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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892030/expedited-radiation-biodosimetry-by-automated-dicentric-chromosome-identification-adci-and-dose-estimation
#1
Ben Shirley, Yanxin Li, Joan H M Knoll, Peter K Rogan
Biological radiation dose can be estimated from dicentric chromosome frequencies in metaphase cells. Performing these cytogenetic dicentric chromosome assays is traditionally a manual, labor-intensive process not well suited to handle the volume of samples which may require examination in the wake of a mass casualty event. Automated Dicentric Chromosome Identifier and Dose Estimator (ADCI) software automates this process by examining sets of metaphase images using machine learning-based image processing techniques...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852188/lipidomic-signatures-of-nonhuman-primates-with-radiation-induced-hematopoietic-syndrome
#2
Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Vijay K Singh, Albert J Fornace
Concern over potential exposures of ionizing radiation (IR) to large populations has emphasized the need for rapid and reliable methods of biodosimetry to determine absorbed dose and required triage. Lipidomics has emerged as a powerful technique for large-scale lipid identification and quantification. Indirect effects from IR exposure generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) through water hydrolysis and may subsequently damage cellular lipids. Thus, rapid identification of specific affected lipid molecules represents possible targets for biodosimetry...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843160/comparison-of-dicentric-dose-response-curves-of-6mv-linac-x-rays-and-60-co-%C3%AE-rays-for-biodosimetry-application
#3
A Arul Anantha Kumar, D Bakkiam, Swetha Sonwani, R Seenisamy, K Sivasubramanian, B Venkatraman
In vitro Dicentric (DC) dose response curves of 6MV X-rays (3Gy/min) and (60)Co γ-rays (0.63Gy/min) were generated and compared (intra-laboratory) to understand their similarities and differences. Human peripheral blood samples exposed to ten different doses (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5Gy) of 6MV X-rays and (60)Co γ-rays were subjected to Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) and dicentrics, excess acentric fragments (AF) and chromatid breaks (CB) were scored. Totally about 31,553 metaphase spreads were scored for the purpose...
August 18, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796750/in-vivo-electron-paramagnetic-resonance-tooth-dosimetry-dependence-of-radiation-induced-signal-amplitude-on-the-enamel-thickness-and-surface-area-of-ex-vivo-human-teeth
#4
Michitaka Umakoshi, Ichiro Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Hirata, Naoki Kunugita, Benjamin B Williams, Harold M Swartz, Minoru Miyake
In vivo L-band electron paramagnetic resonance tooth dosimetry is a newly developed and very promising method for retrospective biodosimetry in individuals who may have been exposed to significant levels of ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to determine the relationships among enamel thickness, enamel area, and measured electron paramagnetic resonance signal amplitude with a view to improve the quantitative accuracy of the dosimetry technique. Ten isolated incisors were irradiated using well-characterized doses, and their radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signals were measured...
October 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710765/immunofluorescence-analysis-of-%C3%AE-h2ax-foci-in-mammalian-fibroblasts-at-different-phases-of-the-cell-cycle
#5
Liudmila Solovjeva, Denis Firsanov, Nadezhda Pleskach, Maria Svetlova
H2AX phosphorylation at Ser139 (formation of γ-H2AX) is an indicator of double-strand breaks in DNA (DSBs) after the action of different genotoxic stresses, including ionizing radiation, environmental agents, and chemotherapy drugs. The sites of DSBs can be visualized as focal sites of γ-H2AX using antibodies and immunofluorescence microscopy. The microscopy technique is the most sensitive method of DSB detection in individual cells. It is useful for experimental research, radiation biodosimetry, and clinical practice...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645274/buccal-mucosa-micronuclei-counts-in-relation-to-exposure-to-low-dose-rate-radiation-from-the-chornobyl-nuclear-accident-and-other-medical-and-occupational-radiation-exposures
#6
D Bazyka, S C Finch, I M Ilienko, O Lyaskivska, I Dyagil, N Trotsiuk, N Gudzenko, V V Chumak, K M Walsh, J Wiemels, M P Little, L B Zablotska
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation is a well-known carcinogen. Chromosome aberrations, and in particular micronuclei represent an early biological predictor of cancer risk. There are well-documented associations of micronuclei with ionizing radiation dose in some radiation-exposed groups, although not all. That associations are not seen in all radiation-exposed groups may be because cells with micronuclei will not generally pass through mitosis, so that radiation-induced micronuclei decay, generally within a few years after exposure...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526978/cytogenetic-biodosimetry-and-dose-rate-effect-after-radioiodine-therapy-for-thyroid-cancer
#7
Igor K Khvostunov, Vladimir A Saenko, Valeri Krylov, Andrei Rodichev, Shunichi Yamashita
This study set out to investigate chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of thyroid cancer patients receiving (131)I for thyroid remnant ablation or treatment of metastatic disease. The observed chromosomal damage was further converted to the estimates of whole-body dose to project the adverse side effects. Chromosomal aberration analysis was performed in 24 patients treated for the first time or after multiple courses. Blood samples were collected before treatment and 3 or 4 days after administration of 2-4 GBq of (131)I...
