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Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVl)- PositiVe metHicillin-resistant S. aureuS (mrsa) infections

Samar S Boswihi, Edet E Udo, Noura Al-Sweih
BACKGROUND: As the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is constantly changing globally, determining the prevailing MRSA clones in a local healthcare facility is important for better management of infections. This study investigated clonal composition and distribution of MRSA isolates in Kuwait's hospitals using a combination of molecular typing methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 400 non-repeat MRSA isolates were obtained between 1992 and 2010 in 13 public hospitals and were characterized using antibiogram, SCCmec typing, spa typing, and multilocus-sequence typing...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin Davido, Azzam Saleh-Mghir, Frédéric Laurent, Claire Danel, Florence Couzon, Laure Gatin, François Vandenesch, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Anne-Claude Crémieux
INTRODUCTION: In bone and joint infections (BJIs), bacterial toxins are major virulence factors: Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) expression leads to severe local damage, including bone distortion and abscesses, while α-hemolysin (Hla) production is associated with severe sepsis-related mortality. Recently, other toxins, namely phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) expressed by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain USA300 (LAC WT) were shown to have ex vivo intracellular cytotoxic activity after S...
2016: PloS One
Abdullah Kılıç, Eyüp Doğan, Sinem Kaya, Mehmet Baysallar
Detection and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical microbiology laboratories are important for the selection of appropriate treatment and obtaining epidemiological data. mecC gene, is a mecA homologue, showing almost 69% DNA similarity with the mecA gene and the encoded protein by this gene shows almost 63% similarity with the PBP2a/2' protein. Several studies indicated that mecC positive MRSA strains can be transmitted from the livestock to humans by cross contamination...
October 2015: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Hossein Motamedi, Seyyed Soheil Rahmat Abadi, Seyyed Mojtaba Moosavian, Maryam Torabi
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus, an important human pathogen is one of the main causative agents of nosocomial infection. Virulence genes play a major role in the pathogenicity of this agent and its infections. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates are major challenge among infectious agents that can cause severe infections and mortality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus produces a unique type of Penicillin Binding Protein 2a (PBP2a) that has low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics...
August 2015: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Sonya L Heltshe, Lisa Saiman, Elena B Popowitch, Melissa B Miller, Margaret Kloster, Valeria Thompson, Thomas W Ferkol, Wynton C Hoover, Michael S Schechter, Marianne S Muhlebach
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infects ∼25% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the United States. We hypothesized that health-related outcomes differed between healthcare-associated (staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec [SCCmec] II) vs community-associated (SCCmec IV) MRSA strains in patients chronically infected with CF. METHODS: At 7 CF centers, MRSA isolates were prospectively obtained from patients ≤18 years old with 2 or more positive MRSA cultures within 1 year...
September 2015: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Charles Emeka Okolie, Karl G Wooldridge, David P J Turner, Alan Cockayne, Richard James
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal toxicity and antibiotic resistance (STAAR) have been menacing public health. Although vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) is currently not as widespread as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), genome evolution of MRSA into VRSA, including strains engineered within the same patient under anti-staphylococcal therapy, may build up to future public health concern. To further complicate diagnosis, infection control and anti-microbial chemotherapy, non-sterile sites such as the nares and the skin could contain both S...
2015: BMC Microbiology
Arkaitz Imaz, Mariana Camoez, Silvana Di Yacovo, Oriol Gasch, M Angeles Dominguez, Antonia Vila, Margarita Maso-Serra, Miquel Pujol, Daniel Podzamczer
BACKGROUND: Colonization by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been found to be markedly more common in HIV-infected individuals in the USA. Studies evaluating the prevalence MRSA colonization in HIV-infected populations in Europe are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA colonization in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: Nasal and pharyngeal S. aureus carriage was assessed in a random sample of 190 patients from an outpatient HIV clinic...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Vineeth Rajan, Sonja M K Schoenfelder, Wilma Ziebuhr, Shubha Gopal
The burden of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is on the rise in population and clinical settings on account of the adaptability and virulence traits of this pathogen. We characterized 45 non-duplicate CA-MRSA strains implicated mainly in skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in a tertiary care hospital in Mysore, South India. All the isolates were genotyped by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) typing, and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)...
