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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618540/mental-condition-requirement-in-competency-to-stand-trial-assessments
#1
Andrew D Reisner, Jennifer L Piel
In Ohio, a criminal defendant is incompetent to stand trial only if "a present mental condition" renders him unable to understand the nature and objectives of the proceedings against him or to assist in his defense. Some forensic mental health evaluators have treated the mental-condition requirement as synonymous with, or similar to, the psychiatric condition required in the state's insanity criteria, which requires a "severe mental disease or defect." Yet the term mental condition does not appear in other areas of the state's criminal code or in the state's definition of a mental illness for purposes of civil commitment...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618536/court-ordered-evaluations-from-a-mental-health-court
#2
Seth Judd, George F Parker
Mental health courts (MHCs) have been in existence for more than 20 years, but little is known about the demographics, clinical features, and court outcomes of MHC defendants court-ordered for competence to stand trial (CST) evaluations. We examined these items in defendants who underwent CST evaluations for the Marion County, IN, MHC. The MHC defendants were significantly more likely than defendants referred from other courts to be male, black, unemployed, and on disability, and have a history of prior arrests and psychiatric treatment...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548508/the-impact-of-defendants-race-in-competency-to-stand-trial-referrals
#3
Shana Harris, Rebecca A Weiss
In the United States, competency to stand trial (CST) evaluations ensure that criminal defendants are capable of participating in their defenses, thus ensuring an important legal right. However, some research has suggested that the CST process may be impacted by legally irrelevant factors such as a defendant's race and cultural background. However, the majority of researchers examined factors that are predictive of CST recommendations and decisions. Few studies have focused on potential racial discrepancies in attorney referrals for CST evaluations and whether they are exacerbated by professional experience...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548496/a-cyclical-path-to-recovery-calling-into-question-the-wisdom-of-incarceration-after-restoration
#4
REVIEW
Alexandria Boutros, Seung Suk Kang, Nash N Boutros
Around 20-25% of the current offenders in Cook County Jail of Chicago Illinois are mentally ill. Each one of these offenders had to be named competent to stand trial when they were first being tried in court. The majority of these offenders that were considered incompetent to stand trial (IST) had to go through the competency restoration process where they were housed in a state hospital and received treatment until the court could deem them to be competent to stand trial. Many defendants with minor offenses that were eventually deemed competent to stand trial, stood trial and were found guilty and sent to jail...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529870/six-hours-of-task-oriented-training-optimizes-walking-competency-post-stroke-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-the-public-health-care-system-of-south-africa
#5
Megan Knox, Aimee Stewart, Carol L Richards
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a minimal dose intervention of six 1-hour sessions of task-oriented circuit gait training including a caregiver over a 12-week period to persons post stroke in the South African public health sector. DESIGN: Stratified, single blinded, randomized controlled trial with three intervention groups. PARTICIPANTS: Persons post stroke ( n = 144, mean age 50 years, 72 women), mean 9.5 weeks post stroke. INTERVENTIONS: Task group ( n = 51)-accompanied by a caregiver; task-oriented circuit gait training (to improve strength, balance, and task performance while standing and walking)...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298695/vub-cyberlegs-cybathlon-2016-beta-prosthesis-case-study-in-control-of-an-active-two-degree-of-freedom-transfemoral-prosthesis
#6
Louis L Flynn, Joost Geeroms, Tom van der Hoeven, Bram Vanderborght, Dirk Lefeber
BACKGROUND: Here we present how the CYBERLEGs Beta-Prosthesis was modified with a new control system to participate in the Powered Leg Prosthesis event, and to report on our experience at the CYBATHLON 2016 which was held in Zurich, Switzerland in October 2016. The prosthesis has two active degrees of freedom which assist the user with extra joint power at the knee and ankle to complete tasks. The CYBATHLON is a championship for people with disabilities competing in six disciplines, using advanced assistive devices...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083114/wise-program-analysis-evaluating-the-first-15-months-of-progress-in-a-novel-treatment-diversion-program-for-women
#7
Kelly L Coffman, Swati Shivale, Glenn Egan, Victoria Roberts, Peter Ash
Like other counties across the nation, Fulton County, GA, has seen a significant increase in the number of arrests of people with serious mental illness. While Fulton County has accountability courts, some defendants with mental illness are not able to take advantage of these options due to their mental illness rendering them incompetent to understand the expectations required by these courts. The WISE (Women's Initiative for Success with Early Intervention) pilot project created a pathway for incompetent women to be diverted out of jail and into mental health treatment that was faster than the traditional evaluation for competency to stand trial pathway...
