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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451334/microrna-profiling-between-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ab-susceptible-and-resistant-european-corn-borer-ostrinia-nubilalis-h%C3%A3-bner
#1
T Yu, X Li, B-S Coates, Q Zhang, B-D Siegfried, X Zhou
Transgenic maize hybrids that express insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) protein toxins effectively protect against the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, a devastating maize pest. Field monitoring and laboratory selections have detected varying levels of O. nubilalis resistance to Cry1Ab toxin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Their potential roles in the evolution of Bt resistance, however, remain largely unknown...
February 16, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415259/analysis-of-homologs-of-cry-toxin-receptor-related-proteins-in-the-midgut-of-a-non-bt-target-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-hemiptera-delphacidae
#2
Ensi Shao, Li Lin, Sijun Liu, Jiao Zhang, Xuelin Chen, Li Sha, Zhipeng Huang, Biwang Huang, Xiong Guan
The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens is one of the most destructive insect pests in the rice fields of Asia. Like other hemipteran insects, BPH is not susceptible to Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or transgenic rice carrying Bt cry genes. Lack of Cry receptors in the midgut is one of the main reasons that BPH is not susceptible to the Cry toxins. The main Cry-binding proteins (CBPs) of the susceptible insects are cadherin, aminopeptidase N (APN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In this study, we analyzed and validated de novo assembled transcripts from transcriptome sequencing data of BPH to identify and characterize homologs of cadherin, APN, and ALP...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382486/characterization-of-cry-toxins-from-autochthonous-bacillus-thuringiensis-isolates-from-mexico
#3
Raquel Camacho-Millán, Elsa Maribel Aguilar-Medina, Héctor Quezada, Óscar Medina-Contreras, Genaro Patiño-López, Héctor Manuel Cárdenas-Cota, Rosalío Ramos-Payán
BACKGROUND: Chemical pesticides, widely used in agriculture and vector-borne disease control, have shown toxic effects on the environment and the people in contact with them. Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterium for alternative and safer control of insect pests. Its toxins are specific for insects but innocuous for mammals and may be used as powerful adjuvants when applied with vaccines. The objective of this work was to characterize some autochthonous B. thuringiensis strains, which could be used for the control of a local pest (Diatraea considerata Heinrich) that affects sugar cane crops in Sinaloa, Mexico...
May 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360856/midgut-transcriptomal-response-of-the-rice-leaffolder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-guen%C3%A3-e-to-cry1c-toxin
#4
Yajun Yang, Hongxing Xu, Yanhui Lu, Caiyun Wang, Zhongxian Lu
Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) is one of the important insect pests in rice field. Bt agents were recommended in the C. medinalis control and Bt rice is bred as a tactic to control this insect. However, the tolerance or resistance of insect to Bt protein is a main threat to the application of Bt protein. In order to investigate the response of C. medinalis transcriptome in defending a Cry1C toxin, high-through RNA-sequencing was carried in the C. medinalis larvae treated with and without Cry1C toxin. A total of 35,586 high-quality unigenes was annotated in the transcriptome of C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329399/yield-losses-in-transgenic-cry1ab-and-non-bt-corn-as-assessed-using-a-crop-life-table-approach
#5
Gerson A Silva, Marcelo C Picanço, Lino R Ferreira, Dalton O Ferreira, Elizeu S Farias, Thadeu C Souza, Nilson Rodrigues-Silva, Eliseu José G Pereira
In this study, we constructed crop life tables for Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) Cry1Ab and non-Bt corn hybrids, in which yield-loss factors and abundance of predaceous arthropods were recorded during 2 yr at two locations. Corn kernel/grain was the yield component that had the heaviest losses and that determined the overall yield loss in the corn hybrids across years and locations. Yield losses in both corn hybrids were primarily caused by kernel-destroying insects. Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were the key loss factors at one location, while at the other, the key loss factor was the silk fly larvae, Euxesta spp...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305214/expression-of-cry1ac-toxin-binding-region-in-plutella-xyllostella-cadherin-like-receptor-and-studying-their-interaction-mode-by-molecular-docking-and-site-directed-mutagenesis
#6
Xiaodan Hu, Xiao Zhang, Jianfeng Zhong, Yuan Liu, Cunzheng Zhang, Yajing Xie, Manman Lin, Chongxin Xu, Lina Lu, Qing Zhu, Xianjin Liu
Cadherin-like protein has been identified as the primary Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxin receptor in Lepidoptera pests and plays a key role in Cry toxin insecticidal. In this study, we successfully expressed the putative Cry1Ac toxin-binding region (CR7-CR11) of Plutella xylostella cadherin-like in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expressed CR7-CR11 fragment showed binding ability to Cry1Ac toxin under denaturing (Ligand blot) and non-denaturing (ELISA) conditions. The three-dimensional structure of CR7-CR11 was constructed by homology modeling...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237813/specificity-of-oral-immune-priming-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#7
Momir Futo, Marie P Sell, Megan A M Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz
Immune specificity is the degree to which a host's immune system discriminates among various pathogens or antigenic variants. Vertebrate immune memory is highly specific due to antibody responses. On the other hand, some invertebrates show immune priming, i.e. improved survival after secondary exposure to a previously encountered pathogen. Until now, specificity of priming has only been demonstrated via the septic infection route or when live pathogens were used for priming. Therefore, we tested for specificity in the oral priming route in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum For priming, we used pathogen-free supernatants derived from three different strains of the entomopathogen, Bacillus thuringiensis, which express different Cry toxin variants known for their toxicity against this beetle...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215274/cry11aa-interacts-with-the-atp-binding-protein-from-culex-quinquefasciatus-to-improve-the-toxicity
