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Dakai Bian, Jason C Tsui, Mikhail Repin, Guy Garty, Helen Turner, Y Lawrence Yao, David J Brenner
Due to the need of high-speed and efficient biodosimetric assays for triage and therapy in the event of radiological or nuclear attack, a robotically based automated biodosimetry tool (RABiT) has been developed over the past few years. Adapting the micronucleus assay from filter plates to V-shaped plates presented challenges in the liquid handling, namely, cell splashing out of the V-shaped well plate during the cell harvesting, poor cell distribution on the bottom of the image plate during the dispensing, and cell loss from the image plate during the aspiration in the liquid handling process...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Devices
Rajesha K Nairy, Narayana Yerol, Nagesh N Bhat, Utkarsha Desai, Kapil Shirsath, Usha Yadav, Rajesh K Chaurasia, Sapra B K
OBJECTIVE: In the present study an attempt was made to estimate coefficients of dose response curves for PCC aberrations induced by CalyculinA and Okadaic acid, using(60)Co gamma radiation and 8 MeV pulsed electron beam for biodosimetry application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The modified method outlined by Puig et al. 2013 was used to conduct Calyculin A and Okadaic acid induced PCC assay in human blood lymphocytes.Chemical treatment was given for the last 1 h of a 48 h culture...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health
Mary Sproull, Kevin Camphausen
With the possibility of large-scale terrorist attacks around the world, the need for modeling and development of new medical countermeasures for potential future chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) has been well established. Project Bioshield, initiated in 2004, provided a framework to develop and expedite research in the field of CBRN exposures. To respond to large-scale population exposures from a nuclear event or radiation dispersal device (RDD), new methods for determining received dose using biological modeling became necessary...
October 6, 2016: Radiation Research
Joan Francesc Barquinero, Christina Beinke, Mireia Borràs, Iwona Buraczewska, Firouz Darroudi, Eric Gregoire, Rositsa Hristova, Ulrike Kulka, Carita Lindholm, Mercedes Moreno, Jayne Moquet, Ursula Oestreicher, M Jesús Prieto, Mònica Pujol, Michelle Ricoul, Laure Sabatier, Sylwester Sommer, Mingzhu Sun, Andrzej Wojcik, Leonardo Barrios
PURPOSE: In the framework of RENEB, several biodosimetry exercises were conducted analyzing different endpoints. Among them, the analysis of translocations is considered the most useful method for retrospective biodosimetry due to the relative stability of their frequency with post irradiation time. The aim of this study was to harmonize the accuracy of translocation-based biodosimetry within the RENEB consortium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An initial telescoring exercise analyzing FISH metaphase images was done to harmonize chromosome aberration descriptions...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Justyna Chalubinska-Fendler, Wojciech Fendler, Michal Spych, Krystyna Wyka, Jolanta Luniewska-Bury, Jacek Fijuth
The aim of the present study was to determine if the serum levels of early markers of inflammation, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) were correlated with the radiation dose received by the pulmonary and mediastinal structures of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This pilot study included 26 patients with NSCLC who received total radiation doses ranging from 54 to 74 Gy (2.0 Gy/fraction). Cytokines were measured at baseline by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, and following administration of total doses of 20 and 40 Gy...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
Jayne Moquet, Stephen Barnard, Albena Staynova, Carita Lindholm, Octávia Monteiro Gil, Vanda Martins, Ute Rößler, Anne Vral, Charlot Vandevoorde, Maria Wojewódzka, Kai Rothkamm
PURPOSE: Within the EU RENEB project, seven laboratories have taken part in training and harmonisation activities to strengthen triage gamma-H2AX-based radiation exposure assessment. This has culminated in a second triage biodosimetry exercise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole blood and separated lymphocyte samples were homogenously irradiated with (60)Co gamma rays at 0.5, 2.5 (blind samples), 0 and 2 Gy (reference samples). Following post-exposure incubations of 4 and 24 h, 16 samples were shipped on ice packs to each partner...