September 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976301/forensic-evaluation-of-deaf-individuals-challenges-and-strategies
#8
Robert Q Pollard, Brian T Berlinski
Forensic evaluation of deaf individuals presents unique challenges due to many examinees' fund of information deficits, potential for language deprivation, and examiners' frequent lack of creativity regarding communication methods. This article describes challenges most frequently encountered in competency to stand trial and criminal responsibility evaluations and offers strategies for overcoming them. The value of employing multiple communication methods, especially the use of illustrations, is emphasized...
July 2017: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857581/bridging-the-gap-between-conventional-and-standardized-competency-to-stand-trial-cst-assessments-an-examination-of-defendant-answers-to-conventional-cst-questions
#9
Anthony M Tarescavage, Lynn Luna Jones, Tayla T C Lee
Despite research suggesting that use of forensic assessment instruments of competency to stand trial (CST) can improve the integrity of forensic conceptualizations (Rogers & Johansson-Love, 2009), the majority of evaluators do not use these measures in CST evaluations (Nicholson & Norwood, 2000). The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between competency evaluations based on a conventional interview and those conducted with the aid of a standardized forensic assessment instrument. To this end, we utilized an archival sample of 704 criminal defendants (543 males, 161 females) ordered to undergo evaluations of CST...
December 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831591/does-the-radiologically-isolated-syndrome-exist-a-dual-task-cost-pilot-study
#10
Vincenzo Dattola, Anna Lisa Logiudice, Lilla Bonanno, Fausto Famà, Demetrio Milardi, Gaetana Chillemi, Giangaetano D'Aleo, Silvia Marino, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Margherita Russo
Simultaneous performance of motor and cognitive tasks may compete for common brain network resources in aging or patients with some neurological diseases, suggesting the occurrence of a cognitive-motor interference. While this phenomenon has been well described for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, it never has been tested on asymptomatic subject with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggestive of demyelinating disease (i.e., radiologically isolated syndrome: RIS). In this pilot study, 10 RIS subjects and 10 sex/age-matched healthy controls were tested by means of static posturography under eyes opened (single-task trial) and while performing two different cognitive tasks (semantic modified word list generation for first dual-task trial and phonemic semantic modified word list generation for second dual-task trial), to estimate the dual-task cost (DTC) of standing balance...
November 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734198/length-of-stay-for-25-791-california-patients-found-incompetent-to-stand-trial
#11
Matthew Renner, Carol Newark, Bradley J Bartos, Richard McCleary, Nicholas Scurich
Referrals and admissions to state psychiatric hospitals of criminal defendants found Incompetent to Stand Trial (IST) are on the rise in the state of California and other parts of the country. Studies of treatment outcomes of this population have primarily focused on factors that determine competency and/or restorability. However, as IST patients place an increasing resource burden on state psychiatric hospital systems, other outcomes such as length of stay (LOS) are becoming increasingly important for practitioners and policy makers to understand...
October 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699556/community-led-trials-intervention-co-design-in-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Neil Andersson
In conventional randomised controlled trials (RCTs), researchers design the interventions. In the Camino Verde trial, each intervention community designed its own programmes to prevent dengue. Instead of fixed actions or menus of activities to choose from, the trial randomised clusters to a participatory research protocol that began with sharing and discussing evidence from a local survey, going on to local authorship of the action plan for vector control.Adding equitable stakeholder engagement to RCT infrastructure anchors the research culturally, making it more meaningful to stakeholders...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629390/results-of-the-first-interim-analysis-of-the-rapper-ii-trial-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-ambulation-and-functional-exercise-programs-in-the-rex-powered-walking-aid
#13
Nick Birch, Jon Graham, Tom Priestley, Chris Heywood, Mohamed Sakel, Angela Gall, Andrew Nunn, Nada Signal
BACKGROUND: The RAPPER II study investigates the feasibility, safety and acceptability of using the REX self-stabilising robotic exoskeleton in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) who are obligatory wheelchair users. Feasibility is assessed by the completion of transfer into the REX device, competency in achieving autonomous control and completion of upper body exercise in an upright position in the REX device. Safety is measured by the occurrence of serious adverse events. Device acceptability is assessed with a user questionnaire...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624645/cingulo-opercular-activity-affects-incidental-memory-encoding-for-speech-in-noise
#14
Kenneth I Vaden, Susan Teubner-Rhodes, Jayne B Ahlstrom, Judy R Dubno, Mark A Eckert
Correctly understood speech in difficult listening conditions is often difficult to remember. A long-standing hypothesis for this observation is that the engagement of cognitive resources to aid speech understanding can limit resources available for memory encoding. This hypothesis is consistent with evidence that speech presented in difficult conditions typically elicits greater activity throughout cingulo-opercular regions of frontal cortex that are proposed to optimize task performance through adaptive control of behavior and tonic attention...
