Read by QxMD icon Read


Akshaykumar A Nayak, Kamalesh Dattaram Mumbrekar, B S Satish Rao
In a scenario of accidental mass radiation exposure transportation and analysis of samples may take some time, resulting in loss of biomarker information over this period. The present study aims to use phosphatase inhibitors for longer retention of focal signals to adopt γ-H2AX as a biodosimetric biomarker for the management of early triage. Peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from healthy individuals were irradiated in vitro with x-rays and γ-H2AX foci were analysed using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometric methods...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Naser Jafarzadeh, Ahmad Mani-Varnosfaderani, Kambiz Gilany, Samira Eynali, Habib Ghaznavi, Ali Shakeri-Zadeh
Radiotherapy is one of the main modalities of cancer treatment. The utility of Raman spectroscopy (RS) for detecting the distinct radiobiological responses in human cancer cells is currently under investigation. RS holds great promises to provide good opportunities for personalizing radiotherapy treatments. Here, we report the effects of the radiation dose and post-irradiation time on the molecular changes in the human breast cancer SKBR3 cells, using RS. The SKBR3 cells were irradiated by gamma radiation with different doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Sarah Schumann, Uta Eberlein, Razan Muhtadi, Michael Lassmann, Harry Scherthan
Irradiation with high linear energy transfer α-emitters, like the clinically used Ra-223 dichloride, severely damages cells and induces complex DNA damage including closely spaced double-strand breaks (DSBs). As the hematopoietic system is an organ-at-risk for the treatment, knowledge about Ra-223-induced DNA damage in blood leukocytes is highly desirable. Therefore, 36 blood samples from six healthy volunteers were exposed ex-vivo (in solution) to different concentrations of Ra-223. Absorbed doses to the blood were calculated assuming local energy deposition of all α- and β-particles of the decay, ranging from 0 to 142 mGy...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric Grégoire, Laurence Roy, Valérie Buard, Martine Delbos, Valérie Durand, Cécile Martin-Bodiot, Pascale Voisin, Irène Sorokine-Durm, Aurélie Vaurijoux, Philippe Voisin, Céline Baldeyron, Joan Francesc Barquinero
PURPOSE: The fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH), which easily detects reciprocal translocations, is currently used to estimate doses in retrospective biological dosimetry, after suspected accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation (IR). This study of 42 cases aimed to verify the appropriateness of this assay for radiation dose reconstruction, compared to the dicentric assay, and to evaluate other limitations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We labeled chromosomes 2, 4, and 12 by 3-color FISH painting to detect translocations on lymphocytes of patients with suspected past IR overexposure...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Akshaykumar A Nayak, Kamalesh Dattaram Mumbrekar, Satish Rao
In a scenario of accidental mass radiation exposure, transportation and analyzing samples may take its time resulting in loss of biomarker information over this period. The present study aims to use phosphatases inhibitors for longer retention of foci signals to adopt γ-H2AX as a biodosimetric biomarker for the management of early triage. Peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from healthy individuals irradiated in vitro with X-rays, and γ-H2AX analysed using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometric methods...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Nils Rudqvist, Evagelia C Laiakis, Shanaz A Ghandhi, Suresh Kumar, Jeffrey D Knotts, Mashkura Chowdhury, Albert J Fornace, Sally A Amundson
In the event of an improvised nuclear device or "dirty bomb" in a highly populated area, potentially hundreds of thousands of people will require screening to ensure that exposed individuals receive appropriate treatment. For this reason, there is a need to develop tools for high-throughput radiation biodosimetry. Gene expression represents an emerging approach to biodosimetry and could potentially provide an estimate of both absorbed dose and individual radiation-induced injury. Since approximately 2-4% of humans are thought to be radiosensitive, and would suffer greater radiological injury at a given dose than members of the general population, it is of interest to explore the potential impact of such sensitivity on the biodosimetric gene expression signatures being developed...
