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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729614/knockdown-of-two-cadherin-genes-confers-resistance-to-cry2a-and-cry1c-in-chilo-suppressalis
#1
Zan Zhang, Xiaolu Teng, Weihua Ma, Fei Li
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins play an important role in the management of insect pests. Resistance to Bt toxins has been reported in many pest insects but the mechanism responsible for this resistance in rice crop pests remains largely unknown. Cadherin is one of several Bt toxin receptors. At present, only one cadherin gene, CsCAD1, has been documented in the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. We amplified a nearly full-length transcript of another C. suppressalis cadherin gene, CsCAD2, and found that it has a different expression pattern to CsCAD1...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713202/toward-mosquito-control-with-a-green-alga-expression-of-cry-toxins-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-bti-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas
#2
Seongjoon Kang, Obed W Odom, Saravanan Thangamani, David L Herrin
We are developing Chlamydomonas strains that can be used for safe and sustainable control of mosquitoes, because they produce proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in the chloroplast. Chlamydomonas has a number of advantages for this approach, including genetic controls that are not generally available with industrial algae. The Bti toxin has been used for mosquito control for > 30 years and does not engender resistance; it contains three Cry proteins, Cry4Aa (135 kDa), Cry4Ba (128 kDa) and Cry11Aa (72 kDa), and Cyt1Aa (25 kDa)...
June 2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710264/two-novel-dissimilar-crystal-proteins-cry5ca1-and-cry5da1-synergistically-act-against-meloidogyne-incognita-and-delay-cry5ba-based-nematode-resistance
#3
Ce Geng, Yingying Liu, Miaomiao Li, Zhen Tang, Sajid Muhammad, Jinshui Zheng, Danfeng Wan, Donghai Peng, Lifang Ruan, Ming Sun
Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis have been successfully used as biopesticides and transgenic crops throughout the world. However, resources against the most serious agricultural pathogens, plant root-knot nematodes, are limited. The genomes of several highly nematicidal virulent Bt strains from our laboratory have been sequenced, facilitating the identification of novel Cry proteins and other virulence factors. We identified two novel Cry proteins, Cry5Ca1 and Cry5Da1, that exhibit high toxicity against Meloidogyne incognita Using the Caenorhabditis elegans model, both Cry5 toxins showed to negatively affect nematode lifespan, fertility and survival...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699724/toxicity-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry2ab-and-the-inheritance-of-cry2ab-resistance-in-the-pink-bollworm-pectinophora-gossypiella-saunders
#4
P A Malthankar, G T Gujar
Though the insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are effective against insect pests, evolution of resistance remains an issue of great concern. Here, we explored the ability of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a key pest of cotton, to evolve resistance to Cry2Ab and characterized it in terms of inheritance. Sixteen day bioassay of Bt Cry2Ab toxin against 5-day old pink bollworm larvae showed median lethal concentration (LC(50)) ranging 0...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688300/herbicide-and-insect-resistant-bt-cotton-pollen-assessment-finds-no-detrimental-effects-on-adult-honey-bees
#5
Lin Niu, Weihua Ma, Chaoliang Lei, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, Lizhen Chen
One important concern regarding the use of transgenic cotton expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is its potential detrimental effect on non-target organisms. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most important pollinator species worldwide and it is directly exposed to transgenic crops by the consumption of genetically modified (GM) pollen. However, the potential effects of Bt cotton on A. mellifera remain unclear. In the present study, we assessed the effects of two Bt cotton varieties; ZMSJ expressing the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins, and ZMKCKC producing Cry1Ac and EPSPS, on A...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685236/engineered-cry1ac-cry9aa-hybrid-bacillus-thuringiensis-delta-endotoxin-with-improved-insecticidal-activity-against-helicoverpa-armigera
#6
Jigar V Shah, Rakeshkumar Yadav, Sanjay S Ingle
Recombinant Bt construct was prepared by exchange of pore forming domain I with cry1Ac to cry9Aa gene by overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) technique. Construction of cry1Ac-cry9Aa was accomplished by six base pair homology at 3' ends of PCR products of domain I of cry1Ac and domain II and III of cry9Aa. The recombinant toxin was also modified by deletion of N-terminal alpha helix-1 of recombinant toxin. Both Cry toxins were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) plysS and purified by His-tag purification. Upon insect bioassay analysis against devastating crop pest Helicoverpa armigera, toxicity of recombinant toxin was found around fivefold higher than native Cry1Ac while alpha helix-1 deleted N-terminal modified toxin did not resulted in significant increase in toxicity...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676354/cry46ab-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-tk-e6-is-a-new-mosquitocidal-toxin-with-aerolysin-type-architecture
#7
Tohru Hayakawa, Akira Sakakibara, Sho Ueda, Yoshinao Azuma, Toru Ide, So Takebe
Cry46Ab is a Cry toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis TK-E6. Cry46Ab is not significantly homologous to other mosquitocidal Cry or Cyt toxins and is classified as an aerolysin-type pore-forming toxin based on structural similarity. In this study, the potency of Cry46Ab was assessed for its potential application to mosquito control. A synthetic Cry46Ab gene, cry46Ab-S1, was designed to produce recombinant Cry46Ab as a glutathione-S-transferase fusion in Escherichia coli. Recombinant Cry46Ab showed apparent toxicity to Culex pipiens larvae, with a 50% lethal dose of 1...
