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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321527/effects-of-site-mutations-within-the-22%C3%A2-kda-no-core-fragment-of-the-vip3aa11-insecticidal-toxin-of-bacillus-thuringiensis
#1
Ming Liu, Rongmei Liu, Guoxing Luo, Haitao Li, Jiguo Gao
Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs) are not homologous to other known Cry proteins, and they act against lepidopteran larvae via a unique process. All reported studies on the mode of action of Vip3 proteins have been performed on the Vip3A family, mostly on the Vip3Aa subfamily. Vip3Aa proteins are activated by midgut proteases, and they cross the peritrophic membrane and bind specific proteins in apical membrane epithelial midgut cells, which results in pore formation and, eventually, death to the insects...
March 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316108/cry1a-b-16-toxin-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-theoretical-refinement-of-three-dimensional-structure-and-prediction-of-peptides-as-molecular-markers-for-detection-of-genetically-modified-organisms
#2
Alexandra Plácido, Andreia Coelho, Lucas Abreu do Nascimento, Andreanne Gomes Vasconcelos, Maria Fátima Barroso, Joilson Ramos-Jesus, Vladimir Costa, Francisco das Chagas Alves Lima, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Ricardo Martins Ramos, Mariela M Marani, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida Leite
Transgenic maize produced by the insertion of the Cry transgene into its genome became the second most cultivated crop worldwide. Cry gene from Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki expresses protein derivatives of crystalline endotoxins which confer insect resistance onto the maize crop. Mandatory labeling of processed food containing or made by genetically modified organisms is in force in many countries, so, it is very urgent to develop fast and practical methods for GMO identification, e.g., biosensors. In the absence of an available empirical structure of Cry1A(b)16 protein, a theoretical model was effectively generated, in this work, by homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations based on two available homologous protein structures...
March 18, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282927/in-vivo-crystallization-of-three-domain-cry-toxins
#3
REVIEW
Rooma Adalat, Faiza Saleem, Neil Crickmore, Shagufta Naz, Abdul Rauf Shakoori
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most successful, environmentally-friendly, and intensively studied microbial insecticide. The major characteristic of Bt is the production of proteinaceous crystals containing toxins with specific activity against many pests including dipteran, lepidopteran, and coleopteran insects, as well as nematodes, protozoa, flukes, and mites. These crystals allow large quantities of the protein toxins to remain stable in the environment until ingested by a susceptible host. It has been previously established that 135 kDa Cry proteins have a crystallization domain at their C-terminal end...
March 9, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279647/isolation-of-a-peptide-from-ph-d-c7c-phage-display-library-for-detection-of-cry1ab
#4
Yun Wang, Qian Wang, Ai-Hua Wu, Zhen-Ping Hao, Xian-Jin Liu
Traditional ELISA methods of using animal immunity yield antibodies for detection Cry toxin. Not only is this incredibly harmful to the animals, but is also time-intensive. Here we developed a simple method to yield the recognition element. Using a critical selection strategy and immunoassay we confirmed a clone from the Ph.D-C7C phage library, which has displayed the most interesting Cry1Ab-binding characteristics examined in this study (Fig. 1). The current study indicates that isolating peptide is an alternative method for the preparation of a recognition element, and that the developed assay is a potentially useful tool for detecting Cry1Ab...
