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Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVl)- PositiVe metHicillin-resistant S. aureuS (mrsa) infections

Lilly Cheng Immergluck, Shabnam Jain, Susan M Ray, Robert Mayberry, Sarah Satola, Trisha Chan Parker, Keming Yuan, Anaam Mohammed, Robert C Jerris
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) carriage and infections and determine risk factors associated specifically with MRSA USA300. METHODS: We conducted a case control study in a pediatric emergency department. Nasal and axillary swabs were collected, and participants were interviewed for risk factors. The primary outcome was the proportion of S. aureus carriers among those presenting with and without a skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI)...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Daniel Eibach, Michael Nagel, Benedikt Hogan, Clinton Azuure, Ralf Krumkamp, Denise Dekker, Mike Gajdiss, Melanie Brunke, Nimako Sarpong, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May
BACKGROUND: Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, particularly in the vulnerable paediatric population. This surveillance study aims to identify carriage rates, subtypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence markers of nasal S. aureus isolates collected from children living in the Ashanti region of Ghana. METHODS: Nasal swabs were obtained from children < 15 years of age on admission to the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015...
2017: PloS One
Ying Liu, Zhe Xu, Zhou Yang, Juan Sun, Lin Ma
We evaluated the epidemiological and molecular features of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from children and adult patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in China. Prospective community-acquired S. aureus SSTI surveillance was conducted in 23 hospitals over a 24-month period. Susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials was evaluated using the agar dilution method. StatApriori was used to determine statistically significant association trends...
December 21, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Xing Wang, Xia Li, Wei Liu, Weichun Huang, Qihua Fu, Min Li
Staphylococcus aureus is a globally important human pathogen, especially among children and immunocompromised patients. The emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a serious public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, molecular characteristics and virulence profiles of CA-MRSA infections from pediatric patients in a university hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 80 CA-MRSA isolates were collected from July 2012 to December 2013 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcus chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and spa typing...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Samar S Boswihi, Edet E Udo, Noura Al-Sweih
BACKGROUND: As the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is constantly changing globally, determining the prevailing MRSA clones in a local healthcare facility is important for better management of infections. This study investigated clonal composition and distribution of MRSA isolates in Kuwait's hospitals using a combination of molecular typing methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 400 non-repeat MRSA isolates were obtained between 1992 and 2010 in 13 public hospitals and were characterized using antibiogram, SCCmec typing, spa typing, and multilocus-sequence typing...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin Davido, Azzam Saleh-Mghir, Frédéric Laurent, Claire Danel, Florence Couzon, Laure Gatin, François Vandenesch, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Anne-Claude Crémieux
INTRODUCTION: In bone and joint infections (BJIs), bacterial toxins are major virulence factors: Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) expression leads to severe local damage, including bone distortion and abscesses, while α-hemolysin (Hla) production is associated with severe sepsis-related mortality. Recently, other toxins, namely phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) expressed by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain USA300 (LAC WT) were shown to have ex vivo intracellular cytotoxic activity after S...
2016: PloS One
Abdullah Kılıç, Eyüp Doğan, Sinem Kaya, Mehmet Baysallar
Detection and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical microbiology laboratories are important for the selection of appropriate treatment and obtaining epidemiological data. mecC gene, is a mecA homologue, showing almost 69% DNA similarity with the mecA gene and the encoded protein by this gene shows almost 63% similarity with the PBP2a/2' protein. Several studies indicated that mecC positive MRSA strains can be transmitted from the livestock to humans by cross contamination...
October 2015: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Hossein Motamedi, Seyyed Soheil Rahmat Abadi, Seyyed Mojtaba Moosavian, Maryam Torabi
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus, an important human pathogen is one of the main causative agents of nosocomial infection. Virulence genes play a major role in the pathogenicity of this agent and its infections. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates are major challenge among infectious agents that can cause severe infections and mortality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus produces a unique type of Penicillin Binding Protein 2a (PBP2a) that has low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics...
August 2015: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Sonya L Heltshe, Lisa Saiman, Elena B Popowitch, Melissa B Miller, Margaret Kloster, Valeria Thompson, Thomas W Ferkol, Wynton C Hoover, Michael S Schechter, Marianne S Muhlebach
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infects ∼25% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the United States. We hypothesized that health-related outcomes differed between healthcare-associated (staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec [SCCmec] II) vs community-associated (SCCmec IV) MRSA strains in patients chronically infected with CF. METHODS: At 7 CF centers, MRSA isolates were prospectively obtained from patients ≤18 years old with 2 or more positive MRSA cultures within 1 year...
September 2015: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Charles Emeka Okolie, Karl G Wooldridge, David P J Turner, Alan Cockayne, Richard James
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal toxicity and antibiotic resistance (STAAR) have been menacing public health. Although vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) is currently not as widespread as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), genome evolution of MRSA into VRSA, including strains engineered within the same patient under anti-staphylococcal therapy, may build up to future public health concern. To further complicate diagnosis, infection control and anti-microbial chemotherapy, non-sterile sites such as the nares and the skin could contain both S...
