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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802872/cognitive-status-and-profile-validity-on-the-personality-assessment-inventory-pai-in-offenders-with-serious-mental-illness
#1
Tatiana M Matlasz, Jamie L Brylski, Corey M Leidenfrost, Matt Scalco, Samuel J Sinclair, Ronald M Schoelerman, Valerie Tsang, Daniel Antonius
Cognitive impairment among seriously mentally ill offenders has implications for legal matters (e.g., competency to stand trial), as well as clinical treatment and care. Thus, being able to identify potential cognitive concerns early in the adjudication process can be important when deciding on further interventions. In this study, we examined the validity scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV), and competency findings in male inmates (n=61) diagnosed with a serious mental illness...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660554/motivational-interviewing-competencies-among-uk-family-nurse-partnership-nurses-a-process-evaluation-component-of-the-building-blocks-trial
#2
Sue Channon, Marie-Jet Bekkers, Julia Sanders, Rebecca Cannings-John, Laura Robertson, Kristina Bennert, Christopher Butler, Kerenza Hood, Michael Robling
BACKGROUND: Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a person-centred counselling approach to behaviour change which is increasingly being used in public health settings, either as a stand-alone approach or in combination with other structured programmes of health promotion. One example of this is the Family Nurse Partnership (FNP) a licensed, preventative programme for first time mothers under the age of 20, delivered by specialist family nurses who are additionally trained in MI. The Building Blocks trial was an individually randomised controlled trial comparing effectiveness of Family Nurse Partnership when added to usual care compared to usual care alone within 18 sites in England...
2016: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609129/narrative-and-reflection-training-in-a-correctional-facility
#3
Kathleen Mary Patchan
This commentary describes the author's experience working at two separate detention centres during her fellowship. She initially describes her experience performing forensic evaluations. The terms 'competency to stand trial' and 'criminal responsibility' are defined. It then describes the author's experience working in an inner city and suburban detention centre. The two environments and patient demographics are compared to a traditional inpatient or outpatient community setting. Fictional patient encounters, based on an amalgamation of actual patients, are discussed...
September 9, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563264/a-simple-heuristic-for-internet-based-evidence-search-in-primary-care-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Andreas Eberbach, Annette Becker, Justine Rochon, Holger Finkemeler, Achim Wagner, Norbert Donner-Banzhoff
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) are confronted with a wide variety of clinical questions, many of which remain unanswered. METHODS: In order to assist GPs in finding quick, evidence-based answers, we developed a learning program (LP) with a short interactive workshop based on a simple three-step-heuristic to improve their search and appraisal competence (SAC). We evaluated the LP effectiveness with a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants (intervention group [IG] n=20; control group [CG] n=31) rated acceptance and satisfaction and also answered 39 knowledge questions to assess their SAC...
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429190/engaging-transgender-people-in-nih-funded-hiv-aids-clinical-trials-research
#5
Rona L Siskind, Michele Andrasik, Shelly T Karuna, Gail B Broder, Clare Collins, Albert Liu, Jonathan Paul Lucas, Gary W Harper, Philip O Renzullo
In 2009, the National Institutes of Health recognized the need to expand knowledge of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health and commissioned the Institute of Medicine to report on the health of these populations in the United States. The resulting Institute of Medicine publication called for more knowledge of the health of LGBT populations, as well as improved methodologies to reach them, more LGBT-focused research, and enhanced training programs and cultural competency of physicians and researchers...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406663/effects-of-hearing-loss-on-dual-task-performance-in-an-audiovisual-virtual-reality-simulation-of-listening-while-walking
#6
Sin Tung Lau, M Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, Karen Z H Li, Gurjit Singh, Jennifer L Campos
BACKGROUND: Most activities of daily living require the dynamic integration of sights, sounds, and movements as people navigate complex environments. Nevertheless, little is known about the effects of hearing loss (HL) or hearing aid (HA) use on listening during multitasking challenges. PURPOSE: The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of age-related hearing loss (ARHL) on word recognition accuracy in a dual-task experiment. Virtual reality (VR) technologies in a specialized laboratory (Challenging Environment Assessment Laboratory) were used to produce a controlled and safe simulated environment for listening while walking...
July 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337424/criminal-forensic-psychiatry-a-primer-for-psychiatrists
#7
Scott A Freeman
Many mentally ill people are currently held in correctional settings, and general psychiatrists should be familiar with criminal forensic psychiatry in order to understand the legal aspects of the evaluation and treatment of these individuals, especially with regard to competency to stand trial and insanity. This educational activity briefly explains these evaluations and reviews relevant landmark legal cases.