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467754/metabolomic-analysis-of-mice-exposed-to-gamma-radiation-reveals-a-systemic-understanding-of-total-body-exposure
#8
Srujana Golla, Jaya Prakash Golla, Kristopher W Krausz, Soumen K Manna, Cedric Simillion, Diren Beyoğlu, Jeffrey R Idle, Frank J Gonzalez
Diagnostic markers are needed for accidental or deliberate radiation exposure that could cause acute and chronic radiation toxicity. Biomarkers of temporal, dose-dependent, aging-attenuated and multiple radiation exposures have been previously described by others. However, the physiological origin and biochemical networks that generate these biomarkers and their association at the molecular level have yet to be explored. Hence, the discovery and identification of total-body-irradiation-induced tissue specific biomarkers remains an enormous challenge within radiation biodosimetry research...
May 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441289/radiological-nuclear-human-monitoring-tabletop-exercise-recommendations-and-lessons-identified
#9
Vinita Chauhan, Devin Duncan, Ruth C Wilkins
Health Canada is the lead department for coordinating the federal response to a Canadian nuclear emergency event. The framework to manage a radiological consequence is outlined in the Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan (FNEP). In 2014, a full scale exercise (FSX) was held to test the capacity of the federal government to handle a nuclear facility emergency disaster in Canada. The FSX provided a means to demonstrate the integration of various departments and agencies in response to such an event, and although a number of task teams within FNEP were tested, the capacity to monitor humans for exposure post-event was not played out fully...
June 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351153/gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-metabolomics-of-urine-and-serum-from-nonhuman-primates-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation-impacts-on-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-and-protein-metabolism
#10
Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Simon Authier, Karen Wong, Albert J Fornace
Ionizing radiation (IR) directly damages cells and tissues or indirectly damages them through reactive free radicals that may lead to longer term adverse sequelae such as cancers, persistent inflammation, or possible death. Potential exposures include nuclear reactor accidents, improper disposal of equipment containing radioactive materials or medical errors, and terrorist attacks. Metabolomics (comprehensive analysis of compounds <1 kDa) by mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed as a tool for high-throughput biodosimetry and rapid assessment of exposed dose and triage needed...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328310/developing-human-radiation-biodosimetry-models-testing-cross-species-conversion-approaches-using-an-ex-vivo-model-system
#11
Jin G Park, Sunirmal Paul, Natalia Briones, Jia Zeng, Kristin Gillis, Garrick Wallstrom, Joshua LaBaer, Sally A Amundson
In the event of a large-scale radiation exposure, accurate and quick assessment of radiation dose received would be critical for triage and medical treatment of large numbers of potentially exposed individuals. Current methods of biodosimetry, such as the dicentric chromosome assay, are time consuming and require sophisticated equipment and highly trained personnel. Therefore, scalable biodosimetry approaches, including gene expression profiles in peripheral blood cells, are being investigated. Due to the limited availability of appropriate human samples, biodosimetry development has relied heavily on mouse models, which are not directly applicable to human response...
June 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250914/the-application-of-imaging-flow-cytometry-to-high-throughput-biodosimetry
#12
REVIEW
Ruth C Wilkins, Matthew A Rodrigues, Lindsay A Beaton-Green
Biodosimetry methods, including the dicentric chromosome assay, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and the γH2AX marker of DNA damage are used to determine the dose of ionizing radiation. These techniques are particularly useful when physical dosimetry is absent or questioned. While these assays can be very sensitive and specific, the standard methods need to be adapted to increase sample throughput in the case of a large-scale radiological/nuclear event. Recent modifications to the microscope-based assays have resulted in some increased throughput, and a number of biodosimetry networks have been, and continue to be, established and strengthened...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250913/biomarkers-of-ionizing-radiation-exposure-a-multiparametric-approach
#13
Dimphy Zeegers, Shriram Venkatesan, Shu Wen Koh, Grace Kah Mun Low, Pallavee Srivastava, Neisha Sundaram, Swaminathan Sethu, Birendranath Banerjee, Manikandan Jayapal, Oleg Belyakov, Rajamanickam Baskar, Adayabalam S Balajee, M Prakash Hande
Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation not only through background radiation but also through the ubiquitous presence of devices and sources that generate radiation. With the expanded use of radiation in day-to-day life, the chances of accidents or misuse only increase. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the dynamic effects of radiation exposure on biological entities is necessary. The biological effects of radiation exposure on human cells depend on much variability such as level of exposure, dose rate, and the physiological state of the cells...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250912/identification-and-preliminary-validation-of-radiation-response-protein-s-in-human-blood-for-a-high-throughput-molecular-biodosimetry-technology-for-the-future
#14
Saibadaiahun Nongrum, S Thangminlal Vaiphei, Joshua Keppen, Mandahakani Ksoo, Ettrika Kashyap, Rajesh N Sharan
The absence of a rapid and high-throughput technology for radiation biodosimetry has been a great obstacle in our full preparedness to cope with large-scale radiological incidents. The existing cytogenetic technologies have limitations, primarily due to their time-consuming methodologies, which include a tissue culture step, and the time required for scoring. This has seriously undermined its application in a mass casualty scenario under radiological emergencies for timely triage and medical interventions. Recent advances in genomics and proteomics in the postgenomic era have opened up new platforms and avenues to discover molecular biomarkers for biodosimetry in the future...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250910/optimizing-the-microscopy-time-schedule-for-chromosomal-dosimetry-of-high-dose-and-partial-body-irradiations
#15
Volodymyr A Vinnikov
The methodology of cytogenetic triage can be improved by optimizing a schedule of microscopy for different exposure scenarios. Chromosome aberrations were quantified by microscopy in human blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro to ~2, 4, and 12 Gy acute (60)Co γ-rays mixed with the unirradiated blood simulating 10%, 50%, 90%, and 100% exposure and in along with a sample from a homogeneous exposure to ~20 Gy. Biodosimetry workload was statistically modeled assuming that 0.5, 1, 5, or 25 h was available for scoring one case or for analysis of up to 1000 cells or 100 dicentrics plus centric rings by one operator...