#8
Lingling Zhang, Guohui Zhao, Xiaohua Hu, Jiannan Liu, Mingwei Li, Khadija Batool, Mingfeng Chen, Junxiang Wang, Jin Xu, Tianpei Huang, Xiaohong Pan, Lei Xu, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiong Guan
Cry11Aa displays high toxicity to the larvae of several mosquito species, including Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles. To study its binding characterization against Culex quinquefasciatus, Cry11Aa was purified and western blot results showed that Cry11Aa could bind successfully to the brush border membrane vesicles. To identify Cry11Aa-binding proteins in C. quinquefasciatus, a biotin-based protein pull-down experiment was performed and seven Cry11Aa-binding proteins were isolated from the midgut of C. quinquefasciatus larvae...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189732/identification-and-characterization-of-hyphantria-cunea-aminopeptidase-n-as-a-binding-protein-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ab35-toxin
#9
Yakun Zhang, Dan Zhao, Xiaoping Yan, Wei Guo, Yajun Bao, Wei Wang, Xiaoyun Wang
The fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury) is a major invasive pest in China. Aminopeptidase N (APN) isoforms in lepidopteran larvae midguts are known for their involvement in the mode of action of insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. In the present work, we identified a putative Cry1Ab toxin-binding protein, an APN isoform designated HcAPN3, in the midgut of H. cunea by ligand blot and mass spectrometry. HcAPN3 was highly expressed throughout all larval developmental stages and was abundant in the midgut and hindgut tissues...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177935/pool-deconvolution-approach-for-high-throughput-gene-mining-from-bacillus-thuringiensis
#10
Bhupendra S Panwar, Chet Ram, Rakesh K Narula, Sarvjeet Kaur
Novel genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are required for effective deployment in agriculture, human health, and forestry. In an improvement over conventional PCR-based screening, next generation sequencing (NGS) has been used for identification of new genes of potential interest from Bt strains, but cost becomes a constraint when several isolates are to be sequenced. We demonstrate the potential of a DNA pooling strategy known as pool deconvolution to identify commercially important toxin genes from 36 native Bt isolates...
November 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155358/criticism-of-efsa-s-scientific-on-combinatorial-effects-of-stacked-gm-plants
#11
Thomas Bøhn
Recent genetically modified plants tend to include both insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits. Some of these 'stacked' GM plants have multiple Cry toxins expressed as well as tolerance to several herbicides. This means that non-target organisms in the environment (biodiversity) will be co-exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously. A similar co-exposure may happen to consumers through chemical residues in the food chain. EFSA, the responsible unit for minimizing risk of harm in European food chains, has expressed its scientific interest in combinatorial effects...
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150505/cry64ba-and-cry64ca-two-etx-mtx2-bacillus-thuringiensis-insecticidal-proteins-against-hemipteran-pests
#12
Yonglei Liu, Yinglong Wang, Changlong Shu, Kejian Lin, Fuping Song, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Jie Zhang
Genetically modified crops that express insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary approach for control of lepidopteran (moth) and coleopteran (beetle) pests that feed by chewing the plants. However, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. In this study, we describe two Cry toxins (Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca) from a Bt 1012 strain showed toxicity against two important rice hemipteran pests, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella furcifera Both of these two proteins contain an ETX/MTX2 domain, and share common sequence features with the β-pore forming toxins...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111354/three-gpi-anchored-alkaline-phosphatases-are-involved-in-the-intoxication-of-cry1ca-toxin-to-spodoptera-exigua-larvae
#13
Xiang-Liang Ren, Hong-Yan Hu, Wei-Li Jiang, Xiao-Yan Ma, Ya-Jie Ma, Guo-Qing Li, Yan Ma
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoforms are crucial for the intoxication of crystal proteins (Cry) to several insect species. We cloned five SeALPs from the larval midgut of Spodoptera exigua, a major pest of many crops. All five SeALPs contain a signal peptide at the N-terminus, a phosphatase domain, and a GPI-anchor site at the C-terminus. Additionally, the sequences encode two or three potential N-glycosylation sites. The five SeALPs were highly expressed at the larval stage, especially in the larval gut or Malpighian tubules...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097681/using-phage-display-technology-to-obtain-crybodies-active-against-non-target-insects
#14
Tania Domínguez-Flores, María Dolores Romero-Bosquet, Diana Marcela Gantiva-Díaz, María José Luque-Navas, Colin Berry, Antonio Osuna, Susana Vílchez
The insecticidal Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are increasingly important in the biological control of insect pests and vectors of human disease. Markets for Bt products and transgenic plants expressing their toxins are driven by their specificity, safety and the move away from chemical control agents. However, the high specificity of Cry toxins can also prove to be a limitation when there is no known Cry toxin active against a particular target. Novel activities can be discovered by screening natural Bt isolates or through modifications of the Cry proteins...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094185/nisin-induced-expression-of-recombinant-t-cell-epitopes-of-major-japanese-cedar-pollen-allergens-in-lactococcus-lactis
#15
Vinh Van Hoang, Takahumi Ochi, Kentaro Kurata, Yutaka Arita, Yusuke Ogasahara, Keiichi Enomoto
Japanese cedar pollinosis is a seasonal allergic disease caused by two major pollen allergens: Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens. To develop an oral vaccine to treat pollinosis, we constructed recombinant Lactococcus lactis harboring the gene encoding fused T cell epitopes from the Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens. The recombinant T cell epitope peptide was designed to contain the fused cholera toxin B subunit as an adjuvant and a FLAG tag at the C-terminus. An expression plasmid was constructed by inserting the T cell epitope peptide gene into the multiple cloning sites of plasmid pNZ8148, an Escherichia coli-L...
