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biodosimetry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775402/a-note-on-poisson-goodness-of-fit-tests-for-ionizing-radiation-induced-chromosomal-aberration-samples
#1
Manuel Higueras, J E González, Marina Di Giorgio, J F Barquinero
PURPOSE: To present Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests as alternatives and complements to the asymptotic u-test, which is the most widely used in cytogenetic biodosimetry, to decide whether a sample of chromosomal aberrations in blood cells comes from an homogeneous or inhomogeneous exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three Poisson exact goodness-of-fit test from the literature are introduced and implemented in the R environment. A Shiny R Studio application, named GOF Poisson, has been updated for the purpose of giving support to this work...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743580/dose-dependent-decrease-in-anti-oxidant-capacity-of-whole-blood-after-irradiation-a-novel-potential-marker-for-biodosimetry
#2
Lue Sun, Yohei Inaba, Keizo Sato, Aki Hirayama, Koji Tsuboi, Ryuji Okazaki, Koichi Chida, Takashi Moritake
Many reports have demonstrated that radiation stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mitochondria for a few hours to a few days after irradiation. However, these studies were performed using cell lines, and there is a lack of information about redox homeostasis in irradiated animals and humans. Blood redox homeostasis reflects the body condition well and can be used as a diagnostic marker. However, most redox homeostasis studies have focused on plasma or serum, and the anti-oxidant capacity of whole blood has scarcely been investigated...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736597/differential-mobility-spectrometry-mass-spectrometry-dms-ms-in-radiation-biodosimetry-rapid-and-high-throughput-quantitation-of-multiple-radiation-biomarkers-in-nonhuman-primate-urine
#3
Zhidan Chen, Stephen L Coy, Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Albert J Fornace, Paul Vouros
High-throughput methods to assess radiation exposure are a priority due to concerns that include nuclear power accidents, the spread of nuclear weapon capability, and the risk of terrorist attacks. Metabolomics, the assessment of small molecules in an easily accessible sample, is the most recent method to be applied for the identification of biomarkers of the biological radiation response with a useful dose-response profile. Profiling for biomarker identification is frequently done using an LC-MS platform which has limited throughput due to the time-consuming nature of chromatography...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648566/sers-based-lateral-flow-assay-for-quantitative-detection-of-c-reactive-protein-as-an-early-bio-indicator-of-a-radiation-induced-inflammatory-response-in-nonhuman-primates
#4
Zhen Rong, Rui Xiao, Shuang Xing, Guolin Xiong, Zuyin Yu, Limei Wang, Xiaofei Jia, Keli Wang, Yuwen Cong, Shengqi Wang
In accidental irradiation situations, rapid in-field evaluation of acute radiation syndrome is critical for effective triage and timely medical treatment of irradiated individuals. A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based lateral flow assay was developed for the quantitative detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) as an early bio-indicator of a radiation-induced inflammatory response in nonhuman primates. Raman reporter-embedded gold-core silver-shell nanoparticles with built-in hot spots were synthesized and conjugated with a CRP detection antibody to serve as SERS tags in the lateral flow assay...
April 12, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596720/differential-mobility-spectrometry-dms-reveals-the-elevation-of-urinary-acetylcarnitine-in-non-human-primates-nhps-exposed-to-radiation
#5
Nicholas B Vera, Zhidan Chen, Evan Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Albert J Fornace, Derek M Erion, Stephen L Coy, Jeffrey A Pfefferkorn, Paul Vouros
Acetylcarnitine has been identified as one of several urinary biomarkers indicative of radiation exposure in adult rhesus macaque monkeys (non-human primates, NHPs). Previous work has demonstrated an up-regulated dose-response profile in a balanced male/female NHP cohort1 . As a contribution toward the development of metabolomics-based radiation biodosimetry in human populations and other applications of acetylcarnitine screening, we have developed a quantitative, high-throughput method for the analysis of acetylcarnitine...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581823/serum-micrornas-potent-biomarkers-for-radiation-biodosimetry
#6
EDITORIAL
Bartłomiej Tomasik, Wojciech Fendler, Dipanjan Chowdhury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447119/pharmacological-approach-to-increasing-the-retention-of-radiation-induced-%C3%AE-h2ax-foci-using-phosphatase-inhibitors-significance-in-radiation-biodosimetry
#7
Akshaykumar A Nayak, Kamalesh Dattaram Mumbrekar, B S Satish Rao
In a scenario of accidental mass radiation exposure transportation and analysis of samples may take some time, resulting in loss of biomarker information over this period. The present study aims to use phosphatase inhibitors for longer retention of focal signals to adopt γ-H2AX as a biodosimetric biomarker for the management of early triage. Peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from healthy individuals were irradiated in vitro with x-rays and γ-H2AX foci were analysed using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometric methods...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413692/the-molecular-cues-for-the-biological-effects-of-ionizing-radiation-dose-and-post-irradiation-time-on-human-breast-cancer-skbr3-cell-line-a-raman-spectroscopy-study
#8
Naser Jafarzadeh, Ahmad Mani-Varnosfaderani, Kambiz Gilany, Samira Eynali, Habib Ghaznavi, Ali Shakeri-Zadeh
Radiotherapy is one of the main modalities of cancer treatment. The utility of Raman spectroscopy (RS) for detecting the distinct radiobiological responses in human cancer cells is currently under investigation. RS holds great promises to provide good opportunities for personalizing radiotherapy treatments. Here, we report the effects of the radiation dose and post-irradiation time on the molecular changes in the human breast cancer SKBR3 cells, using RS. The SKBR3 cells were irradiated by gamma radiation with different doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy...