August 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502700/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-fasd-and-competency-to-stand-trial-cst-suggestions-for-a-best-practices-approach-to-forensic-evaluation
#15
REVIEW
Jerrod M Brown, Jeffrey Haun, Patricia A Zapf, Natalie Novick Brown
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), an umbrella term for neurodevelopmental conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, is overrepresented in the U.S. juvenile and adult criminal justice systems. The brain damage in FASD manifests in a combination of cognitive and adaptive impairments that potentially reduce ability to function adequately during the criminal justice process, including capacity to stand trial (CST). Despite the high risk of arrest and conviction in this population, relatively little research guides CST assessment for defendants who have or may have FASD...
May 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429375/patient-characteristics-and-outcomes-related-to-successful-outpatient-competency-restoration
#16
Amy J Mikolajewski, Gina M Manguno-Mire, Kelly L Coffman, Sarah M Deland, John W Thompson
Criminal defendants have a fundamental right to a fair and speedy trial. However, individuals found incompetent to stand trial are unable to move forward in the adjudication process and are often mired in protracted legal proceedings. If competency restoration is statutorily permissible and can be conducted in the outpatient setting, we propose that it should be considered based on burgeoning empirical data. We present data from an outpatient forensic clinic in which individuals are conditionally released to receive competency restoration in the community...
April 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351902/risk-stratification-for-sudden-cardiac-death-is-it-too-late-to-establish-a-role-for-cardiac-mri
#17
EDITORIAL
Timothy M Markman, Saman Nazarian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350552/characteristics-of-forensic-patients-in-california-with-dementia-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Bradley J Bartos, Matthew Renner, Carol Newark, Richard McCleary, Nicholas Scurich
Criminal defendants found incompetent to stand trial (IST) are sent to state hospitals for treatment to be restored to competency. IST patients diagnosed with dementia and related disorders present a particular challenge to clinicians, because they must be restored successfully within a statutorily mandated time frame (e.g., 3 years in California for defendants charged with a felony offense). This study examined a comprehensive data set that included all forensic patients served by California's Department of State Hospitals from September 2003 to February 2016...
April 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216768/competence-to-stand-trial-an-overview
#19
REVIEW
Steven K Hoge
The legal concept of competence to stand trial has ancient roots. The history of this legal construct in Anglo-Saxon law will be reviewed. A competent defendant is a requirement of the criminal justice system because it reflects interests related to the dignity of the process, the accuracy of adjudication, and respect for the autonomy of defendants. In the United States, legal decisions have established the contours of the requirements related to competent participation in adjudication. Forensic psychiatrists have operationalized the requirements for assessment purposes...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182458/combined-evaluations-of-competency-to-stand-trial-and-mental-state-at-the-time-of-the-offense-an-overlooked-methodological-consideration
#20
Lauren Kois, James M Wellbeloved-Stone, Preeti Chauhan, Janet I Warren
Combined evaluations of competency to stand trial (CST; competency) and mental state at the time of the offense (MSO; sanity) frequently co-occur. However, most research examines the 2 as discrete constructs without considering 4 potential combined evaluation outcomes: competent-sane, incompetent-sane, competent-insane, and incompetent-insane. External validity can be improved if research more closely mirrored practice. It may be incorrect to assume incompetent defendants are similar across CST-only and combined evaluations, and insane defendants are similar across MSO-only and combined evaluations...
June 2017: Law and Human Behavior
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