March 6, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274717/rna-interference-knockdown-of-aminopeptidase-n-genes-decrease-the-susceptibility-of-chilo-suppressalis-larvae-to-transgenic-cry1ab-cry1ac-and-cry1ca-expressing-transgenic-rice
#5
Lin Qiu, Jinxing Fan, Boyao Zhang, Lang Liu, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Yongjun Lin, Weihua Ma
Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins are resistant to lepidopteran pests, such as Chilo suppressalis, a major insect pest of rice in Asia. Understanding how these toxins interact with their hosts is crucial to understanding their insecticidal action. In this study, knockdown of two aminopeptidase N genes (APN1 and APN2) by RNA interference resulted in decreased susceptibility of C. suppressalis larvae to the Bt rice varieties TT51 (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac fusion genes) and T1C-19 (Cry1Ca), but not T2A-1 (Cry2Aa)...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235989/bacillus-thuringiensis-a-successful-insecticide-with-new-environmental-features-and-tidings
#6
REVIEW
Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani, Elena Valijanian, Reza Sharafi
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known as the most successful microbial insecticide against different orders of insect pests in agriculture and medicine. Moreover, Bt toxin genes also have been efficiently used to enhance resistance to insect pests in genetically modified crops. In light of the scientific advantages of new molecular biology technologies, recently, some other new potentials of Bt have been explored. These new environmental features include the toxicity against nematodes, mites, and ticks, antagonistic effects against plant and animal pathogenic bacteria and fungi, plant growth-promoting activities (PGPR), bioremediation of different heavy metals and other pollutants, biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles, production of polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymer, and anticancer activities (due to parasporins)...
February 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144706/pest-management-through-bacillus-thuringiensis-bt-in-a-tea-silkworm-ecosystem-status-and-potential-prospects
#7
REVIEW
Kavya Dashora, Somnath Roy, Akanksha Nagpal, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay Roy, Julie Flood, Anjali Km Prasad, Ravinder Khetarpal, Suzanne Neave, N Muraleedharan
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a soil bacterium that forms spores containing crystals comprising one or more Cry or Cyt proteins having potential and specific insecticidal activity. Different strains of Bt produce different types of toxins, affecting a narrow taxonomic group of insects. Therefore, it is used in non-chemical pest management, including inherent pest resistance through GM crops. The specificity of action of Bt toxins reduces the concern of adverse effects on non-target species, a concern which remains with chemical insecticides as well...
March 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123906/cry1ac-and-vip3aa-proteins-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-targeting-cry-toxin-resistance-in-diatraea-flavipennella-and-elasmopalpus-lignosellus-from-sugarcane
#8
Ana Rita Nunes Lemes, Camila Soares Figueiredo, Isis Sebastião, Liliane Marques da Silva, Rebeka da Costa Alves, Herbert Álvaro Abreu de Siqueira, Manoel Victor Franco Lemos, Odair Aparecido Fernandes, Janete Apparecida Desidério
The biological potential of Vip and Cry proteins from Bacillus is well known and widely established. Thus, it is important to look for new genes showing different modes of action, selecting those with differentiated entomotoxic activity against Diatraea flavipennella and Elasmopalpus lignosellus, which are secondary pests of sugarcane. Therefore, Cry1 and Vip3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their toxicities were evaluated based on bioassays using neonate larvae. Of those, the most toxic were Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa considering the LC50 values...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114755/comparative-proteomic-and-nutritional-composition-analysis-of-independent-transgenic-pigeon-pea-seeds-harboring-cry1acf-and-cry2aa-genes-and-their-nontransgenic-counterparts
#9
Pragya Mishra, Shweta Singh, Maniraj Rathinam, Muralimohan Nandiganti, Nikhil Ram Kumar, Arulprakash Thangaraj, Vinutha Thimmegowda, Veda Krishnan, Vagish Mishra, Neha Jain, Vandna Rai, Debasis Pattanayak, Rohini Sreevathsa
Safety assessment of genetically modified plants is an important aspect prior to deregulation. Demonstration of substantial equivalence of the transgenics compared to their nontransgenic counterparts can be performed using different techniques at various molecular levels. The present study is a first-ever comprehensive evaluation of pigeon pea transgenics harboring two independent cry genes, cry2Aa and cry1AcF. The absence of unintended effects in the transgenic seed components was demonstrated by proteome and nutritional composition profiling...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067269/proteomic-analysis-of-cry2aa-binding-proteins-and-their-receptor-function-in-spodoptera-exigua
