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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699556/community-led-trials-intervention-co-design-in-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Neil Andersson
In conventional randomised controlled trials (RCTs), researchers design the interventions. In the Camino Verde trial, each intervention community designed its own programmes to prevent dengue. Instead of fixed actions or menus of activities to choose from, the trial randomised clusters to a participatory research protocol that began with sharing and discussing evidence from a local survey, going on to local authorship of the action plan for vector control.Adding equitable stakeholder engagement to RCT infrastructure anchors the research culturally, making it more meaningful to stakeholders...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629390/results-of-the-first-interim-analysis-of-the-rapper-ii-trial-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-ambulation-and-functional-exercise-programs-in-the-rex-powered-walking-aid
#2
Nick Birch, Jon Graham, Tom Priestley, Chris Heywood, Mohamed Sakel, Angela Gall, Andrew Nunn, Nada Signal
BACKGROUND: The RAPPER II study investigates the feasibility, safety and acceptability of using the REX self-stabilising robotic exoskeleton in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) who are obligatory wheelchair users. Feasibility is assessed by the completion of transfer into the REX device, competency in achieving autonomous control and completion of upper body exercise in an upright position in the REX device. Safety is measured by the occurrence of serious adverse events. Device acceptability is assessed with a user questionnaire...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624645/cingulo-opercular-activity-affects-incidental-memory-encoding-for-speech-in-noise
#3
Kenneth I Vaden, Susan Teubner-Rhodes, Jayne B Ahlstrom, Judy R Dubno, Mark A Eckert
Correctly understood speech in difficult listening conditions is often difficult to remember. A long-standing hypothesis for this observation is that the engagement of cognitive resources to aid speech understanding can limit resources available for memory encoding. This hypothesis is consistent with evidence that speech presented in difficult conditions typically elicits greater activity throughout cingulo-opercular regions of frontal cortex that are proposed to optimize task performance through adaptive control of behavior and tonic attention...
June 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502700/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-fasd-and-competency-to-stand-trial-cst-suggestions-for-a-best-practices-approach-to-forensic-evaluation
#4
REVIEW
Jerrod M Brown, Jeffrey Haun, Patricia A Zapf, Natalie Novick Brown
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), an umbrella term for neurodevelopmental conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, is overrepresented in the U.S. juvenile and adult criminal justice systems. The brain damage in FASD manifests in a combination of cognitive and adaptive impairments that potentially reduce ability to function adequately during the criminal justice process, including capacity to stand trial (CST). Despite the high risk of arrest and conviction in this population, relatively little research guides CST assessment for defendants who have or may have FASD...
May 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429375/patient-characteristics-and-outcomes-related-to-successful-outpatient-competency-restoration
#5
Amy J Mikolajewski, Gina M Manguno-Mire, Kelly L Coffman, Sarah M Deland, John W Thompson
Criminal defendants have a fundamental right to a fair and speedy trial. However, individuals found incompetent to stand trial are unable to move forward in the adjudication process and are often mired in protracted legal proceedings. If competency restoration is statutorily permissible and can be conducted in the outpatient setting, we propose that it should be considered based on burgeoning empirical data. We present data from an outpatient forensic clinic in which individuals are conditionally released to receive competency restoration in the community...
April 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351902/risk-stratification-for-sudden-cardiac-death-too-late-to-establish-a-role-for-cardiac-mri
#6
Timothy M Markman, Saman Nazarian
Automatic detection and transvenous or subcutaneous defibrillation of malignant ventricular arrhythmias by implantable cardioverter defibrillators are vital for management of patients at high risk for sudden cardiac death. Guidelines and appropriate use criteria based on data from several clinical trials support prophylactic defibrillator implantation in patients with symptoms of heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%. Yet, existing guidelines direct defibrillator implantation to a small subset of the overall population at risk for sudden death, and with an average annual appropriate shock rate of 5...