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311559/delayed-diagnosis-in-a-house-of-correction-smith-magenis-syndrome-due-to-a-de-novo-nonsense-rai1-variant
#8
Patra Yeetong, Thierry Vilboux, Carla Ciccone, Kristin Boulier, Rhonda E Schnur, William A Gahl, Marjan Huizing, Gonzalo Laje, Ann C M Smith
We report a 25-year-old female confirmed to have Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) due to a de novo RAI1 variant. Her past history is significant for developmental and intellectual delay, early and escalating maladaptive behaviors, and features consistent with significant sleep disturbance, the etiology of which was not confirmed for over two decades. The diagnosis of SMS was initially suspected in 1998 (at age 12 years), but that was 5 years before the initial report of RAI1 variants as causative of the SMS phenotype; cytogenetic fluorescence in situ hybridization studies failed to confirm an interstitial deletion of 17p11...
September 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289503/the-use-of-computed-tomography-scans-and-the-bender-gestalt-test-in-the-assessment-of-competency-to-stand-trial-and-criminal-responsibility-in-the-field-of-mental-health-and-law
#9
Nathaniel Lehlohonolo Mosotho, Ino Timile, Gina Joubert
computed tomography and the Bender Gestalt Test are some of the tests used routinely for the assessment of alleged offenders referred under Sections 77 and 78 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977. An exploratory retrospective study was conducted at the Free State Psychiatric Complex. The aim of this study was to identify the extent to which the Bender Gestalt Test results and the computed tomography scans are associated with outcomes in the assessment of competency to stand trial and criminal responsibility in individuals referred to the Free State Psychiatric Complex (FSPC) observation unit...
June 8, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236172/not-competent-not-restorable-and-not-committable
#10
Kirk W Lowry
I comment on the problem discussed by Simpson of criminal defendants who are found not competent, not restorable, and subject to involuntary civil commitment. He presents the 2010 case of Donn Thomas Spinosa in Oregon as an exemplar of serial nonrestorability. The facts of the Spinosa case are illustrative of a prosecutor who is frustrated by not being able to bring a criminal prosecution against a person who is not competent to stand trial and a state hospital that is proposing discharge of the person because he can no longer be civilly committed...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236171/when-restoration-fails-one-state-s-answer-to-the-dilemma-of-permanent-incompetence
#11
Joseph R Simpson
The landmark 1972 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Jackson v. Indiana prohibited the indefinite commitment of criminal defendants on grounds of incompetence to stand trial if there was no substantial probability of restoration to competency in the foreseeable future. Such defendants are still subject to ordinary civil commitment; however, not all will meet civil commitment criteria, given that the criteria for a finding of incompetency to stand trial do not map directly onto the general criteria for involuntary psychiatric hospitalization...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085728/competency-to-stand-trial-evaluations-in-a-multicultural-population-associations-between-psychiatric-demographic-and-legal-factors
#12
Cheryl M Paradis, Elizabeth Owen, Linda Z Solomon, Benjamin Lane, Chinmoy Gulrajani, Michael Fullar, Alan Perry, Sasha Rai, Tamar Lavy, Gene McCullough
Data were examined from an archival sample of Competency to Stand Trial (CST) reports of 200 consecutive New York City pre-trial defendants evaluated over a five-month period. Approximately a fourth of defendants in the present study were immigrants; many required the assistance of interpreters. The examiners conducting the CST evaluation diagnosed approximately half of the defendants with a primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and deemed over half not competent. Examiners reached the same conclusion about competency in 96% of cases, about the presence of a psychotic disorder in 91% of cases, and affective disorder in 85% of cases...
July 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077677/differences-between-structured-interview-of-reported-symptoms-sirs-and-sirs-2-sensitivity-estimates-among-forensic-inpatients-a-criterion-groups-comparison
#13
Anthony M Tarescavage, David M Glassmire
The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) underwent a major revision in 2010 yielding the SIRS-2. The new test has since been criticized for several potential problems, particularly in terms of its sensitivity to feigned psychopathology. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between SIRS and SIRS-2 classifications and sensitivity estimates in an archival sample of 263 criminal defendants (215 males, 48 females) who were admitted to a high-security state psychiatric hospital for restoration of competency to stand trial...