March 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396412/dna-damage-in-leukocytes-after-internal-ex-vivo-irradiation-of-blood-with-the-%C3%AE-emitter-ra-223
#9
Sarah Schumann, Uta Eberlein, Razan Muhtadi, Michael Lassmann, Harry Scherthan
Irradiation with high linear energy transfer α-emitters, like the clinically used Ra-223 dichloride, severely damages cells and induces complex DNA damage including closely spaced double-strand breaks (DSBs). As the hematopoietic system is an organ-at-risk for the treatment, knowledge about Ra-223-induced DNA damage in blood leukocytes is highly desirable. Therefore, 36 blood samples from six healthy volunteers were exposed ex-vivo (in solution) to different concentrations of Ra-223. Absorbed doses to the blood were calculated assuming local energy deposition of all α- and β-particles of the decay, ranging from 0 to 142 mGy...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363380/twenty-years-of-fish-based-translocation-analysis-for-retrospective-ionizing-radiation-biodosimetry
#10
Eric Grégoire, Laurence Roy, Valérie Buard, Martine Delbos, Valérie Durand, Cécile Martin-Bodiot, Pascale Voisin, Irène Sorokine-Durm, Aurélie Vaurijoux, Philippe Voisin, Céline Baldeyron, Joan Francesc Barquinero
PURPOSE: The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, which easily detects reciprocal translocations, is currently used to estimate doses in retrospective biological dosimetry, after suspected accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation (IR). This study of 42 cases aimed to verify the appropriateness of this assay for radiation dose reconstruction, compared to the dicentric assay, and to evaluate other limitations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We labeled chromosomes 2, 4, and 12 by 3-color FISH painting to detect translocations on lymphocytes of patients with suspected past IR overexposure...
March 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353813/pharmacological-approach-to-increase-the-retention-of-radiation-induced-gamma-h2ax-foci-using-phosphatase-inhibitors-significance-in-radiation-biodosimetry
#11
Akshaykumar A Nayak, Kamalesh Dattaram Mumbrekar, Satish Rao
In a scenario of accidental mass radiation exposure, transportation and analyzing samples may take its time resulting in loss of biomarker information over this period. The present study aims to use phosphatases inhibitors for longer retention of foci signals to adopt γ-H2AX as a biodosimetric biomarker for the management of early triage. Peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from healthy individuals irradiated in vitro with X-rays, and γ-H2AX analysed using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometric methods...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351057/global-gene-expression-response-in-mouse-models-of-dna-repair-deficiency-after-gamma-irradiation
#12
Nils Rudqvist, Evagelia C Laiakis, Shanaz A Ghandhi, Suresh Kumar, Jeffrey D Knotts, Mashkura Chowdhury, Albert J Fornace, Sally A Amundson
In the event of an improvised nuclear device or "dirty bomb" in a highly populated area, potentially hundreds of thousands of people will require screening to ensure that exposed individuals receive appropriate treatment. For this reason, there is a need to develop tools for high-throughput radiation biodosimetry. Gene expression represents an emerging approach to biodosimetry and could potentially provide an estimate of both absorbed dose and individual radiation-induced injury. Since approximately 2-4% of humans are thought to be radiosensitive, and would suffer greater radiological injury at a given dose than members of the general population, it is of interest to explore the potential impact of such sensitivity on the biodosimetric gene expression signatures being developed...
April 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309266/radiation-induced-long-noncoding-rnas-in-a-mouse-model-after-whole-body-irradiation
#13
Molykutty J Aryankalayil, Sunita Chopra, Joel Levin, Iris Eke, Adeola Makinde, Shaoli Das, Uma Shankavaram, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Sandra Demaria, C Norman Coleman
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key molecules in regulating many biological processes and have been implicated in development and disease pathogenesis. Biomarkers of cancer and normal tissue response to treatment are of great interest in precision medicine, as well as in public health and medical management, such as for assessment of radiation injury after an accidental or intentional exposure. Circulating and functional RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs, in whole blood and other body fluids are potential valuable candidates as biomarkers...