2015: BMC Microbiology
Arkaitz Imaz, Mariana Camoez, Silvana Di Yacovo, Oriol Gasch, M Angeles Dominguez, Antonia Vila, Margarita Maso-Serra, Miquel Pujol, Daniel Podzamczer
BACKGROUND: Colonization by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been found to be markedly more common in HIV-infected individuals in the USA. Studies evaluating the prevalence MRSA colonization in HIV-infected populations in Europe are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA colonization in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: Nasal and pharyngeal S. aureus carriage was assessed in a random sample of 190 patients from an outpatient HIV clinic...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Vineeth Rajan, Sonja M K Schoenfelder, Wilma Ziebuhr, Shubha Gopal
The burden of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is on the rise in population and clinical settings on account of the adaptability and virulence traits of this pathogen. We characterized 45 non-duplicate CA-MRSA strains implicated mainly in skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in a tertiary care hospital in Mysore, South India. All the isolates were genotyped by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) typing, and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)...
August 2015: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
C Chaouch, S Kacem, L Tilouche, S Ketata, O Bouallegue, N Boujaafar
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of osteoarticular infections with Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL) Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) among patients admitted to the orthopedic ward at the Sahloul University Hospital (Sousse, Tunisia) and to study the characteristics of these strains and patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study over a 5-year period. Bacterial identification, antibiotic susceptibility, and molecular study (PCR to detect of the luk-PV gene that encodes PVL) were performed for 44 S...
April 2015: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Tuncer Özekinci, Tuba Dal, Keramettin Yanık, Nida Özcan, Şükran Can, Alicem Tekin, Halil İbrahim Yıldırım, İdris Kandemir
Staphylococcus aureus causes serious hospital-acquired (HA) and community-acquired (CA) infections. Skin and soft-tissue infections especially are sometimes caused by strains harbouring Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). PVL belongs to a family of bi-component leukocidal toxins produced by staphylococci. It is a pore-forming toxin encoded by lukF-PV and lukS-PV. A total of 70 S. aureus strains: 38 (54%) methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and 32 (46%) methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), were isolated from patients admitted to Dicle University Hospital (Turkey)...
November 2, 2014: Biotechnology, Biotechnological Equipment
F S Cavalcante, E D Abad, Y C Lyra, S B Saintive, M Ribeiro, D C Ferreira, K R N dos Santos
Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmec typing, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
July 2015: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Susanne Blomqvist, Åsa Leonhardt, Pratanporn Arirachakaran, Anette Carlen, Gunnar Dahlén
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls...
2015: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Ali M Bazzi, Ali A Rabaan, Mahmoud M Fawarah, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a two-component toxin associated with the toxicity and virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. The presence of PVL is well documented in community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) and is observed in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) with variable prevalence. We assessed the prevalence of PVL in a sample of 93 MSSA patients in a healthcare facility in Eastern Saudi Arabia using real-time PCR for lukSF-PV genes. The presence or absence of PVL was correlated with age, gender, hospitalization status, infection site and antibiotic resistance...
July 2015: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Sakiko Okamura, Yuri Miura, Shinobu Koyama, Hideji Yanagisawa, Tetsuya Matsumoto
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is now endemic in the United States. In Japan, CA-MRSA infections and CA-MRSA surveillance have been scarcely reported. In this study, we conducted a nationwide survey of CA-MRSA in Japan. We collected MRSA strains isolated from outpatients with skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI) at 107 medical facilities from 24 prefectures in 2010 and 2012. Among 10,385 clinical samples from SSTI patients, 3,581 S. aureus isolates (35%) were obtained and 673 of the S...
August 2015: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Adeline Dozois, Isaac Thomsen, Natalia Jimenez-Truque, Nicole Soper, Alexis Pearson, Pheona Mohamed-Rambaran, Kristen B Dettorre, C Buddy Creech, Seth W Wright
OBJECTIVE: The characteristics of staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are poorly understood in northern South America and the Caribbean. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates in an emergency department (ED) in Guyana and to identify specific molecular characteristics of these methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the main teaching hospital in Georgetown, Guyana...
October 2015: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Marnie E Rosenthal, Jose Mediavilla, Liang Chen, Julian Sonnenfeld, Logan Pierce, Alexander Shannon, Helen Boucher, Mark Pearlmutter, Barry Kreiswirth, Yen-Hong Kuo, Harold Previl, Albert Rojtman
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of nasal carriage is important in predicting staphylococcal infection, and no information exists regarding the endemicity of Staphylococcus aureus in Haiti. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of S. aureus nasal screening in an acute care, a subacute rehabilitation, and a community setting, with a brief medical and epidemiological history. PCR-positive S. aureus screening nasal cultures underwent molecular analysis for spa type, SCCmec type, and virulence genes (Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME)), and were evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility using commercial tests...
December 2014: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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