini Ramarao, Leyla Slamti, Anne-Brit Kolstø, Didier Lereclus
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002629.].
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888109/ephestia-kuehniella-tolerance-to-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1aa-is-associated-with-reduced-oligomer-formation
#10
Maissa Chakroun, Sameh Sellami, Juan Ferré, Slim Tounsi, Souad Rouis
The basis of the different susceptibility of Ephestia kuehniella to the Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac δ-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki BNS3 was studied. Both toxins bound specifically to the BBMV of E. kuehniella. The result of the ligand blot showed that Cry1Ac bound to three putative receptors of about 100, 65 and 80 kDa and Cry1Aa interacted only with a 100 kDa protein. Pronase digestion of the BBMV-bound toxins was used to analyze the toxin insertion. Both toxins inserted into the BBMV as monomers however, a 14 kDa peptide of α4-α5 which correspond to the oligomeric form of this peptide was detected in case of Cry1Ac only...
November 22, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888075/the-domain-ii-loops-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1aa-form-an-overlapping-interaction-site-for-two-bombyx-mori-larvae-functional-receptors-abc-transporter-c2-and-cadherin-like-receptor
#11
Satomi Adegawa, Yui Nakama, Haruka Endo, Naoki Shinkawa, Shingo Kikuta, Ryoichi Sato
Information about the receptor-interaction region of Cry toxins, insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, is needed to elucidate the mode of action of Cry toxins and improve their toxicity through protein engineering. We analyzed the interaction sites on Cry1Aa with ABC transporter C2 (ABCC2), one of the most important Cry1A toxin receptors. A competitive binding assay revealed that the Bombyx mori ABCC2 (BmABCC2) Cry1A binding site was the same as the BtR175 binding site, suggesting that the loop region of Cry1Aa domain II is a binding site...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886543/interactions-among-triphenyltin-degradation-phospholipid-synthesis-and-membrane-characteristics-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-the-presence-of-d-malic-acid
#12
Linlin Wang, Wenying Yi, Jinshao Ye, Huaming Qin, Yan Long, Meng Yang, Qusheng Li
Degradation pathway and surface biosorption of triphenyltin (TPT) by effective microbes have been investigated in the past. However, unclear interactions among membrane components and TPT binding and transport are still obstacles to understanding TPT biotransformation. To reveal the mechanism involved, the phospholipid expression, membrane potential, cellular mechanism and molecular dynamics between TPT and fatty acids (FAs) during the TPT degradation process in the presence of d-malic acid (DMA) were studied...
November 22, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881148/susceptibility-profile-and-metabolic-mechanisms-involved-in-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-resistant-to-ddt-and-deltamethrin-in-the-central-african-republic
#13
Carine Ngoagouni, Basile Kamgang, Cécile Brengues, Gildas Yahouedo, Christophe Paupy, Emmanuel Nakouné, Mirdad Kazanji, Fabrice Chandre
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main epidemic vectors of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses worldwide. Their control during epidemics relies mainly on control of larvae and adults with insecticides. Unfortunately, loss of susceptibility of both species to several insecticide classes limits the efficacy of interventions. In Africa, where Aedes-borne viruses are of growing concern, few data are available on resistance to insecticides. To fill this gap, we assessed the susceptibility to insecticides of Ae...
