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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527023/-high-resolution-manometry-of-pharyngeal-swallowing-dynamics
#1
REVIEW
M Jungheim, M Ptok
BACKGROUND: To transport a bolus from the mouth into the stomach, regular contraction of the pharyngeal muscles and a coordinated function of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) are necessary. The muscle contraction generates intraluminal pressure, which pushes the bolus continuously forward. In contrast to imaging studies, manometric methods enable assessment of intraluminal pressure buildup and the function of the muscles involved. These methods were initially established for the esophagus and have been used increasingly in the pharynx for 7-8 years...
May 19, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526693/a-simple-laboratory-exercise-with-rat-isolated-esophagus-and-stomach-fundus-to-reveal-functional-differences-between-striated-and-smooth-muscle-cells
#2
Francisco José Batista-Lima, Kalinne Kelly Lima Gadelha, Daniel Maia Oliveira, Thiago Brasileiro Vasconcelos, Teresinha Silva Brito, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães
This study describes an undergraduate student laboratory activity using isolated preparations from rat gastrointestinal tissues that possess contractile profiles typically exhibited by striated and smooth muscle cells. While students are introduced to an ex vivo methodology, they can compare differences in trace experiments, twitch aspects, phasic and tonic properties, force-frequency relationships, and pharmacological responsiveness of esophageal (striated) and fundic (smooth muscle) segments. Muscle strips were subjected to electrical field stimulation (EFS) applied by platinum electrodes immersed in the physiological solution...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525453/esophageal-cancer-diagnosed-by-thyroid-scintigraphy
#3
María de la Cinta Calvo-Morón, Francisco Javier García-Gómez, Pablo Antonio de la Riva-Pérez, Juan Castro-Montaño
We report a 34-year-old man referred because of increasing dysphagia secondary to goiter. Thyroid scintigraphy and SPECT/CT images helped to recognize an unsuspected esophageal dilation due to a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma arising at the lower end of the esophagus. Further examinations are mandatory when abnormal activities are observed during thyroid scintigraphy.
May 19, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524628/myenteric-neuroprotective-role-of-aspirin-in-acute-and-chronic-experimental-infections-with-trypanosoma-cruzi
#4
J Y Oda, M O Belém, T M Carlos, R Gouveia, B F C Luchetti, N M Moreira, C L Massocatto, S M Araújo, D M G Sant Ana, N C Buttow, P Pinge-Filho, E J A Araújo
BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical studies have shown that myenteric neuron cell death during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi mainly occurs in the esophagus and colon, resulting in megaesophagus and megacolon, respectively. Evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX) is involved in the T. cruzi invasion process. The use of low-dose aspirin (ASA), a COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, has been shown to reduce infection with T. cruzi. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of treatment with low-dose ASA on myenteric colonic neurons during murine infection with T...
May 19, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523325/synchronous-gastric-tumors-case-presentation
#5
Carmen NeamŢu, Bogdan Dan Totolici, Octavian Marius CreŢu, Casiana Stănescu, Andrei Ardelean, Oana Badea, George Ciprian Pribac, Mircea Ovidiu Ciobanu, GarofiŢa Olivia Mateescu, Stelian ŞtefăniŢă Mogoantă
Synchronous gastric tumors, and, especially the presence of an adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors, are less frequent. We present the case of a 75-year-old patient, with no gastrointestinal pathology in the medical history, who was admitted for marked asthenia, nausea, coffee grounds vomiting, inappetence, dizziness, weight loss and periodical epigastralgias. The clinical and imagistic examinations highlighted an ulcerative, infiltrative, bleeding tumor formation, present on the anterior side and subcardially on the small curvature...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523071/forsaken-foregut-case-report-of-simultaneous-black-esophagus-and-ischemic-cholangiopathy
#6
Paul A Cameron, Franzjosef Schweiger
Black esophagus or acute esophageal necrosis rarely occurs after severe hemodynamic compromise or low-flow states. Other contributing factors may include corrosive injury from gastric contents and diminished mucosal repair mechanisms. Ischemic cholangitis, another rare clinical entity, is also usually the result of a significant vascular and/or hypotensive insult to the biliary tree. We describe the first case of combined acute esophageal necrosis and ischemic cholangiopathy in a 62-year-old male who completely recovered from the esophageal injury but developed progressive liver failure from ischemic cholangiopathy...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515926/cisplatin-based-chemoradiotherapy-with-5-fluorouracil-or-pemetrexed-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-unresectable-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-retrospective-analysis
#7
Zengyun Li, Peiliang Zhang, Qingtong Ma, Dongqing Wang, Tao Zhou
Treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (PF regimen) remains the most frequently used chemotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed/cisplatin (PP regimen) as definitive treatment compared with PF. A total of 60 patients with locally advanced, unresectable SCC of the esophagus receiving concomitant chemoradiotherapy were recruited in this study; of those patients, 29 received four cycles (two concomitant and two post-radiotherapy) of the PF regimen (arm A, cisplatin 25 mg/m(2)/day i...