2017: Genome Integrity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231025/rabit-ii-implementation-of-a-high-throughput-micronucleus-biodosimetry-assay-on-commercial-biotech-robotic-systems
#16
Mikhail Repin, Sergey Pampou, Charles Karan, David J Brenner, Guy Garty
We demonstrate the use of high-throughput biodosimetry platforms based on commercial high-throughput/high-content screening robotic systems. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, using only 20 μl whole blood from a fingerstick, was implemented on a PerkinElmer cell::explorer and General Electric IN Cell Analyzer 2000. On average 500 binucleated cells per sample were detected by our FluorQuantMN software. A calibration curve was generated in the radiation dose range up to 5.0 Gy using the data from 8 donors and 48,083 binucleated cells in total...
April 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220056/a-lipidomic-and-metabolomic-serum-signature-from-nonhuman-primates-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#17
Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Tytus D Mak, Giuseppe Astarita, Simon Authier, Karen Wong, Albert J Fornace
INTRODUCTION: Due to dangers associated with potential accidents from nuclear energy and terrorist threats, there is a need for high-throughput biodosimetry to rapidly assess individual doses of radiation exposure. Lipidomics and metabolomics are becoming common tools for determining global signatures after disease or other physical insult and provide a "snapshot" of potential cellular damage. OBJECTIVES: The current study assesses changes in the nonhuman primate (NHP) serum lipidome and metabolome 7 days following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR)...
May 2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211757/mice-and-the-a-bomb-irradiation-systems-for-realistic-exposure-scenarios
#18
Guy Garty, Yanping Xu, Carl Elliston, Stephen A Marino, Gerhard Randers-Pehrson, David J Brenner
Validation of biodosimetry assays is normally performed with acute exposures to uniform external photon fields. Realistically, exposure to a radiological dispersal device or reactor leak will include exposure to low dose rates and likely exposure to ingested radionuclides. An improvised nuclear device will likely include a significant neutron component in addition to a mixture of high- and low-dose-rate photons and ingested radionuclides. We present here several novel irradiation systems developed at the Center for High Throughput Minimally Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry to provide more realistic exposures for testing of novel biodosimetric assays...
April 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140791/impact-of-neutron-exposure-on-global-gene-expression-in-a-human-peripheral-blood-model
#19
Constantinos G Broustas, Yanping Xu, Andrew D Harken, Mashkura Chowdhury, Guy Garty, Sally A Amundson
The detonation of an improvised nuclear device would produce prompt radiation consisting of both photons (gamma rays) and neutrons. While much effort in recent years has gone into the development of radiation biodosimetry methods suitable for mass triage, the possible effect of neutrons on the endpoints studied has remained largely uninvestigated. We have used a novel neutron irradiator with an energy spectrum based on that 1-1.5 km from the epicenter of the Hiroshima blast to begin examining the effect of neutrons on global gene expression, and the impact this may have on the development of gene expression signatures for radiation biodosimetry...
April 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117817/detection-of-inter-chromosomal-stable-aberrations-by-multiple-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-mfish-and-spectral-karyotyping-sky-in-irradiated-mice
#20
Rupak Pathak, Igor Koturbash, Martin Hauer-Jensen
Ionizing radiation (IR) induces numerous stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations. Unstable aberrations, where chromosome morphology is substantially compromised, can easily be identified by conventional chromosome staining techniques. However, detection of stable aberrations, which involve exchange or translocation of genetic materials without considerable modification in the chromosome morphology, requires sophisticated chromosome painting techniques that rely on in situ hybridization of fluorescently labeled DNA probes, a chromosome painting technique popularly known as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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