November 24, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871814/dr-alois-huger-laying-the-foundations-for-an-integrated-insect-pathology
#14
Trevor A Jackson
Dr. rer. nat. Alois M. Huger had a long and distinguished career at the Institut für biologische Schädlingsbekämpfung (Institute for Biological Pest Control) Darmstadt, Germany, where he became one of the world's leading insect pathologists. He applied his experience and understanding of insect tissues and specialist skills in microscopy to diagnosis and elucidation of the pathology of insect diseases. During his career he discovered the Oryctes nudivirus and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis, and was a member of teams unravelling amber disease in scarab beetles and the role of bacteria in parthenogenesis of parasitoids...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870914/transgenic-bt-cotton-does-not-disrupt-the-top-down-forces-regulating-the-cotton-aphid-in-central-china
#15
Yong-Sheng Yao, Peng Han, Chang-Ying Niu, Yong-Cheng Dong, Xi-Wu Gao, Jin-Jie Cui, Nicolas Desneux
Top-down force is referred to arthropod pest management delivered by the organisms from higher trophic levels. In the context of prevalent adoption of transgenic Bt crops that produce insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), it still remains elusive whether the top-down forces are affected by the insect-resistant traits that introduced into the Bt crops. We explored how Bt cotton affect the strength of top-down forces via arthropod natural enemies in regulating a non-target pest species, the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, using a comparative approach (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867074/toxicity-of-cry1a-toxins-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-to-cf1-cells-does-not-involve-activation-of-adenylate-cyclase-pka-signaling-pathway
#16
Leivi Portugal, Carlos Muñóz-Garay, Diana L Martínez de Castro, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria produce Cry toxins that are able to kill insect pests. Different models explaining the mode of action of these toxins have been proposed. The pore formation model proposes that the toxin creates pores in the membrane of the larval midgut cells after interaction with different receptors such as cadherin, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase and that this pore formation activity is responsible for the toxicity of these proteins. The alternative model proposes that interaction with cadherin receptor triggers an intracellular cascade response involving protein G, adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA)...
November 17, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865415/biosterilant-effects-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-kurstaki-hd-73-extract-on-male-wistar-albino-rats
#17
Vikas Kumar Roy, Vanlal Peki, Maibam Sunita Devi, Sanasam Sanjeev, Maurya Khusboo, R Zothansanga, Kalibulla Syed Ibrahim, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar, Guruswami Gurusubramanian
Chemosterilants have long been used in sterilization programs for managing pet, stray, and wild animals but adverse effects such as trauma, incomplete responses to treatment, and complete abolition of gonadal sources of testosterone often occurs. This study describes the biosterilant effects of administering three doses of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 (Bt 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg; 20 rats/dose) extract in adult male Wistar albino rats on testicular parameters, function, histology, and a number of biochemical markers of overall health, free radical production, and cell proliferation...
January 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863961/glycan-region-of-gpi-anchored-protein-is-required-for-cytocidal-oligomerization-of-an-anticancer-parasporin-2-cry46aa1-protein-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-strain-a1547
#18
Yuich Abe, Hiroshi Inoue, Hisashi Ashida, Yusuke Maeda, Taroh Kinoshita, Sakae Kitada
Parasporin-2 (PS2), alternatively named Cry46Aa1, an anticancer protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis strain A1547, causes specific cell damage via PS2 oligomerization in the cell membrane. Although PS2 requires glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins for its cytocidal action, their precise role is unknown. Here, we report that the glycan of GPI induces PS2 oligomerization, which causes cell death. Cytotoxicity, cell-binding and oligomerization of the toxin were not observed in GPI-anchored protein-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862867/an-entomopathogenic-bacterium-strain-bacillus-thuringiensis-as-a-biological-control-agent-against-the-red-palm-weevil-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus-coleoptera-curculionidae
#19
Yu-Chen Pu, Tian-Ling Ma, You-Ming Hou, Ming Sun
BACKGROUND: The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is an invasive wood-boring insect that damages palms and sugarcane. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is an entomopathogenic bacterium which has been modified into various strains, and widely used in pest management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of RPW to the HA strain of Bt. RESULTS: Five concentrations of Bt bioassays were used on RPW eggs, 2(nd) and 4(th) instars. Average egg hatching rates exceeded 85% using Bt suspensions or distilled water...
November 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860288/possibly-similar-genetic-basis-of-resistance-to-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ab-protein-in-three-resistant-colonies-of-the-sugarcane-borer-collected-from-louisiana-usa
#20
Fei Yang, Mao Chen, Anilkumar Gowda, David L Kerns, Fangneng Huang
The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a major maize borer pest and a target of transgenic maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the mid-southern region of the U.S. Evolution of resistance in target pest populations is a great threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt crops. In this study, we compared the genetic basis of resistance to Cry1Ab protein in three resistant colonies of sugarcane borer established from field populations in Louisiana, USA. Responses of larvae to the Cry1Ab protein for the parental and ten other cross colonies were assayed in a diet-incorporated bioassay...
November 8, 2016: Insect Science
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