May 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514715/impact-of-physician-education-and-availability-of-parameters-regarding-esophageal-pressure-and-transpulmonary-pressure-on-clinical-decisions-involving-ventilator-management
#8
Yasuhiro Norisue, Lonny Ashworth, Takaki Naito, Jun Kataoka, Muneyuki Takeuchi, Sunao Usami, Junko Takada, Shigeki Fujitani
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of physician education and the availability of Peso and PL data on physicians' decisions regarding ventilator management during specific simulated clinical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a prospective, before-after study using a case scenario-based questionnaire and a case simulator device comprising an Avea ventilator and an artificial lung and esophagus, which was connected to a Series 1101 Electronic Breathing Simulator...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514512/prevalence-of-the-aberrant-right-subclavian-artery-reported-in-a-published-systematic-review-of-cadaveric-studies-the-impact-of-an-outlier
#9
REVIEW
Anthony P Polednak
The aberrant or anomalous right subclavian artery (ARSA), which arises directly from the aortic arch and crosses to the right side usually behind the esophagus, is a rare but clinically important anatomic variant. A published systematic review (SR) of 15 cadaveric studies on ARSA studies reported that prevalence ranged from 0.2% to 13.3% of the general population; the total unweighted prevalence of ARSA was 325 cases in 13,208 bodies or 2.46%. The present review, however, found that the 13.3% figure was for a 133 cases from a larger case series without a denominator...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514496/a-reappraisal-of-children-s-thoracic-surface-anatomy
#10
Nicholas Fischer, Jonty Morreau, Ramanen Sugunesegran, Kiarash Taghavi, Ali Mirjalili
Accurate knowledge of surface anatomy is fundamental to safe clinical practice. A paucity of evidence in the literature regarding thoracic surface anatomy in children was identified. The associations between surface landmarks and internal structures were meticulously analyzed by reviewing high quality computed tomography (CT) images of 77 children aged from four days to 12 years. The results confirmed that the sternal angle is an accurate surface landmark for the azygos-superior vena cava junction in a plane through to the level of upper T4 from birth to age four, and to lower T4 in older children...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514401/-differentiation-therapy-for-non-acidic-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#11
N B Lishchuk, V I Simanenkov, S V Tikhonov
AIM: To investigate the clinical and pathogenetic features of the non-acidic types of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to evaluate the impact of combined therapy versus monotherapy on the course of this disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The investigation enrolled 62 patients with non-acidic GERD. The follow-up period was 6 weeks. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) weakly acidic gastroesophageal refluxes (GER); 2) weakly alkaline GER. Then each group was distributed, thus making up 4 groups: 1) 19 patients with weakly acidic GER who received monotherapy with rabeprazole 20 mg/day; 2) 21 patients with weakly acidic GER had combined therapy with rabeprazole 20 mg and itopride; 3) 8 patients with weakly alkaline GER who received ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) monotherapy; and 4) 14 patients with weakly alkaline GER who had combined therapy with UDCA and itopride, The clinical symptoms of the disease, the endoscopic pattern of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) mucosa, histological changes in the esophageal and gastric mucosa, and the results of 24-hour impedance pH monitoring were assessed over time...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513058/pro-myogenic-and-low-oxygen-culture-increases-expression-of-contractile-smooth-muscle-markers-in-human-fibroblasts
#12
Matija Veber, David Dolivo, Marsha Rolle, Tanja Dominko
Smooth muscle cells are essential for tissue engineering strategies to fabricate organs such as blood vessels, esophagus, and bladder, and to create disease models of these systems. In order for such therapies and models to be feasible, smooth muscle cells must be sourced effectively to enable production of large numbers of functional cells. In vitro, smooth muscle cells divide slowly and demonstrate short proliferative lifespans compared to other types of cells including stem cells and fibroblasts, limiting the number of cells that can be derived from expansion in culture of a primary isolation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512391/a-foreign-body-toothbrush-in-the-esophagus-of-a-patient-with-hiatal-hernia
#13
Marisa Klancnik, Maja Grgec, Nikola Perković, Petar Ivanišević, Nikola Kolja Poljak
Toothbrush ingestion is rare and most commonly seen in patients with psychiatric comorbidities and in young women with a medical history of eating disorders who try to induce emesis. Long ingested objects, such as a toothbrush, cannot pass the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously and require endoscopic removal or even a surgical approach in cases of unsuccessful endoscopic removal or complication development. We present a case of a 71-year-old male with hiatal hernia without psychiatric or neurological comorbidity who accidentally ingested a toothbrush during oral hygiene routine...