August 15, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
J C Jones, A Morales-Kastresana, A H Kesarwala, L Jenkins, P Choyke, K A Camphausen, J Berzofsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Julie Depuydt, Ans Baeyens, Stephen Barnard, Christina Beinke, Anett Benedek, Philip Beukes, Iwona Buraczewska, Firouz Darroudi, Stefania De Sanctis, Inmaculada Dominguez, Octávia Monteiro Gil, Valeria Hadjidekova, Enikő Kis, Ulrike Kulka, Florigio Lista, Katalin Lumniczky, Radhia M'kacher, Jayne Moquet, Doina Obreja, Ursula Oestreicher, Jelena Pajic, Nuria Pastor, Ljubomira Popova, Elisa Regalbuto, Michelle Ricoul, Laure Sabatier, Jacobus Slabbert, Sylwester Sommer, Antonella Testa, Hubert Thierens, Andrzej Wojcik, Anne Vral
PURPOSE: In the framework of the 'Realizing the European Network of Biodosimetry' (RENEB) project, two intercomparison exercises were conducted to assess the suitability of an optimized version of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay, and to evaluate the capacity of a large laboratory network performing biodosimetry for radiation emergency triages. Twelve European institutions participated in the first exercise, and four non-RENEB labs were added in the second one. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Irradiated blood samples were shipped to participating labs, whose task was to culture these samples and provide a blind dose estimate...
August 15, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Mary J Homer, Robert Raulli, Andrea L DiCarlo-Cohen, John Esker, Chad Hrdina, Bert W Maidment, Brian Moyer, Carmen Rios, Francesca Macchiarini, Pataje G Prasanna, Lynne Wathen
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is fully committed to the development of medical countermeasures to address national security threats from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. Through the Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise, HHS has launched and managed a multi-agency, comprehensive effort to develop and operationalize medical countermeasures. Within HHS, development of medical countermeasures includes the National Institutes of Health (NIH), (led by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Preparedness and Response/Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA); with the Division of Medical Countermeasure Strategy and Requirements, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Food and Drug Administration as primary partners in this endeavor...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
François Trompier, Christopher Burbidge, Céline Bassinet, Marion Baumann, Emanuela Bortolin, Cinzia De Angelis, Jonathan Eakins, Sara Della Monaca, Paola Fattibene, Maria Cristina Quattrini, Rick Tanner, Albrecht Wieser, Clemens Woda
PURPOSE: In the EC-funded project RENEB (Realizing the European Network in Biodosimetry), physical methods applied to fortuitous dosimetric materials are used to complement biological dosimetry, to increase dose assessment capacity for large-scale radiation/nuclear accidents. This paper describes the work performed to implement Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OSL is applied to electronic components and EPR to touch-screen glass from mobile phones...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Ivonne Romero, Ana Ilsa Lamadrid, Jorge Ernesto González, Tania Mandina, Omar García
The possibility to reduce the culture time and volume of blood and reagents required for the chemical Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) assay is demonstrated in this work. Peripheral whole blood was exposed to gamma radiation (1-20 Gy). Lymphocytes were cultured for 40 h, using 50 μl of blood and 450 μl of culture medium. The dose-response curves were adjusted, using length ratio (LR) of the longest to the shortest chromosome piece, and the frequency of rings per cell. No statistical differences were found between the results obtained with this method and those reported with the classical PCC assay culture...
October 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Octávia Monteiro Gil, Pedro Vaz, Horst Romm, Cinzia De Angelis, Ana Catarina Antunes, Joan-Francesc Barquinero, Christina Beinke, Emanuela Bortolin, Christopher Ian Burbidge, Alexandra Cucu, Sara Della Monaca, Mercedes Moreno Domene, Paola Fattibene, Eric Gregoire, Valeria Hadjidekova, Ulrike Kulka, Carita Lindholm, Roberta Meschini, Radhia M'Kacher, Jayne Moquet, Ursula Oestreicher, Fabrizio Palitti, Gabriel Pantelias, Alegria Montoro Pastor, Irina-Anca Popescu, Maria Cristina Quattrini, Michelle Ricoul, Kai Rothkamm, Laure Sabatier, Natividad Sebastià, Sylwester Sommer, Georgia Terzoudi, Antonella Testa, François Trompier, Anne Vral
PURPOSE: To identify and assess, among the participants in the RENEB (Realizing the European Network of Biodosimetry) project, the emergency preparedness, response capabilities and resources that can be deployed in the event of a radiological or nuclear accident/incident affecting a large number of individuals. These capabilities include available biodosimetry techniques, infrastructure, human resources (existing trained staff), financial and organizational resources (including the role of national contact points and their articulation with other stakeholders in emergency response) as well as robust quality control/assurance systems...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
David A Edmondson, Erin E Karski, Ayano Kohlgruber, Harsha Koneru, Katherine K Matthay, Shelly Allen, Christine L Hartmann, Leif E Peterson, Steven G DuBois, Matthew A Coleman
Calculating internal dose from therapeutic radionuclides currently relies on estimates made from multiple radiation exposure measurements, converted to absorbed dose in specific organs using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. As an alternative biodosimetric approach, we utilized gene expression analysis of whole blood from patients receiving targeted radiotherapy. Collected blood from patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma who received (131)I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-mIBG) at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) was used to compare calculated internal dose with the modulation of chosen gene expression...