July 1, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634848/erratum-to-towards-novel-cry-toxins-with-enhanced-toxicity-broader-a-new-chimeric-cry4ba-cry1ac-toxin
#8
Raida Zribi Zghal, Jihen Elleuch, Mamdouh Ben Ali, Frédéric Darriet, Ahmed Rebaï, Fabrice Chandre, Samir Jaoua, Slim Tounsi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601895/site-saturation-mutagenesis-library-construction-and-screening-for-specific-broad-spectrum-single-domain-antibodies-against-multiple-cry1-toxins
#9
Lingxia Jiao, Yuan Liu, Xiao Zhang, Beibei Liu, Cunzheng Zhang, Xianjin Liu
Potential ecological environmental and food safety risks of various Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in transgenic food have received gradually increasing attention, which urged to establish an efficient and broad-spectrum detection technology for Cry toxins. Based on the single-domain antibody (sdAb) A8 against Bt Cry1Ab toxin screened from the humanized domain antibody library, the key amino acids of sdAb (A8) binding five kinds of Cry1 toxins were predicted using homology modeling and molecular docking technology, and the results showed that 105th asparagine, 106th arginine, 107th valine, and 114th arginine, respectively, located in heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 were common key amino acid sites...
June 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597156/molecular-characterization-of-indigenous-bacillus-thuringiensis-strains-isolated-from-kashmir-valley
#10
A L Reyaz, L Gunapriya, P Indra Arulselvi
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) being an eco-friendly bioinsecticide is effectively used in pest management strategies and, therefore, isolation and identification of new strains effective against a broad range of target pests is important. In the present study, new indigenous B. thuringiensis strains were isolated and investigated so that these could be used as an alternative and/or support the current commercial strains/cry proteins in use. For this, 159 samples including soil, leaf and spider webs were collected from ten districts of Kashmir valley (India)...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587836/functional-characterization-of-aedes-aegypti-alkaline-phosphatase-alp1-involved-in-the-toxicity-of-cry-toxins-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-and-jegathesan
#11
Jianwu Chen, Karly Aimanova, Sarjeet S Gill
Presently three major groups of proteins from Aedes aegypti, cadherin, alkaline phosphatases (ALP) and aminopeptidases N (APN), have been identified as Cry11Aa toxin receptors. To further characterize their role on toxicity, transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression were previously generated and the role of cadherin in mediating the toxicity of four different mosquitocidal toxins (Cry11Aa, Cry11Ba, Cry4Aa and Cry4Ba) was demonstrated. Here, we investigated the role of another reported Cry11Aa receptor, ALP1...
June 3, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582707/an-ultrasensitive-label-free-electrochemiluminescent-immunosensor-for-measuring-cry1ab-level-and-genetically-modified-crops-content
#12
Hongfei Gao, Luke Wen, Yuhua Wu, Zhifeng Fu, Gang Wu
The development of genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crops has aroused great public concern about the risks on the eco-environment resulting from a release of toxic Cry proteins (such as Cry1Ab) to the soil. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to measure the Cry proteins level and the GM crops content. Here, we have tested for the first time a method that uses novel carbon nanospheres (CNPs) label-free electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunosensor for the ultrasensitive quantification of Cry1Ab and GM crops...
April 24, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540040/dna-secondary-structure-formation-by-dna-shuffling-of-the-conserved-domains-of-the-cry-protein-of-bacillus-thuringiensis
#13
Efrain H Pinzon, Daniel A Sierra, Miguel O Suarez, Sergio Orduz, Alvaro M Florez
BACKGROUND: The Cry toxins, or δ-endotoxins, are a diverse group of proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis. While DNA secondary structures are biologically relevant, it is unknown if such structures are formed in regions encoding conserved domains of Cry toxins under shuffling conditions. We analyzed 5 holotypes that encode Cry toxins and that grouped into 4 clusters according to their phylogenetic closeness. The mean number of DNA secondary structures that formed and the mean Gibbs free energy [Formula: see text] were determined by an in silico analysis using different experimental DNA shuffling scenarios...
