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Bacillus thuringiensis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350905/ampulexins-a-new-family-of-peptides-in-venom-of-the-emerald-jewel-wasp-ampulex-compressa
#1
Eugene Moore, Ryan Arvidson, Christopher Banks, Jean Urenda, Elizabeth Duong, Haroun Mohammad, Michael E Adams
The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa injects venom directly into the brain and subesophageal ganglion of the cockroach Periplaneta americana, inducing a seven to ten day lethargy termed hypokinesia. Hypokinesia presents as a significant reduction in both escape response and spontaneous walking. We examined aminergic and peptidergic components of milked venom with HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. HPLC coupled with electrochemical detection confirmed presence of dopamine in milked venom, while mass spectrometry revealed that the venom gland and venom sac have distinct peptide profiles, with milked venom predominantly composed of venom sac peptides...
January 19, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350293/diversity-and-enzymatic-potentialities-of-bacillus-sp-strains-isolated-from-a-polluted-freshwater-ecosystem-in-cuba
#2
Jeny Adina Larrea-Murrell, Marcia Maria Rojas-Badia, Ivette García-Soto, Beatriz Romeu-Alvarez, Tristano Bacchetti, Annika Gillis, Ana Karina Boltes-Espinola, Mayra Heydrich-Perez, Daysi Lugo-Moya, Jacques Mahillon
Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Bacillus spp. from polluted freshwater has been poorly addressed. The objective of this research was to determine the diversity and enzymatic potentialities of Bacillus spp. strains isolated from the Almendares River. Bacilli strains from a polluted river were characterized by considering the production of extracellular enzymes using API ZYM. 14 strains were selected and identified using 16S rRNA, gyrB and aroE genes. Genotypic diversity of the Bacillus spp. strains was evaluated using pulsed field gel electrophoresis...
January 19, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329399/yield-losses-in-transgenic-cry1ab-and-non-bt-corn-as-assessed-using-a-crop-life-table-approach
#3
Gerson A Silva, Marcelo C Picanço, Lino R Ferreira, Dalton O Ferreira, Elizeu S Farias, Thadeu C Souza, Nilson Rodrigues-Silva, Eliseu José G Pereira
In this study, we constructed crop life tables for Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) Cry1Ab and non-Bt corn hybrids, in which yield-loss factors and abundance of predaceous arthropods were recorded during 2 yr at two locations. Corn kernel/grain was the yield component that had the heaviest losses and that determined the overall yield loss in the corn hybrids across years and locations. Yield losses in both corn hybrids were primarily caused by kernel-destroying insects. Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were the key loss factors at one location, while at the other, the key loss factor was the silk fly larvae, Euxesta spp...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323243/expression-of-cry2ah1-and-two-domain-ii-mutants-in-transgenic-tobacco-confers-high-resistance-to-susceptible-and-cry1ac-resistant-cotton-bollworm
#4
Shengyan Li, Zeyu Wang, Yiyao Zhou, Changhui Li, Guiping Wang, Hai Wang, Jie Zhang, Gemei Liang, Zhihong Lang
To improve the novel Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal gene cry2Ah1 toxicity, two mutants cry2Ah1-vp (V354VP) and cry2Ah1-sp (V354SP) were performed. SWISS-MODEL analysis showed two mutants had a longer loop located between β-4 and β-5 of domain II, resulting in higher binding affinity with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of Helicoverpa armigera comparing with Cry2Ah1. The cry2Ah1, cry2Ah1-vp, and cry2Ah1-sp were optimized codon usage according to plant codon bias, and named mcry2Ah1, mcry2Ah1-vp, and mcry2Ah1-sp...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323206/effects-of-bt-cabbage-pollen-on-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera-l
#5
Dengxia Yi, Zhiyuan Fang, Limei Yang
Honeybees may be exposed to insecticidal proteins from transgenic plants via pollen during their foraging activity. Assessing effects of such exposures on honeybees is an essential part of the risk assessment process for transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cabbage. Feeding trials were conducted in a laboratory setting to test for possible effects of Cry1Ba3 cabbage pollen on Italian-derived honeybees Apis mellifera L. Newly emerged A. mellifera were fed transgenic pollen, activated Cry1Ba3 toxin, pure sugar syrup (60% w/v sucrose solution), and non-transgenic cabbage pollen, respectively...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321568/characterization-of-the-cry1ah-resistance-in-asian-corn-borer-and-its-cross-resistance-to-other-bacillus-thuringiensis-toxins
#6
Muhammad Zeeshan Shabbir, Yudong Quan, Zhenying Wang, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Kanglai He
Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins are effective to manage lepidopteran pests. Development of insect-resistance is the major threat to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops such as Cry1Ah-Maize. Laboratory selection with Bt-Cry1Ah toxin incorporated in artificial diet, during 48 generations of Asian corn borer (ACB) Ostrinia furnacalis produced 200-fold resistance. This resistant colony ACB-AhR readily consumed and survived on Cry1Ah-expressing Bt-maize. Cross-resistance analysis showed high cross-resistance to Cry1F (464-fold), moderate cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (28...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318739/coexistence-of-bt-transgenic-and-conventional-rice-affects-insect-abundance-and-plant-fitness-in-fields
#7
Yuyong Liang, Fang Liu, Junsheng Li, Zhengxin Cheng, Hongfan Chen, Xuming Wang, Nengwen Xiao, Yongbo Liu
BACKGROUND: As genetically modified (GM) crops have been cultivated worldwide, concerns emerge over ecological consequences because of the coexistence of transgenic and non-transgenic crops in fields. We first conducted field experiments using insect-resistant Bt-transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis and its counterpart conventional rice (Oryza sativa L.) with or without insecticide spraying in 2013 and 2014. In 2015 and 2016, Bt-transgenic and conventional rice were employed in the pure and mixed cages, with an infestation of target insect (Chilo suppressalis) and insecticide spraying as the control treatment to prevent target insects...