January 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508868/influence-of-age-and-eosinophilic-esophagitis-on-esophageal-distensibility-in-a-pediatric-cohort
#14
Calies Menard-Katcher, Alain J Benitez, Zhaoxing Pan, Faria N Ahmed, Benjamin J Wilkins, Kelley E Capocelli, Chris A Liacouras, Ritu Verma, Jonathan M Spergel, Glenn T Furuta, Amanda B Muir
OBJECTIVES: Sequelae of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) include food impaction and esophageal stricture. Duration of inflammation is a predicted risk factor; however, complications remain unpredictable. Studies using the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) have demonstrated decreased distensibility of the esophagus in adult patients with EoE. As the impact of inflammation on the developing esophagus is unknown, we investigated esophageal distensibility in a pediatric cohort to determine the effect of age, ongoing inflammation, and fibrotic features on distensibility...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506047/first-report-of-clavinema-mariae-nematoda-philometridae-in-cultured-rockfish-sebastes-schlegeli-in-cheonsuman-bay-the-republic-of-korea
#15
Hyun-Ja Han, Jung Soo Seo, Jeong Su Park, Haeng Lim Lee, Han Gill Seo, Sung Hee Jung, Se Ryun Kwon
In July 2012, philometrid nematodes were discovered in cultured rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) in Cheonsuman (Bay), the Republic of Korea. The nematodes were detected in the epithelial tissues of the rockfish and were identified as Clavinema mariae based on morphological studies using light and scanning electron microscopy. They revealed the characteristics same as previously identified C. mariae, notably having a long body with narrow posterior half, no caudal projection, a cylindrical-shaped esophagus, a well-developed anterior bulbous part of the esophagus, cephalic papillae, and a dorsal esophageal gland...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503544/update-on-foregut-molecular-embryology-and-role-of-regenerative-medicine-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Silvia Perin, Conor J McCann, Osvaldo Borrelli, Paolo De Coppi, Nikhil Thapar
Esophageal atresia (OA) represents one of the commonest and most severe developmental disorders of the foregut, the most proximal segment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (esophagus and stomach) in embryological terms. Of intrigue is the common origin from this foregut of two very diverse functional entities, the digestive and respiratory systems. OA appears to result from incomplete separation of the ventral and dorsal parts of the foregut during development, resulting in disruption of esophageal anatomy and frequent association with tracheo-oesophageal fistula...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503068/a-retrospective-study-on-the-prognostic-value-of-preoperative-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-in-patients-with-primary-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-esophagus
#17
Yan Wang, Jun Feng Liu
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence that systemic inflammation influences the prognosis in patients with malignant tumors. The aim of this research was to investigate the prognostic value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with primary small-cell carcinoma of the esophagus. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 129 patients with primary small-cell carcinoma of the esophagus who underwent esophagectomy in The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University between January 2008 and December 2010...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502435/caustic-ingestions-and-foreign-bodies-ingestions-in-pediatric-patients
#18
REVIEW
Jacob A Kurowski, Marsha Kay
Children inevitably swallow foreign material accidentally or intentionally. Each type of ingestion carries their own set of risks and complications, short and long term, some requiring immediate attention while others close monitoring. Alkalotic household cleaning products and lithium button batteries are increasingly common and damage the esophagus quickly. While many toys with rare-earth metals are banned, they are already present in many households and can cause necrosis of bowel that is between the magnets...
June 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502433/eosinophilic-gastrointestinal-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Lisa M Fahey, Chris A Liacouras
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an atopic disease that is characterized by an isolated infiltration of eosinophils into the epithelium of the esophagus and is triggered by specific allergens. Patients should undergo an upper endoscopy with biopsy after 6 to 8 weeks of treatment with a proton pump inhibitor in order to make the diagnosis of EoE. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a pathologic eosinophilic infiltration of any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, and eosinophilic proctocolitis is an eosinophilic infiltration in the colon alone...
June 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502210/-esophageal-complications-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-consequences-or-defensive-reactions
#20
Örs Péter Horváth, Laura Bognár, András Papp, András Vereczkei
Gastroesophageal reflux disease affects more than 10% of the adult population. Most patients can be effectively treated with lifestyle changes and adequate acid-reducing therapy. However, about 10% of the patients remain symptomatic despite treatment and severe complications may develop. Interestingly, some of these complications seem to be a sort of defensive mechanism that may either alleviate the patient's symptoms or prevent developing further complications. In Barrett's esophagus, which can be unambigously considered as a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease, reflux symptoms ruining the quality of life may significantly improve, since the metaplastic Barrett epithelium is much more resistent to gastric acid, than the normal epithelial lining of the esophagus...
May 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
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