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Bacillus thuringiensis

Karina Lucas Silva-Brandão, Aline Peruchi, Noemy Seraphim, Natália Faraj Murad, Renato Assis Carvalho, Juliano Ricardo Farias, Celso Omoto, Fernando Luis Cônsoli, Antonio Figueira, Marcelo Mendes Brandão
We applied the ddRAD genotyping-by-sequencing technique to investigate the genetic distinctiveness of Brazilian populations of the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm (FAW), and the role of host-plant association as a source of genetic diversification. By strain-genotyping all field-collected individuals we found that populations collected from corn were composed primarily of corn-strain individuals, while the population collected from rice was composed almost entirely of rice-strain individuals...
2018: PloS One
Lin da Jia, Tan Tan Gao, Qi Peng, Jing Lv, Jie Zhang, Min Chen, Fu Ping Song
yhcZ and yhcY genes constitute a two-component system in Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus that regulates bacterial growth. However, the exact biological function of yhcZ gene in B. thuringiensis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we proved that HD73_5824 is an yhcZ gene in B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73 strain by combining gene functional annotation, analysis of upstream and downstream genes arrangement, and amino acid sequence alignment. This yhcZ gene may co-regulate bacterial growth with HD73_5825 gene (yhcY gene) by constituting a two-component system...
May 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Raida Zribi Zghal, Kais Ghedira, Jihen Elleuch, Marwa Kharrat, Slim Tounsi
BLB406 is a novel isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis with a larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae. It displays original plasmidic and crystal protein patterns. The present work reported molecular and bioinformatic analyses for the genome sequence of BLB406 using MiSeq Illumina next-generation sequencing technology. The reads were assembled by Velvet tool. Using RAST program and PGAAP the genome of BLB406 strain was shown to contain 6297 genes corresponding to 5924 protein coding sequences. The BLB406 genome investigation with BtToxin_scanner program shows that this strain has an original and different combination of toxins compared to the published ones: five cry genes (cry11, cry22, cry2, cry60, cry64) and two distinct vegetative insecticidal vip4 genes...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Yuequin Wang, Yudong Quan, Kanglai He, Tom Walsh, Bill James, Sharon Downes, Wendy Kain, Ping Wang, Kathy Leonard, Tom Morgan, Brenda Oppert, Juan Ferré
Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3 proteins are synthesized and secreted during the vegetative growth phase. They are activated by gut proteases, recognize and bind to midgut receptors, form pores and lyse cells. We tested the susceptibility to Vip3Aa and Vip3Ca of Cry1A-, Cry2A-, Dipel- and Vip3-resistant insect colonies from different species to determine whether resistance to other insecticidal proteins confers cross-resistance to Vip3 proteins. As expected, the colonies resistant to Cry1A proteins, Dipel (Helicoverpa armigera, Trichoplusia ni, Ostrinia furnacalis and Plodia interpunctella) or Cry2Ab (H...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K Nielsen, Raffi V Aroian
BACKGROUND: The soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) or helminths (hookworms, whipworms, large roundworms) infect the intestines of ~1.5 billion of the poorest peoples and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of anthelmintic or anti-nematode drugs, the benzimidazoles, is currently used in mass drug administrations, which is a dangerous situation. New anti-nematode drugs are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B is a powerful, promising new candidate...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yan Hu, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Alice C Y Lee, Joseph F Urban, Melanie M Miller, Bin Zhan, David J Koch, Jason B Noon, Ambily Abraham, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Dwight D Bowman, Gary R Ostroff, Raffi V Aroian
Hookworms are intestinal nematode parasites that infect nearly half a billion people and are globally one of the most important contributors to iron-deficiency anemia. These parasites have significant impacts in developing children, pregnant women and working adults. Of all the soil-transmitted helminths or nematodes (STNs), hookworms are by far the most important, with disease burdens conservatively estimated at four million DALYs (Disability-Adjusted Life Years) and with productivity losses of up to US$139 billion annually...
May 4, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Elisabeth Armada, Márcio F A Leite, Almudena Medina, Rosario Azcón, Eiko E Kuramae
Inoculation of plants with beneficial plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) emerges a valuable strategy for ecosystem recovery. However, drought conditions might compromise plant-microbe interactions especially in semiarid regions. This study highlights the effect of native PGPB after one-year inoculation on autochthonous shrubs growth and rhizosphere microbial community composition and activity under drought stress conditions. We inoculated three plant species of semiarid Mediterranean zones, Thymus vulgaris, Santolina chamaecyparissus and Lavandula dentata with a Bacillus thuringiensis strain IAM 12077 and, evaluated the impact on plant biomass, plant nutrient contents, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) colonization, soil rhizosphere microbial activity, and both the bacterial and fungal communities...