March 28, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350552/characteristics-of-forensic-patients-in-california-with-dementia-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Bradley J Bartos, Matthew Renner, Carol Newark, Richard McCleary, Nicholas Scurich
Criminal defendants found incompetent to stand trial (IST) are sent to state hospitals for treatment to be restored to competency. IST patients diagnosed with dementia and related disorders present a particular challenge to clinicians, because they must be restored successfully within a statutorily mandated time frame (e.g., 3 years in California for defendants charged with a felony offense). This study examined a comprehensive data set that included all forensic patients served by California's Department of State Hospitals from September 2003 to February 2016...
April 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216768/competence-to-stand-trial-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Steven K Hoge
The legal concept of competence to stand trial has ancient roots. The history of this legal construct in Anglo-Saxon law will be reviewed. A competent defendant is a requirement of the criminal justice system because it reflects interests related to the dignity of the process, the accuracy of adjudication, and respect for the autonomy of defendants. In the United States, legal decisions have established the contours of the requirements related to competent participation in adjudication. Forensic psychiatrists have operationalized the requirements for assessment purposes...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182458/combined-evaluations-of-competency-to-stand-trial-and-mental-state-at-the-time-of-the-offense-an-overlooked-methodological-consideration
#9
Lauren Kois, James M Wellbeloved-Stone, Preeti Chauhan, Janet I Warren
Combined evaluations of competency to stand trial (CST; competency) and mental state at the time of the offense (MSO; sanity) frequently co-occur. However, most research examines the 2 as discrete constructs without considering 4 potential combined evaluation outcomes: competent-sane, incompetent-sane, competent-insane, and incompetent-insane. External validity can be improved if research more closely mirrored practice. It may be incorrect to assume incompetent defendants are similar across CST-only and combined evaluations, and insane defendants are similar across MSO-only and combined evaluations...
February 9, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003394/retrospective-postconviction-competency-to-stand-trial-assessments
#10
Lubna Grewal, Stephen Noffsinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003389/predictors-of-competency-to-stand-trial-in-connecticut-s-inpatient-juvenile-competency-restoration-program
#11
Joseph Chien, Kendell L Coker, Susan Parke, Nabyl Tejani, Remy A Sirken, Christina Sanchez-Jaquez, Fernando Rausch, Muhammad W Azeem
There are substantial differences between adults and juveniles in the context of competency restoration. Among juveniles, factors such as maturity level, age, intellectual functioning, and psychiatric diagnoses may affect competency to stand trial. In this study, subjects included all juveniles who were admitted to the Albert J. Solnit Children's Center for inpatient competency restoration in the period spanning January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2012. Sixty-one juveniles were referred during this period, and 58 were included in the final analyses...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003388/characteristics-of-misdemeanants-treated-for-competency-restoration
#12
Artha Gillis, Brian Holoyda, William J Newman, Machelle D Wilson, Glen L Xiong
There are an estimated 60,000 evaluations annually for competence to stand trial for felony indictments and likely more for misdemeanor indictments. Thus, there is an increasing interest in determining factors associated with a defendant's likelihood of being restored to competence to stand trial. Although previous studies have found that a misdemeanor charge predicts significantly less likelihood of restoration of competence when compared with felony charges, states typically allow treatment facilities less time to restore misdemeanor defendants than felony defendants...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003387/enhancing-the-value-of-expert-assistance-in-pro-se-competence-determinations
#13
W Lawrence Fitch
Forensic mental health practitioners are comfortable assessing criminal defendants' competence to stand trial. They have a long history of making such assessments and a large body of research and scholarship to guide them. In recent years, however, the courts have drawn a distinction between general trial competence (i.e., competence while represented by counsel) and competence to proceed pro se (i.e., competence without counsel). The seminal case on point is Indiana v. Edwards (554 U.S. 164 (2008)). In Edwards, the Court found that general trial competence may provide an inadequate measure of pro se competence...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802872/cognitive-status-and-profile-validity-on-the-personality-assessment-inventory-pai-in-offenders-with-serious-mental-illness
#14
Tatiana M Matlasz, Jamie L Brylski, Corey M Leidenfrost, Matt Scalco, Samuel J Sinclair, Ronald M Schoelerman, Valerie Tsang, Daniel Antonius
Cognitive impairment among seriously mentally ill offenders has implications for legal matters (e.g., competency to stand trial), as well as clinical treatment and care. Thus, being able to identify potential cognitive concerns early in the adjudication process can be important when deciding on further interventions. In this study, we examined the validity scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV), and competency findings in male inmates (n=61) diagnosed with a serious mental illness...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660554/motivational-interviewing-competencies-among-uk-family-nurse-partnership-nurses-a-process-evaluation-component-of-the-building-blocks-trial
#15
Sue Channon, Marie-Jet Bekkers, Julia Sanders, Rebecca Cannings-John, Laura Robertson, Kristina Bennert, Christopher Butler, Kerenza Hood, Michael Robling
BACKGROUND: Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a person-centred counselling approach to behaviour change which is increasingly being used in public health settings, either as a stand-alone approach or in combination with other structured programmes of health promotion. One example of this is the Family Nurse Partnership (FNP) a licensed, preventative programme for first time mothers under the age of 20, delivered by specialist family nurses who are additionally trained in MI. The Building Blocks trial was an individually randomised controlled trial comparing effectiveness of Family Nurse Partnership when added to usual care compared to usual care alone within 18 sites in England...