March 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281054/radiation-induced-unrepairable-dsbs-their-role-in-the-late-effects-of-radiation-and-possible-applications-to-biodosimetry
#14
Asao Noda
Although the vast majority of DNA damage induced by radiation exposure disappears rapidly, some lesions remain in the cell nucleus in very small quantities for days to months. These lesions may cause a considerable threat to an organism and include certain types of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) called 'unrepairable DSBs'. Unrepairable DSBs are thought to cause persistent malfunctioning of cells and tissues or cause late effects of radiation, especially the induction of delayed cell death, mutation, senescence, or carcinogenesis...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248885/occupational-radiation-exposure-and-its-health-effects-on-interventional-medical-workers-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Seulki Ko, Hwan Hoon Chung, Sung Bum Cho, Young Woo Jin, Kwang Pyo Kim, Mina Ha, Ye Jin Bang, Yae Won Ha, Won Jin Lee
INTRODUCTION: Although fluoroscopically guided procedures involve a considerably high dose of radiation, few studies have investigated the effects of radiation on medical workers involved in interventional fluoroscopy procedures. Previous research remains in the early stages and has not reached a level comparable with other occupational studies thus far. Furthermore, the study of radiation workers provides an opportunity to estimate health risks at low doses and dose rates of ionising radiation...
December 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215325/dosikit-a-new-portable-immunoassay-for-fast-external-irradiation-biodosimetry
#16
Julie Bensimon Etzol, Marco Valente, Sandrine Altmeyer, Caroline Bettencourt, Samuel Bouvet, Guillaume Cosler, François Desangles, Michel Drouet, Fabrice Entine, Francis Hérodin, Flora Jourquin, Yannick Lecompte, Patrick Martigne, Xavier Michel, Jérôme Pateux, Nicolas Ugolin, Sylvie Chevillard
DosiKit is a new field-radiation biodosimetry immunoassay for rapid triage of individuals exposed to external total-body radiation. Here, we report on the validation of this immunoassay in human blood cell extracts 0.5 h after in vitro exposure to137 Cs gamma rays, using γ-H2AX analysis. First, calibration curves were established for five donors at doses ranging from 0 to 10 Gy and dose rates ranging from ∼0.8 to ∼3 Gy/min. The calibration curves, together with a γ-H2AX peptide scale, enabled the definition of inter-experimental correction factors...
December 7, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193982/biodosimetry-a-future-tool-for-medical-management-of-radiological-emergencies
#17
Mary T Sproull, Kevin A Camphausen, Gregory D Koblentz
With the threat of future radiological or nuclear events, there is a need to model and develop new medical countermeasures for managing large-scale population exposures to radiation. The field of radiation biodosimetry has advanced far beyond its original objectives to identify new methodologies to quantitate unknown levels of radiation exposure that may be applied in a mass screening setting. New research in the areas of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) applications have identified novel biological indicators of radiation injury from a diverse array of biological sample materials, and studies continue to develop more advanced models of radiation exposure and injury...
November 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104487/ier5-is-involved-in-dna-double-strand-breaks-repair-in-association-with-papr1-in-hela-cells
#18
Xin-Ping Yu, Yu-Mei Wu, Yang Liu, Ming Tian, Jian-Dong Wang, Ku-Ke Ding, Teng Ma, Ping-Kun Zhou
The immediate early response gene 5 ( IER 5) is a radiation response gene induced in a dose-independent manner, and has been suggested to be a molecular biomarker for biodosimetry purposes upon radiation exposure. Here, we investigated the function of IER5 in DNA damage response and repair. We found that interference on IER5 expression significantly decreased the efficiency of repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiations in Hela cells. We found that IER5 participates in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA breaks repair...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036595/persistent-in-vivo-cytogenetic-effects-of-radioiodine-therapy-a-21-year-follow-up-study-using-multicolor-fish
#19
Gordon K Livingston, Maria Escalona, Alvis Foster, Adayabalam S Balajee
Our previous studies demonstrated the cytogenetic effects in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a 34-year-old male patient who received ablative radioactive 131iodine therapy (RIT) on two different occasions in 1992 and 1994. Assessment of RIT-induced chromosomal damage by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) showed the persistence of elevated micronucleus frequency in this patient for more than two decades since the first RIT. Subsequent cytogenetic analysis performed in 2012 revealed both stable and unstable aberrations, whose frequencies were higher than the baseline reported in the literature...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026522/accurate-cytogenetic-biodosimetry-through-automated-dicentric-chromosome-curation-and-metaphase-cell-selection
#20
Jin Liu, Yanxin Li, Ruth Wilkins, Farrah Flegal, Joan H M Knoll, Peter K Rogan
Accurate digital image analysis of abnormal microscopic structures relies on high quality images and on minimizing the rates of false positive (FP) and negative objects in images. Cytogenetic biodosimetry detects dicentric chromosomes (DCs) that arise from exposure to ionizing radiation, and determines radiation dose received based on DC frequency. Improvements in automated DC recognition increase the accuracy of dose estimates by reclassifying FP DCs as monocentric chromosomes or chromosome fragments. We also present image segmentation methods to rank high quality digital metaphase images and eliminate suboptimal metaphase cells...
2017: F1000Research
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