May 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Mingming Liu, Rong Huang, Adam C Weisman, Xiaoyang Yu, Shih-Hui Lee, Yalu Chen, Chao Huang, Senhua Hu, Xiuhua Chen, Wenfeng Tan, Fan Liu, Hao Chen, Kenneth J Shea
We report a novel strategy for creating abiotic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein affinity ligands by biomimicry of the recognition process that takes place between Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins and insect receptor cadherin-like Bt-R1 proteins. Guided by this strategy, a library of synthetic polymer nanoparticles (NPs) was prepared and screened for binding to three epitopes 280FRGSAQGIEGS290, 368RRPFNIGINNQQ379 and 436FRSGFSNSSVSIIR449 located in loop α8, loop 2 and loop 3 of domain II of Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins. A negatively charged and hydrophilic nanoparticle (NP12) was found to have high affinity to one of the epitopes, 368RRPFNIGINNQQ379...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
N Banyuls, C S Hernández-Rodríguez, J Van Rie, J Ferré
Vip3 vegetative insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis are an important tool for crop protection against caterpillar pests in IPM strategies. While there is wide consensus on their general mode of action, the details of their mode of action are not completely elucidated and their structure remains unknown. In this work the alanine scanning technique was performed on 558 out of the total of 788 amino acids of the Vip3Af1 protein. From the 558 residue substitutions, 19 impaired protein expression and other 19 substitutions severely compromised the insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chitvan Khajuria, Sergey Ivashuta, Elizabeth Wiggins, Lex Flagel, William Moar, Michael Pleau, Kaylee Miller, Yuanji Zhang, Parthasarathy Ramaseshadri, Changjian Jiang, Tracey Hodge, Peter Jensen, Mao Chen, Anilkumar Gowda, Brian McNulty, Cara Vazquez, Renata Bolognesi, Jeffrey Haas, Graham Head, Thomas Clark
The use of dsRNA to control insect pests via the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is being explored by researchers globally. However, with every new class of insect control compounds, the evolution of insect resistance needs to be considered, and understanding resistance mechanisms is essential in designing durable technologies and effective resistance management strategies. To gain insight into insect resistance to dsRNA, a field screen with subsequent laboratory selection was used to establish a population of DvSnf7 dsRNA-resistant western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a major maize insect pest...
2018: PloS One
Erica McGale, Celia Diezel, Meredith C Schuman, Ian T Baldwin
Plants are the primary producers in most terrestrial ecosystems and have complex defense systems to protect their produce. Defense-deficient, high-yielding agricultural monocultures attract abundant nonhuman consumers, but are alternatively defended through pesticide application and genetic engineering to produce insecticidal proteins such as Cry1Ac (Bacillus thuringiensis). These approaches alter the balance between yield protection and maximization but have been poorly contextualized to known yield-defense trade-offs in wild plants...
May 13, 2018: New Phytologist
Ardahan Eski, İsmail Demir, Mustafa Güllü, Zihni Demirbağ
In order to find an effective and environmentally friendly biocontrol agent against Spodoptera exigua, we isolated and identified a total of 15 different bacterial species belonging to phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. According to the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic properties, bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus cereus (Se1), Lysinibacillus macroides (Se2), Pseudomonas geniculata (Se3), Paenibacillus tylopili (Se4), Staphylococcus succinus (Se5), Acinetobacter soli (Se6), Chryseobacterium indologenes (Se7), Bacillus toyonensis (Se8), Serratia marcescens (Se9), Paenibacillus amylolyticus (Se10), Paenibacillus xylanexedens (Se11), Enterobacter ludwigii (Se12), Bacillus thuringiensis (Se13), Bacillus thuringiensis (Se14) and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (Se15)...
May 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Muhammad Sajid, Ce Geng, Miaomiao Li, Yueying Wang, Hualin Liu, Jinshui Zheng, Donghai Peng, Ming Sun
Despite the successful application of Crystal proteins (Cry) from Bacillus thuringiensis as biological control agents against insects, there is an increasing demand to identify new Cry toxins having higher toxicity and broad spectrum activity against insects and plant parasitic nematodes. To find novel Cry toxins, we screened 100 whole genome sequences of B. thuringiensis. Surprisingly, in addition to full Cry toxins, we found partial sequences, such as typical N-terminal or C-terminal with conserved domains, widely distributed among 20 strains of B...