September 2016: Radiation Research
Horst Romm, Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Joan Francesc Barquinero, Leonardo Barrios, Christina Beinke, Alexandra Cucu, Mercedes Moreno Domene, Silvia Filippi, Octávia Monteiro Gil, Eric Gregoire, Valeria Hadjidekova, Vasia Hatzi, Carita Lindholm, Radhia M Kacher, Alegria Montoro, Jayne Moquet, Mihaela Noditi, Ursula Oestreicher, Fabrizio Palitti, Gabriel Pantelias, María Jesús Prieto, Irina Popescu, Kai Rothkamm, Natividad Sebastià, Sylwester Sommer, Georgia Terzoudi, Antonella Testa, Andrzej Wojcik
PURPOSE: To establish a training data set of digital images and to investigate the scoring criteria and dose assessment of the dicentric assay within the European network of biodosimetry (RENEB), a web based scoring inter-comparison was undertaken by 17 RENEB partners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two sets of 50 high resolution images were uploaded onto the RENEB website. One set included metaphases after a moderate exposure (1.3 Gy) and the other set consisted of metaphases after a high dose exposure (3...
August 22, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Lindsay A Beaton-Green, Matthew A Rodrigues, Sylvie Lachapelle, Ruth C Wilkins
Biodosimetry is an important tool for triage in the case of large-scale radiological or nuclear emergencies, but traditional microscope-based methods can be tedious and prone to scorer fatigue. While the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) has been adapted for use in triage situations, it is still time-consuming to create and score slides. Recent adaptations of traditional biodosimetry assays to imaging flow cytometry (IFC) methods have dramatically increased throughput. Additionally, recent improvements in image analysis algorithms in IFC software have resulted in improved specificity for spot counting of small events...
August 11, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
M A Cucu, I A Popescu
The European Commission supports the development of an European network in biodosimetry (RENEB), in which a large number of experienced laboratories from 16 European countries are involved. The final goal will be the significant improvement of the biodosimetry capacity for response to accidents and radiological emergencies, based on a well-organized cooperative action with a rapid and rigorous dose assessment. The project is aimed at consolidating the network with its operational platform, inter-comparison exercises, training activities, proceedings in quality assurance and implementation and integration of new network partners and new methods...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Maryam Goudarzi, Tytus D Mak, Jonathan P Jacobs, Bo-Hyun Moon, Steven J Strawn, Jonathan Braun, David J Brenner, Albert J Fornace, Heng-Hong Li
Medical responders to radiological and nuclear disasters currently lack sufficient high-throughput and minimally invasive biodosimetry tools to assess exposure and injury in the affected populations. For this reason, we have focused on developing robust radiation exposure biomarkers in easily accessible biofluids such as urine, serum and feces. While we have previously reported on urine and serum biomarkers, here we assessed perturbations in the fecal metabolome resulting from exposure to external X radiation in vivo...
September 2016: Radiation Research
C Norman Coleman, John F Koerner
The public health and medical response to a radiological or nuclear incident requires the capability to sort, assess, treat, triage and to ultimately discharge, refer or transport people to their next step in medical care. The size of the incident and scarcity of resources at the location of each medical decision point will determine how patients are triaged and treated. This will be a rapidly evolving situation impacting medical responders at regional, national and international levels. As capabilities, diagnostics and medical countermeasures improve, a dynamic system-based approach is needed to plan for and manage the incident, and to adapt effectively in real time...
July 29, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Céline M Desmet, Philippe Levêque, Bernard Gallez
In vivo electron paramagnetic resonance biodosimetry on tooth enamel is likely to be an important technology for triage of overexposed individuals after a major radiological incident. The accuracy and robustness of the technique relies on various properties of the enamel such as the geometry of the tooth, the presence of restorations, whitening treatments or exposition to sunlight. Those factors are reviewed, and their influence on dosimetry specifically for triage purposes is discussed.
July 29, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Natalia I Ossetrova, William F Blakely, Vitaly Nagy, Camille McGann, Patrick H Ney, Christine L Christensen, Amory L Koch, Jatinder Gulani, George B Sigal, Eli N Glezer, Kevin P Hieber
An assessment of multiple biomarkers from radiation casualties undergoing limited- or full-supportive care including treatment with filgrastim is critical to develop rapid and effective diagnostic triage strategies. The efficacy of filgrastim with full-supportive care was compared with results with limited-supportive care by analyzing survival, necropsy, histopathology and serial blood samples for hematological, serum chemistry and protein profiles in a non-human primate (Macaca mulatta, male and female) model during 60-d post-monitoring period following sham- and total-body irradiation with 6...
July 29, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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