#10
Lin Qiu, Boyao Zhang, Lang Liu, Weihua Ma, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Lizhen Chen
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces Crystal (Cry) proteins that are toxic to a diverse range of insects. Transgenic crops that produce Bt Cry proteins are grown worldwide because of their improved resistance to insect pests. Although Bt "pyramid" cotton that produces both Cry1A and Cry2A is predicted to be more resistant to several lepidopteran pests, including Spodoptera exigua, than plants that produce Cry1Ac alone, the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of Cry2Aa in S. exigua are not well understood...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940541/insecticidal-specificity-of-cry1ah-to-helicoverpa-armigera-is-determined-by-binding-of-apn1-via-domain-ii-loops-2-and-3
#11
Zishan Zhou, Yuxiao Liu, Gemei Liang, Yongping Huang, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Fuping Song, Xueping Zhou, Jie Zhang
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ah protein is highly toxic against Helicoverpa armigera but shows no toxicity against Bombyx mori larvae. In contrast, the closely related Cry1Ai toxin showed the opposite phenotype: high activity against B. mori but no toxicity against H. armigera. Analysis of binding of Cry1Ah to brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) proteins from H. armigera and B. mori by surface plasmon resonance revealed association of toxin binding with insect specificity. Pulldown experiments identified aminopeptidase N1 (APN1) as a Cry1Ah binding protein that was not observed in the assays using B...
February 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918112/validation-of-adam10-metalloprotease-as-a-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry3aa-toxin-functional-receptor-in-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#12
V M Ruiz-Arroyo, I García-Robles, C Ochoa-Campuzano, G A Goig, E Zaitseva, G Baaken, A C Martínez-Ramírez, C Rausell, M D Real
Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) are insecticidal pore-forming toxins that bind to specific receptor molecules on the brush border membrane of susceptible insect midgut cells to exert their toxic action. In the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), a coleopteran pest, we previously proposed that interaction of Cry3Aa toxin with a CPB ADAM10 metalloprotease is an essential part of the mode of action of this toxin. Here, we annotated the gene sequence encoding an ADAM10 metalloprotease protein (CPB-ADAM10) in the CPB genome sequencing project, and using RNA interference gene silencing we demonstrated that CPB-ADAM10 is a Cry3Aa toxin functional receptor in CPB...
December 5, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888075/the-domain-ii-loops-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1aa-form-an-overlapping-interaction-site-for-two-bombyx-mori-larvae-functional-receptors-abc-transporter-c2-and-cadherin-like-receptor
#13
Satomi Adegawa, Yui Nakama, Haruka Endo, Naoki Shinkawa, Shingo Kikuta, Ryoichi Sato
Information about the receptor-interaction region of Cry toxins, insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, is needed to elucidate the mode of action of Cry toxins and improve their toxicity through protein engineering. We analyzed the interaction sites on Cry1Aa with ABC transporter C2 (ABCC2), one of the most important Cry1A toxin receptors. A competitive binding assay revealed that the Bombyx mori ABCC2 (BmABCC2) Cry1A binding site was the same as the BtR175 binding site, suggesting that the loop region of Cry1Aa domain II is a binding site...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867074/toxicity-of-cry1a-toxins-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-to-cf1-cells-does-not-involve-activation-of-adenylate-cyclase-pka-signaling-pathway
#14
Leivi Portugal, Carlos Muñóz-Garay, Diana L Martínez de Castro, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria produce Cry toxins that are able to kill insect pests. Different models explaining the mode of action of these toxins have been proposed. The pore formation model proposes that the toxin creates pores in the membrane of the larval midgut cells after interaction with different receptors such as cadherin, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase and that this pore formation activity is responsible for the toxicity of these proteins. The alternative model proposes that interaction with cadherin receptor triggers an intracellular cascade response involving protein G, adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA)...