2016: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609129/narrative-and-reflection-training-in-a-correctional-facility
#16
Kathleen Mary Patchan
This commentary describes the author's experience working at two separate detention centres during her fellowship. She initially describes her experience performing forensic evaluations. The terms 'competency to stand trial' and 'criminal responsibility' are defined. It then describes the author's experience working in an inner city and suburban detention centre. The two environments and patient demographics are compared to a traditional inpatient or outpatient community setting. Fictional patient encounters, based on an amalgamation of actual patients, are discussed...
February 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563264/a-simple-heuristic-for-internet-based-evidence-search-in-primary-care-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Andreas Eberbach, Annette Becker, Justine Rochon, Holger Finkemeler, Achim Wagner, Norbert Donner-Banzhoff
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) are confronted with a wide variety of clinical questions, many of which remain unanswered. METHODS: In order to assist GPs in finding quick, evidence-based answers, we developed a learning program (LP) with a short interactive workshop based on a simple three-step-heuristic to improve their search and appraisal competence (SAC). We evaluated the LP effectiveness with a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants (intervention group [IG] n=20; control group [CG] n=31) rated acceptance and satisfaction and also answered 39 knowledge questions to assess their SAC...
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429190/engaging-transgender-people-in-nih-funded-hiv-aids-clinical-trials-research
#18
Rona L Siskind, Michele Andrasik, Shelly T Karuna, Gail B Broder, Clare Collins, Albert Liu, Jonathan Paul Lucas, Gary W Harper, Philip O Renzullo
In 2009, the National Institutes of Health recognized the need to expand knowledge of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health and commissioned the Institute of Medicine to report on the health of these populations in the United States. The resulting Institute of Medicine publication called for more knowledge of the health of LGBT populations, as well as improved methodologies to reach them, more LGBT-focused research, and enhanced training programs and cultural competency of physicians and researchers...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406663/effects-of-hearing-loss-on-dual-task-performance-in-an-audiovisual-virtual-reality-simulation-of-listening-while-walking
#19
Sin Tung Lau, M Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, Karen Z H Li, Gurjit Singh, Jennifer L Campos
BACKGROUND: Most activities of daily living require the dynamic integration of sights, sounds, and movements as people navigate complex environments. Nevertheless, little is known about the effects of hearing loss (HL) or hearing aid (HA) use on listening during multitasking challenges. PURPOSE: The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of age-related hearing loss (ARHL) on word recognition accuracy in a dual-task experiment. Virtual reality (VR) technologies in a specialized laboratory (Challenging Environment Assessment Laboratory) were used to produce a controlled and safe simulated environment for listening while walking...
July 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337424/criminal-forensic-psychiatry-a-primer-for-psychiatrists
#20
Scott A Freeman
Many mentally ill people are currently held in correctional settings, and general psychiatrists should be familiar with criminal forensic psychiatry in order to understand the legal aspects of the evaluation and treatment of these individuals, especially with regard to competency to stand trial and insanity. This educational activity briefly explains these evaluations and reviews relevant landmark legal cases.
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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