November 2, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069426/small-rna-mediated-cry-toxin-silencing-allows-bacillus-thuringiensis-to-evade-caenorhabditis-elegans-avoidance-behavioral-defenses
#16
Donghai Peng, Xiaoxia Luo, Ni Zhang, Suxia Guo, Jinshui Zheng, Ling Chen, Ming Sun
Pathogen avoidance behavior protects animal hosts against microbial pathogens. Pathogens have evolved specific strategies during coevolution in response to such host defenses. However, these strategies for combatting host avoidance behavioral defenses remain poorly understood. Here, we used Caenorhabditis elegans and its bacterial pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis as a model and determined that small RNA (sRNA)-mediated Cry toxin silencing allowed pathogens to evade host avoidance behavioral defenses. The B. thuringiensis strain YBT-1518, which encodes three nematicidal cry genes, is highly toxic to C...
October 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027367/the-parasporal-crystals-of-bacillus-pumilus-strain-15-1-a-potential-virulence-factor
#17
Diana C Garcia-Ramon, Colin Berry, Carmen Tse, Alberto Fernández-Fernández, Antonio Osuna, Susana Vílchez
Bacillus pumilus strain 15.1 was previously found to cause larval mortality in the Med-fly Ceratitis capitata and was shown to produce crystals in association with the spore. As parasporal crystals are well-known as invertebrate-active toxins in entomopathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry and Cyt toxins) and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Bin and Cry toxins), the B. pumilus crystals were characterized. The crystals were composed of a 45 kDa protein that was identified as an oxalate decarboxylase by peptide mass fingerprinting, N-terminal sequencing and by comparison with the genome sequence of strain 15...
October 12, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019656/adsorption-of-insecticidal-crystal-protein-cry11aa-onto-nano-mg-oh-2-effects-on-bioactivity-and-anti-ultraviolet-ability
#18
Xiaohong Pan, Zhangyan Xu, Lan Li, Enshi Shao, Saili Chen, Tengzhou Huang, Zhi Chen, Wenhua Rao, Tianpei Huang, Lingling Zhang, Songqing Wu, Xiong Guan
The traditional Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulations for field applications are not resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Hence, the active ingredients of the Bt bioinsecticides could degrade quickly and has low anti-ultraviolet ability in the field, which significantly limits its practical application. In the present study, we developed an efficient and stable delivery system for Bt Cry11Aa toxins. We coated Cry11Aa proteins with Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles (MHNPs), and then assessed the effects of MHNPs on bioactivity and anti-ultraviolet ability of the Cry11Aa proteins...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018619/alpha-arylphorin-is-a-mitogen-in-the-heliothis-virescens-midgut-cell-secretome-upon-cry1ac-intoxication
#19
Anais Castagnola, Jerreme Jackson, Omaththage P Perera, Cris Oppert, Shigetoshi Eda, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes
Insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) target cells in the midgut epithelium of susceptible larvae. While the mode of action of Cry toxins has been extensively investigated, the midgut response to Cry intoxication and its regulation are not well characterized. In this work, we describe the secreted proteome (secretome) of primary mature midgut cell cultures from Heliothis virescens larvae after exposure to Cry1Ac toxin compared to control buffer treatment. The Cry1Ac-induced secretome caused higher proliferation and differentiation and an overall reduction in total cell mortality over time in primary H...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981636/bitrophic-and-tritrophic-effects-of-transgenic-cry1ab-cry2aj-maize-on-the-beneficial-nontarget-harmonia-axyridis-coleoptera-coccinellidae
#20
Xue Chang, Zengbin Lu, Zhicheng Shen, Yufa Peng, Gongyin Ye
Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) is a common and abundant predator in China and may be exposed to Cry toxins that are produced in Bt crops either by feeding on plant parts or by feeding on target or nontarget herbivorous insects. A new Bt maize line, expressing the Cry1Ab/Cry2Aj fused protein, has been developed and should be rigorously assessed for the ecological risks on the natural enemy. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effects of this Bt maize on nontarget predator H. axyridis via bitrophic interaction of adult H...
October 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
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