January 19, 2018: Radiation Research
Molykutty J Aryankalayil, Sunita Chopra, Joel Levin, Iris Eke, Adeola Makinde, Shaoli Das, Uma Shankavaram, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Sandra Demaria, C Norman Coleman
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key molecules in regulating many biological processes and have been implicated in development and disease pathogenesis. Biomarkers of cancer and normal tissue response to treatment are of great interest in precision medicine, as well as in public health and medical management, such as for assessment of radiation injury after an accidental or intentional exposure. Circulating and functional RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs, in whole blood and other body fluids are potential valuable candidates as biomarkers...
January 8, 2018: Radiation Research
Asao Noda
Although the vast majority of DNA damage induced by radiation exposure disappears rapidly, some lesions remain in the cell nucleus in very small quantities for days to months. These lesions may cause a considerable threat to an organism and include certain types of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) called 'unrepairable DSBs'. Unrepairable DSBs are thought to cause persistent malfunctioning of cells and tissues or cause late effects of radiation, especially the induction of delayed cell death, mutation, senescence, or carcinogenesis...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Seulki Ko, Hwan Hoon Chung, Sung Bum Cho, Young Woo Jin, Kwang Pyo Kim, Mina Ha, Ye Jin Bang, Yae Won Ha, Won Jin Lee
INTRODUCTION: Although fluoroscopically guided procedures involve a considerably high dose of radiation, few studies have investigated the effects of radiation on medical workers involved in interventional fluoroscopy procedures. Previous research remains in the early stages and has not reached a level comparable with other occupational studies thus far. Furthermore, the study of radiation workers provides an opportunity to estimate health risks at low doses and dose rates of ionising radiation...
December 15, 2017: BMJ Open
Julie Bensimon Etzol, Marco Valente, Sandrine Altmeyer, Caroline Bettencourt, Samuel Bouvet, Guillaume Cosler, François Desangles, Michel Drouet, Fabrice Entine, Francis Hérodin, Flora Jourquin, Yannick Lecompte, Patrick Martigne, Xavier Michel, Jérôme Pateux, Nicolas Ugolin, Sylvie Chevillard
DosiKit is a new field-radiation biodosimetry immunoassay for rapid triage of individuals exposed to external total-body radiation. Here, we report on the validation of this immunoassay in human blood cell extracts 0.5 h after in vitro exposure to137 Cs gamma rays, using γ-H2AX analysis. First, calibration curves were established for five donors at doses ranging from 0 to 10 Gy and dose rates ranging from ∼0.8 to ∼3 Gy/min. The calibration curves, together with a γ-H2AX peptide scale, enabled the definition of inter-experimental correction factors...
December 7, 2017: Radiation Research
Mary T Sproull, Kevin A Camphausen, Gregory D Koblentz
With the threat of future radiological or nuclear events, there is a need to model and develop new medical countermeasures for managing large-scale population exposures to radiation. The field of radiation biodosimetry has advanced far beyond its original objectives to identify new methodologies to quantitate unknown levels of radiation exposure that may be applied in a mass screening setting. New research in the areas of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) applications have identified novel biological indicators of radiation injury from a diverse array of biological sample materials, and studies continue to develop more advanced models of radiation exposure and injury...
November 2017: Health Security
Xin-Ping Yu, Yu-Mei Wu, Yang Liu, Ming Tian, Jian-Dong Wang, Ku-Ke Ding, Teng Ma, Ping-Kun Zhou
The immediate early response gene 5 (IER5) is a radiation response gene induced in a dose-independent manner, and has been suggested to be a molecular biomarker for biodosimetry purposes upon radiation exposure. Here, we investigated the function of IER5 in DNA damage response and repair. We found that interference on IER5 expression significantly decreased the efficiency of repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiations in Hela cells. We found that IER5 participates in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA breaks repair...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Gordon K Livingston, Maria Escalona, Alvis Foster, Adayabalam S Balajee
Our previous studies demonstrated the cytogenetic effects in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a 34-year-old male patient who received ablative radioactive 131iodine therapy (RIT) on two different occasions in 1992 and 1994. Assessment of RIT-induced chromosomal damage by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) showed the persistence of elevated micronucleus frequency in this patient for more than two decades since the first RIT. Subsequent cytogenetic analysis performed in 2012 revealed both stable and unstable aberrations, whose frequencies were higher than the baseline reported in the literature...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Jin Liu, Yanxin Li, Ruth Wilkins, Farrah Flegal, Joan H M Knoll, Peter K Rogan
Accurate digital image analysis of abnormal microscopic structures relies on high quality images and on minimizing the rates of false positive (FP) and negative objects in images. Cytogenetic biodosimetry detects dicentric chromosomes (DCs) that arise from exposure to ionizing radiation, and determines radiation dose received based on DC frequency. Improvements in automated DC recognition increase the accuracy of dose estimates by reclassifying FP DCs as monocentric chromosomes or chromosome fragments. We also present image segmentation methods to rank high quality digital metaphase images and eliminate suboptimal metaphase cells...