January 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310855/identification-of-r-selective-%C3%AF-aminotransferases-by-exploring-evolutionary-sequence-space
#8
Eun-Mi Kim, Joon Ho Park, Byung-Gee Kim, Joo-Hyun Seo
Several (R)-selective ω-aminotransferases (R-ωATs) have been reported. The existence of additional R-ωATs having different sequence characteristics from previous ones is highly expected. In addition, it is generally accepted that R-ωATs are variants of aminotransferase group III. Based on these backgrounds, sequences in RefSeq database were scored using family profiles of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT) and d-alanine aminotransferase (DAT) to predict and identify putative R-ωATs. Sequences with two profile analysis scores were plotted on two-dimensional score space...
March 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310289/an-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-immunosensor-for-cry1ab-based-on-phage-displayed-peptides
#9
Xin Lu, Dong-Jian Jiang, Jia-Xiang Yan, Zhen-E Ma, Xiu-Er Luo, Tai-Long Wei, Yang Xu, Qing-Hua He
The rapid and widespread adoption of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns about the impact of GM crops on environment and food safety. A sensitive and specific method for detecting Bt proteins in GM crops is of great significance for environment and food risk assessment. In this study, using Cry1Ab as a model Bt protein, an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for Cry1Ab protein has been developed based on phage displayed peptide. Phage displayed peptides against Cry1Ab protein were obtained from a phage displayed peptide library without animal immunization process through biopanning-elution strategy...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306007/molecular-discrimination-of-bacillus-cereus-group-species-in-foods-lettuce-spinach-and-kimbap-using-quantitative-real-time-pcr-targeting-groel-and-gyrb
#10
Shuai Wei, Ramachandran Chelliah, Byung-Jae Park, Joong-Hyun Park, Fereidoun Forghani, Youn-Seo Park, Min-Seok Cho, Dong-Suk Park, Deog-Hwan Oh
The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate specific biomarkers to differentiate within Bacillus cereus group species from contaminated food samples with the use of real-time PCR. A total of 120 strains, comprising of 28 reference, 2 type, 78 wild strains of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis along with 12 strains representing 2 bacterial groups - B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. weihenstephanensis (B. cereus group); B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes (non-Bacillus sp...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305214/expression-of-cry1ac-toxin-binding-region-in-plutella-xyllostella-cadherin-like-receptor-and-studying-their-interaction-mode-by-molecular-docking-and-site-directed-mutagenesis
#11
Xiaodan Hu, Xiao Zhang, Jianfeng Zhong, Yuan Liu, Cunzheng Zhang, Yajing Xie, Manman Lin, Chongxin Xu, Lina Lu, Qing Zhu, Xianjin Liu
Cadherin-like protein has been identified as the primary Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxin receptor in Lepidoptera pests and plays a key role in Cry toxin insecticidal. In this study, we successfully expressed the putative Cry1Ac toxin-binding region (CR7-CR11) of Plutella xylostella cadherin-like in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expressed CR7-CR11 fragment showed binding ability to Cry1Ac toxin under denaturing (Ligand blot) and non-denaturing (ELISA) conditions. The three-dimensional structure of CR7-CR11 was constructed by homology modeling...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305079/combinatorial-effect-of-photorhabdus-luminescens-tt01-and-bacillus-thuringiensis-vip3aa16-toxin-against-agrotis-segetum
#12
Wafa Jallouli, Hanen Boukadi, Sameh Sellami, Fakher Frikha, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Slim Tounsi
The entomopathogenic Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 is a promoting bacterium that controls effectively many insect pests. Indeed, it exhibited a mortality rate of 32.36% against the first instar larvae of the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, when it was used at a concentration of 5 × 107 cells/ml but no toxicity against the second instar larvae in the same condition. P. luminescens TT01 oral toxicity is associated to septicaemia since cells fraction exhibited the highest mortality rate of 34%. In order to enhance P...
January 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298700/evidence-for-multiple-insecticide-resistance-in-urban-aedes-albopictus-populations-in-southern-china
#13
Yiji Li, Jiabao Xu, Daibin Zhong, Hong Zhang, Wenqiang Yang, Guofa Zhou, Xinghua Su, Yang Wu, Kun Wu, Songwu Cai, Guiyun Yan, Xiao-Guang Chen
BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito that has become an important vector of chikungunya, dengue and Zika viruses. In the absence of specific antiviral therapy or a vaccine, vector management is the sole method available for reducing Aedes-induced disease morbidity. Determining the resistance status of Ae. albopictus to insecticides and exploring the resistance mechanisms is essential for future vector control planning. METHODS: Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae were sampled from six sites (two sites each from urban, suburban and rural) in Guangzhou...