October 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870827/a-single-blinded-randomized-clinical-trial-of-how-to-implement-an-evidence-based-treatment-for-generalized-anxiety-disorder-implement-effects-of-three-different-strategies-of-implementation
#14
Christoph Flückiger, Lena Forrer, Barbara Schnider, Isabelle Bättig, Guy Bodenmann, Richard E Zinbarg
BACKGROUND: Despite long-standing calls to disseminate evidence-based treatments for generalized anxiety (GAD), modest progress has been made in the study of how such treatments should be implemented. The primary objective of this study was to test three competing strategies on how to implement a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for out-patients with GAD (i.e., comparison of one compensation vs. two capitalization models). METHODS: For our three-arm, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial (implementation of CBT for GAD [IMPLEMENT]), we recruited adults with GAD using advertisements in high-circulation newspapers to participate in a 14-session cognitive behavioral treatment (Mastery of your Anxiety and Worry, MAW-packet)...
January 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26847637/triaging-psychiatric-care-risk-assessment-construction-and-validation-for-washington-s-involuntary-treatment-and-forensic-commitment-populations
#15
Alex Kigerl, Zachary Hamilton
There is a growing need in Washington to triage patients being considered for inpatient treatment. There has previously been no risk assessment normed to persons with mental illness in the State of Washington. The Static Risk Assessment (SRA) is used in Washington to assess risk among offenders under State Department of Corrections supervision. The present study sought to create and validate a new risk assessment, the SRA for Mental Health Patients (SRA-MHP), for two mental health populations in Washington...
February 4, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26625540/assessing-the-need-for-hospitalization-in-order-to-conduct-a-psychiatric-evaluation-as-part-of-criminal-law-procedure
#16
Ahikam Olmer, Binyamin Greenberg, Rael D Strous
BACKGROUND: In criminal law, psychiatrists are consulted regarding the "insanity defense" and the defendant's competency to stand trial. Court-ordered hospital admissions for such evaluations are on the increase, creating a major burden on the health system. OBJECTIVES: To assess, in a hospital setting, whether hospitalization of the defendant is necessary for conducting a psychiatric evaluation. METHODS: A 6 month prospective observational study exploring the phenomenon was conducted at the Beer Yaakov Mental Health Center...
September 2015: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26438811/correlates-of-competency-to-stand-trial-among-youths-admitted-to-a-juvenile-mental-health-court
#17
Eraka Bath, Lauren Reba-Harrelson, Robyn Peace, Jie Shen, Honghu Liu
Competency to stand trial (CST) assessment of juvenile offenders is a relatively recent phenomenon, as are juvenile mental health courts. Factors associated with youths' ability to participate in legal proceedings are not well understood, regardless of the court venue. Using a sample of 324 juveniles participating in the Los Angeles County Juvenile Mental Health Court (LAJMHC), we sought to explore the relationships of age, mental health diagnosis, and history of mental health treatment to CST status. Results suggest youths under the age of 15 were significantly more likely to have been found incompetent to stand trial (IST) when compared with older youths (p = ...
September 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26438803/mental-health-and-immigrant-detainees-in-the-united-states-competency-and-self-representation
#18
Caleb Korngold, Kristen Ochoa, Talia Inlender, Dale McNiel, Renée Binder
Most immigrant detainees held in U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) facilities do not have legal representation, because immigration proceedings are a matter of civil, not criminal, law. In 2005, Mr. Franco, an immigrant from Mexico with an IQ between 35 and 55, was found incompetent to stand trial, but was not appointed an attorney for his immigration proceedings. This failure led to a class action lawsuit, known as the Franco litigation, and in April 2013, a federal judge ordered the U. S. government to provide legal representation for immigrant detainees in California, Arizona, and Washington who are incompetent to represent themselves due to a mental disorder or defect...
September 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26423350/improving-the-detection-of-feigned-knowledge-deficits-in-defendants-adjudicated-incompetent-to-stand-trial
#19
Emily D Gottfried, B Lee Hudson, Michael J Vitacco, Joyce L Carbonell
Malingering is relatively common in criminal forensic evaluations as base rates of malingering have ranged from 20% to 30%. Given that the most prevalent criminal forensic evaluation is the assessment of competency to stand trial, the assessment of feigning during competency evaluations is necessary for accurate findings. Most of the response style literature focuses on feigning mental health symptoms, but in competency evaluations, individuals may attempt to feign legal knowledge deficits in order to be found incompetent to stand trial...
September 30, 2015: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26316552/group-therapy-task-training-versus-individual-task-training-during-inpatient-stroke-rehabilitation-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Caroline Ie Renner, Jacqueline Outermans, Ricarda Ludwig, Christiane Brendel, Gert Kwakkel, Horst Hummelsheim
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of intensive daily applied progressive group therapy task training with equally dosed individual progressive task training on self-reported mobility for patients with moderate to severe stroke during inpatient rehabilitation. DESIGN: Randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING: In-patient rehabilitation center. SUBJECTS: A total of 73 subacute patients with stroke who were not able to walk without physical assistance at randomisation...
July 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
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