2017: F1000Research
Tania Warnakulasuriya, Senani Williams, Mangala Dabarera, Kusum Rodrigo, Thiwanka Weerakkody, Rajitha Wickremasinghe
Lanka Mineral Sands Ltd (LMS), a government-owned company, has been mining mineral sands including monazite which contains thorium (Th) at Pulmoddai, Sri Lanka since 1957. Th emits alpha particles on decay and gamma rays are emitted by the daughter products. The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (MN) assay is popular for large scale radiation exposure studies as it is an easy, fast and reliable method of biodosimetry. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of micronuclei among persons residing in the vicinity of LMS...
August 29, 2017: Mutagenesis
Ben Shirley, Yanxin Li, Joan H M Knoll, Peter K Rogan
Biological radiation dose can be estimated from dicentric chromosome frequencies in metaphase cells. Performing these cytogenetic dicentric chromosome assays is traditionally a manual, labor-intensive process not well suited to handle the volume of samples which may require examination in the wake of a mass casualty event. Automated Dicentric Chromosome Identifier and Dose Estimator (ADCI) software automates this process by examining sets of metaphase images using machine learning-based image processing techniques...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Vijay K Singh, Albert J Fornace
Concern over potential exposures of ionizing radiation (IR) to large populations has emphasized the need for rapid and reliable methods of biodosimetry to determine absorbed dose and required triage. Lipidomics has emerged as a powerful technique for large-scale lipid identification and quantification. Indirect effects from IR exposure generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) through water hydrolysis and may subsequently damage cellular lipids. Thus, rapid identification of specific affected lipid molecules represents possible targets for biodosimetry...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
A Arul Anantha Kumar, D Bakkiam, Swetha Sonwani, R Seenisamy, K Sivasubramanian, B Venkatraman
In vitro Dicentric (DC) dose response curves of 6MV X-rays (3Gy/min) and (60)Co γ-rays (0.63Gy/min) were generated and compared (intra-laboratory) to understand their similarities and differences. Human peripheral blood samples exposed to ten different doses (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5Gy) of 6MV X-rays and (60)Co γ-rays were subjected to Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) and dicentrics, excess acentric fragments (AF) and chromatid breaks (CB) were scored. Totally about 31,553 metaphase spreads were scored for the purpose...
November 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Michitaka Umakoshi, Ichiro Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Hirata, Naoki Kunugita, Benjamin B Williams, Harold M Swartz, Minoru Miyake
In vivo L-band electron paramagnetic resonance tooth dosimetry is a newly developed and very promising method for retrospective biodosimetry in individuals who may have been exposed to significant levels of ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to determine the relationships among enamel thickness, enamel area, and measured electron paramagnetic resonance signal amplitude with a view to improve the quantitative accuracy of the dosimetry technique. Ten isolated incisors were irradiated using well-characterized doses, and their radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signals were measured...
October 2017: Health Physics
Liudmila Solovjeva, Denis Firsanov, Nadezhda Pleskach, Maria Svetlova
H2AX phosphorylation at Ser139 (formation of γ-H2AX) is an indicator of double-strand breaks in DNA (DSBs) after the action of different genotoxic stresses, including ionizing radiation, environmental agents, and chemotherapy drugs. The sites of DSBs can be visualized as focal sites of γ-H2AX using antibodies and immunofluorescence microscopy. The microscopy technique is the most sensitive method of DSB detection in individual cells. It is useful for experimental research, radiation biodosimetry, and clinical practice...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"