May 11, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Hyeong Min Son, Ha Yeon Kim, Sol Moi Park, Haeng Ki Lee
The present study investigated the CaCO₃ precipitation performance of ureolytic and non-ureolytic bacteria co-cultured as a self-healing agent for cementitious materials crack repair. Three different inoculum ratios of ureolytic Sporosarcina pasteurii and non-ureolytic Bacillus thuringiensis (10:0, 8:2, or 5:5) were used. The effect of coculturing ureolytic and non-ureolytic bacteria on microbial metabolism was investigated by measuring the rate of growth in urea-containing medium and the rate of NH₄⁺ and CaCO₃ production in urea⁻calcium lactate medium...
May 11, 2018: Materials
Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Ana Paula Scaramal Ricietto, Juan Ferré
The combined analysis of genomic and proteomic data allowed us to determine which cry and vip genes are present in a Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) isolate and which ones are being expressed. Nine Bt isolates were selected from Spanish collections of Bt based on their vip1 and vip2 gene content. As a first step, nine isolates were analyzed by PCR to select those Bt isolates that contained genes with the lowest similarity to already described vip1 and vip2 genes (isolates E-SE10.2 and O-V84.2). Two selected isolates were subjected to a combined genomic and proteomic analysis...
May 10, 2018: Toxins
D P Thubru, D M Firake, G T Behere
Lethal and sub lethal effects of fresh and old residues of azadirachtin, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki ( Bt var. k ), and deltamethrin, were evaluated at their recommended field doses against adult and immature stages of Trichogramma brassicae under in vitro conditions. The experiments were carried out at the Entomology section of Division of Crop Protection, ICAR Research Complex for NEH region, Umiam, Meghalaya, in 2012-2013. The effects of different pesticides were determined by bioassays using the residual film method, the diet contamination method, the pupal dip method and the topical application technique...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Adriano M Lourenço, Khalid Haddi, Bergman M Ribeiro, Roberto F T Corrêia, Hudson V V Tomé, Oscar Santos-Amaya, Eliseu J G Pereira, Raul N C Guedes, Gil R Santos, Eugênio E Oliveira, Raimundo W S Aguiar
Although the cultivation of transgenic plants expressing toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) represents a successful pest management strategy, the rapid evolution of resistance to Bt plants in several lepidopteran pests has threatened the sustainability of this practice. By exhibiting a favorable safety profile and allowing integration with pest management initiatives, plant essential oils have become relevant pest control alternatives. Here, we assessed the potential of essential oils extracted from a Neotropical plant, Siparuna guianensis Aublet, for improving the control and resistance management of key lepidopteran pests (i...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Seongjoon Kang, Obed W Odom, Candice L Malone, Saravanan Thangamani, David L Herrin
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ( Chlamydomonas ) strains that are toxic to mosquito larvae because they express chloroplast transgenes that are based on the mosquitocidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) could be very useful in mosquito control. Chlamydomonas has several advantages for this approach, including genetic controls not generally available with industrial algae. The Bti toxin is produced by sporulating bacteria and has been used for mosquito control for >30 years without creating highly resistant mosquito populations...
May 8, 2018: Biology
Fitsum Tigu, Junli Zhang, Guoxia Liu, Zhen Cai, Yin Li
D-Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5 ) has wide applications in the feed, food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Its biological production routes which employ pantothenate synthetase (PS) as the key enzyme are attractive since they avoid the tedious and time-consuming optical resolution process. However, little data is available on the activity and kinetics of this enzyme, hampering the rational selection of an efficient enzyme for the biological production of D-pantothenic acid. In this study, six phylogenetically distant PS-encoding genes, from Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Enterobacter cloacae, were expressed in E...
May 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kyle S Enger, Jade Mitchell, Bharathi Murali, Dawn N Birdsell, Paul Keim, Patrick L Gurian, David M Wagner
Bacillus spores resist inactivation, but the extent of their persistence on common surfaces is unclear. This work addresses knowledge gaps regarding biothreat agents in the environment to reduce uncertainty in risk assessment models. Studies were conducted to investigate the long-term inactivation of Bacillus anthracis and three commonly used surrogate organisms - B. cereus, B. atrophaeus and B. thuringiensis on three materials: laminate countertop, stainless steel and polystyrene Petri dishes. Viable spores were measured at 1, 30, 90, 196, 304 and 1038 days...
May 3, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
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