January 3, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281043/density-dependence-and-growth-rate-evolutionary-effects-on-resistance-development-to-bt-bacillus-thuringiensis
#14
Jeannette C Martinez, Michael A Caprio, Nicholas A Friedenberg
It has long been recognized that pest population dynamics can affect the durability of a pesticide, but dose remains the primary component of insect resistance management (IRM). For transgenic pesticidal traits such as Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)), dose (measured as the mortality of susceptibles caused by a toxin) is a relatively fixed characteristic and often falls below the standard definition of high dose. Hence, it is important to understand how pest population dynamics modify durability and what targets they present for IRM...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274457/unique-biomarkers-as-a-potential-predictive-tool-for-differentiation-of-bacillus-cereus-group-based-on-real-time-pcr
#15
Byung-Jae Park, Ramachandran Chelliah, Shuai Wei, Joong-Hyun Park, Fereidoun Forghani, Youn-Seo Park, Min-Seok Cho, Dong-Suk Park, Deog-Hwan Oh
The aim of the study was to develop unique biomarkers for qPCR detection of Bacillus cereus group. Clinical and soil isolates were identified by specifically designed biomarkers - Lipoprotein (OPL-114-lipo), Methyltransferase (MT-17) and S-layer homology domain protein (151-1BC). In order to design biomarkers, we used 120 bacterial strains grouped into B. cereus and non-Bacillus group. The B. cereus group was confirmed by 108 strains of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis (30 reference and 78 wild), along with 3 strains of B...
December 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243837/a-minireplicon-of-plasmid-pbmb26-represents-a-new-typical-replicon-in-the-megaplasmids-of-bacillus-cereus-group
#16
Pengxia Wang, Yiguang Zhu, Hui Shang, Yun Deng, Ming Sun
A new minireplicon (rep26 minireplicon) from pBMB26, the 188 kb indigenous plasmid related to spore-crystal association (SCA) phenotype in Bacillus thuringiensis strain YBT-020, was characterized. A 12 kb EcoRI fragment, which encoded 10 putative open reading frames (ORFs), was capable of supporting replication when cloned in a replication probe vector. Deletion and frame shift mutation analysis showed that a 4.1 kb region encompassing two putative ORFs (orf21 and orf22) was essential for the plasmid replication in B...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240921/cry1-bt-susceptibilities-of-fall-armyworm-lepidoptera-noctuidae-host-strains
#17
David A Ingber, Charles E Mason, Lindsey Flexner
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a highly polyphagous, multivoltine pest of commercial crops including corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium spp. L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and pasture grasses. Fall armyworm has become a growing concern in agricultural communities across the Americas as field populations in many locales have evolved resistance to several Cry1 toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). An often overlooked aspect of fall armyworm biology is the existence of two host strains, the 'rice' and 'corn' strains...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240920/an-appeal-for-a-more-evidence-based-approach-to-biopesticide-safety-in-the-eu
#18
Ben Raymond, Brian A Federici
EFSA responded to our perspective article on the safe use of the insect pathogen Bacillus thrurigiensis (Bt). In doing so they admitted that there is no direct evidence to suggest that B. thuringiensis can cause diarrhoea. They nevertheless continue to repeat the assertion that Bt cannot be distinguished from Bacillus cereus, even though nearly all Bt strains, and certainly all biopesticide strains, can be distinguished from B. cereus using multi-locus sequencing typing. EFSA also continue to repeat the unsupported and speculative hypothesis that Bt strains could be capable of causing cryptic infections in humans...
December 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237849/experimental-evolution-of-insect-immune-memory-versus-pathogen-resistance
#19
Imroze Khan, Arun Prakash, Deepa Agashe
Under strong pathogen pressure, insects often evolve resistance to infection. Many insects are also protected via immune memory (immune priming), whereby sublethal exposure to a pathogen enhances survival after secondary infection. Theory predicts that immune memory should evolve when the pathogen is highly virulent, or when pathogen exposure is relatively rare. However, there are no empirical tests of these hypotheses, and the adaptive benefits of immune memory relative to direct resistance against a pathogen are poorly understood...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237813/specificity-of-oral-immune-priming-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#20
Momir Futo, Marie P Sell, Megan A M Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz
Immune specificity is the degree to which a host's immune system discriminates among various pathogens or antigenic variants. Vertebrate immune memory is highly specific due to antibody responses. On the other hand, some invertebrates show immune priming, i.e. improved survival after secondary exposure to a previously encountered pathogen. Until now, specificity of priming has only been demonstrated via the septic infection route or when live pathogens were used for priming. Therefore, we tested for specificity in the oral priming route in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum For priming, we used pathogen-free supernatants derived from three different strains of the entomopathogen, Bacillus thuringiensis, which express different Cry toxin variants known for their toxicity against this beetle...
December 2017: Biology Letters
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