January 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813251/functional-characterization-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry-toxin-receptors-explains-resistance-in-insects
#15
Shiho Tanaka, Haruka Endo, Satomi Adegawa, Shingo Kikuta, Ryoichi Sato
Bacillus thuringiensis produces Cry toxins, which are used as insecticides in sprays and in transgenic crops. However, little is known about the function of Cry toxin receptors and the mechanisms that determine their binding specificity and activity. In this study, the cRNAs of Bombyx mori ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2), the toxin-binding region of cadherin-like receptor (BtR175-TBR), or aminopeptidase N1 (BmAPN1) were injected into Xenopus oocytes, and the Cry1Aa-dependent cation-selective pore formation activities of these receptors were analyzed using a two-electrode voltage clamp...
December 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804103/rhizobacteria-with-nematicide-aptitude-enzymes-and-compounds-associated
#16
REVIEW
C Castaneda-Alvarez, E Aballay
The use of rhizobacteria to control plant parasitic nematodes has been widely studied. Currently, the research focuses on bacteria-nematode interactions that can mitigate this complex microbiome in agriculture. Various enzymes, toxins and metabolic by-products from rhizobacteria antagonize plant parasitic nematodes, and many different modes of action have been proposed. Hydrolytic enzymes, primarily proteases, collagenases and chitinases, have been related to the nematicide effect in rhizobacteria, proving to be an important factor involved in the degradation of different chemical constituents of nematodes at distinct developmental stages...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769815/parasporins-1-and-2-their-structure-and-activity
#17
REVIEW
Toshihiko Akiba, Shiro Okumura
Parasporins are novel protein toxins preferentially cytotoxic against human cancer cells. They are obtained from parasporal inclusions of Bacillus thuringiensis and, accordingly, are considered congeners of the insecticidal Cry toxins. Two types of parasporins have been identified: the three-domain Cry toxin type and the β-pore-forming-toxin (β-PFT) type. Crystal structures of representative members of the two types, PS1Aa1 and PS2Aa1, have been determined and compared with those of well-studied toxins. PS1Aa1 has a typical architecture characteristic of the three-domain insecticidal Cry toxins, though it is cleaved into two polypeptides...
January 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708457/type-of-fitness-cost-influences-the-rate-of-evolution-of-resistance-to-transgenic-bt-crops
#18
Sean C Hackett, Michael B Bonsall
The evolution of resistance to pesticides by insect pests is a significant challenge for sustainable agriculture. For transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), crystalline (Cry) toxins resistance evolution may be delayed by the high-dose/refuge strategy in which a non-toxic refuge is planted to promote the survival of susceptible insects. The high-dose/refuge strategy may interact with fitness costs associated with resistance alleles to further delay resistance. However, while a diverse range of fitness costs are reported in the field, they are typically represented as a fixed reduction in survival or viability which is insensitive to ecological conditions such as competition...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706708/characterization-of-a-novel-cry8ea3-binding-v-atpase-subunit-a-in-holotrichia-parallela
#19
W Wei, G Wei, Z Dan, Y Xiaoping, Z Yakun
Several receptor proteins of Cry toxin have been previously identified, including cadherin-like, aminopeptidase N, and alkaline phosphatase. In the present work, a novel binding protein, V-ATPase subunit A (HpVAA), was identified in Holotricia parallela larvae and characterized. We performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology to obtain the cDNA of the full-length hpvaa. Sequencing analysis showed that the open reading frame of hpvaa (GenBank accession No...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628909/effects-and-mechanisms-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-crystal-toxins-for-mosquito-larvae
#20
Qi Zhang, Gang Hua, Michael J Adang
Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive aerobic bacterium that produces insecticidal crystalline inclusions during sporulation phases of the mother cell. The virulence factor, known as parasporal crystals, is composed of Cry and Cyt toxins. Cry toxins display a common three-domain topology. Cry toxins exert intoxication through toxin activation, receptor binding and pore formation in suitable larval gut environment. The mosquitocidal toxins, Bt subsp. israelensis (Bti) and was found highly active against mosquito larvae and are widely used in pesticide market for vector control...
September 15, 2016: Insect Science
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