2017: BMC Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539890/insecticidal-effects-of-hemocoelic-delivery-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry-toxins-in-achaea-janata-larvae
#14
Thuirei J Ningshen, Vinod K Chauhan, Narender K Dhania, Aparna Dutta-Gupta
Insecticidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins in hemocoel of larvae have not been properly evaluated. In the present study, hemocoelic injection of four representative Cry toxins i.e., Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and DOR5 to an economically important lepidopteran insect pest Achaea janata, induced larval mortality, reduced larval growth rate and gave rise to smaller pupae, all in a dose-dependent manner. We observed extensive degeneration as well as the disintegration of larval tissues, most notably, fat body, and the possible involvement of lysosomal enzymes in tissue histolysis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492498/assessment-of-inheritance-and-fitness-costs-associated-with-field-evolved-resistance-to-cry3bb1-maize-by-western-corn-rootworm
#15
Aubrey R Paolino, Aaron J Gassmann
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry) toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present...
May 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481307/histopathological-effects-of-bt-and-tcda-insecticidal-proteins-on-the-midgut-epithelium-of-western-corn-rootworm-larvae-diabrotica-virgifera-virgifera
#16
Andrew J Bowling, Heather E Pence, Huarong Li, Sek Yee Tan, Steven L Evans, Kenneth E Narva
Western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) is a major corn pest in the United States, causing annual losses of over $1 billion. One approach to protect against crop loss by this insect is the use of transgenic corn hybrids expressing one or more crystal (Cry) proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 together comprise a binary insecticidal toxin with specific activity against WCR. These proteins have been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids resistant to WCR feeding damage...
May 8, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472094/what-are-farmers-really-planting-measuring-the-presence-and-effectiveness-of-bt-cotton-in-pakistan
#17
David J Spielman, Fatima Zaidi, Patricia Zambrano, Asif Ali Khan, Shaukat Ali, H Masooma Naseer Cheema, Hina Nazli, Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan, Arshad Iqbal, Muhammad Amir Zia, Ghulam Muhammad Ali
Genetically modified, insect-resistant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is cultivated extensively in Pakistan. Past studies, however, have raised concerns about the prevalence of Bt cotton varieties possessing weak or nonperforming insect-resistance traits conferred by the cry gene. We examine this issue using data drawn from a representative sample of cotton-growing households that were surveyed in six agroclimatic zones spanning 28 districts in Pakistan in 2013, as well as measurements of Cry protein levels in cotton tissue samples collected from the sampled households' main fields...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450016/peptide-selection-and-antibody-generation-for-the-prospective-immunorecognition-of-cry1ab16-protein-of-transgenic-maize
#18
Joana Costa, Mariela M Marani, Liliana Grazina, Caterina Villa, Liliana Meira, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, José R S A Leite, Isabel Mafra
The introduction of genes isolated from different Bacillus thuringiensis strains to express Cry-type toxins in transgenic crops is a common strategy to confer insect resistance traits. This work intended to extensively in silico analyse Cry1A(b)16 protein for the identification of peptide markers for the biorecognition of transgenic crops. By combining two different strategies based on several bioinformatic tools for linear epitope prediction, a set of seven peptides was successfully selected as potential Cry1A(b)16 immunogens...
September 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416297/cry-toxin-specificities-of-insect-abcc-transporters-closely-related-to-lepidopteran-abcc2-transporters
#19
Haruka Endo, Shiho Tanaka, Kazuhiro Imamura, Satomi Adegawa, Shingo Kikuta, Ryoichi Sato
In this study, we examined insect and human ABCC transporters closely related to the lepidopteran ABC transporter C2 (ABCC2), a powerful receptor for the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin, for their responses to various Cry toxins. ABCC2 and the lepidopteran ABC transporter C3 (ABCC3) conferred cultured cells with susceptibility to a lepidopteran-specific Cry1Aa toxin but not to lepidopteran-specific Cry1Ca and Cry1Da. One coleopteran ABCC transporter specifically responded to a coleopteran-specific Cry8Ca toxin...
April 14, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389549/holotrichia-oblita-midgut-proteins-that-bind-to-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry8-like-toxin-and-assembly-of-the-h-oblita-midgut-tissue-transcriptome
#20
Jian Jiang, Ying Huang, Changlong Shu, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Chunqing Liu, Fuping Song, Jinsheng Lai, Jie Zhang
The Bacillus thuringiensis strain HBF-18 (CGMCC 2070), containing two cry genes (cry8-like and cry8Ga), is toxic to Holotrichia oblita larvae. Both Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins are active against this insect pest, and Cry8-like is more toxic. To analyze the characteristics of the binding of Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) in H. oblita larvae, binding assays were conducted with a fluorescent DyLight488-labeled Cry8-like toxin. The results of saturation binding assays demonstrated that Cry8-like bound specifically to binding sites on BBMVs from H...
June 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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