August 2015: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
C Chaouch, S Kacem, L Tilouche, S Ketata, O Bouallegue, N Boujaafar
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of osteoarticular infections with Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL) Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) among patients admitted to the orthopedic ward at the Sahloul University Hospital (Sousse, Tunisia) and to study the characteristics of these strains and patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study over a 5-year period. Bacterial identification, antibiotic susceptibility, and molecular study (PCR to detect of the luk-PV gene that encodes PVL) were performed for 44 S...
April 2015: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Tuncer Özekinci, Tuba Dal, Keramettin Yanık, Nida Özcan, Şükran Can, Alicem Tekin, Halil İbrahim Yıldırım, İdris Kandemir
Staphylococcus aureus causes serious hospital-acquired (HA) and community-acquired (CA) infections. Skin and soft-tissue infections especially are sometimes caused by strains harbouring Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). PVL belongs to a family of bi-component leukocidal toxins produced by staphylococci. It is a pore-forming toxin encoded by lukF-PV and lukS-PV. A total of 70 S. aureus strains: 38 (54%) methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and 32 (46%) methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), were isolated from patients admitted to Dicle University Hospital (Turkey)...
November 2, 2014: Biotechnology, Biotechnological Equipment
F S Cavalcante, E D Abad, Y C Lyra, S B Saintive, M Ribeiro, D C Ferreira, K R N dos Santos
Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmec typing, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
July 2015: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Susanne Blomqvist, Åsa Leonhardt, Pratanporn Arirachakaran, Anette Carlen, Gunnar Dahlén
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls...
2015: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Ali M Bazzi, Ali A Rabaan, Mahmoud M Fawarah, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a two-component toxin associated with the toxicity and virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. The presence of PVL is well documented in community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) and is observed in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) with variable prevalence. We assessed the prevalence of PVL in a sample of 93 MSSA patients in a healthcare facility in Eastern Saudi Arabia using real-time PCR for lukSF-PV genes. The presence or absence of PVL was correlated with age, gender, hospitalization status, infection site and antibiotic resistance...
July 2015: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Sakiko Okamura, Yuri Miura, Shinobu Koyama, Hideji Yanagisawa, Tetsuya Matsumoto
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is now endemic in the United States. In Japan, CA-MRSA infections and CA-MRSA surveillance have been scarcely reported. In this study, we conducted a nationwide survey of CA-MRSA in Japan. We collected MRSA strains isolated from outpatients with skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI) at 107 medical facilities from 24 prefectures in 2010 and 2012. Among 10,385 clinical samples from SSTI patients, 3,581 S. aureus isolates (35%) were obtained and 673 of the S...
August 2015: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Adeline Dozois, Isaac Thomsen, Natalia Jimenez-Truque, Nicole Soper, Alexis Pearson, Pheona Mohamed-Rambaran, Kristen B Dettorre, C Buddy Creech, Seth W Wright
OBJECTIVE: The characteristics of staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are poorly understood in northern South America and the Caribbean. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates in an emergency department (ED) in Guyana and to identify specific molecular characteristics of these methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the main teaching hospital in Georgetown, Guyana...
October 2015: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Marnie E Rosenthal, Jose Mediavilla, Liang Chen, Julian Sonnenfeld, Logan Pierce, Alexander Shannon, Helen Boucher, Mark Pearlmutter, Barry Kreiswirth, Yen-Hong Kuo, Harold Previl, Albert Rojtman
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of nasal carriage is important in predicting staphylococcal infection, and no information exists regarding the endemicity of Staphylococcus aureus in Haiti. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of S. aureus nasal screening in an acute care, a subacute rehabilitation, and a community setting, with a brief medical and epidemiological history. PCR-positive S. aureus screening nasal cultures underwent molecular analysis for spa type, SCCmec type, and virulence genes (Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME)), and were evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility using commercial tests...
December 2014: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Marc Stegger, Thierry Wirth, Paal S Andersen, Robert L Skov, Anna De Grassi, Patricia Martins Simões, Anne Tristan, Andreas Petersen, Maliha Aziz, Kristoffer Kiil, Ivana Cirković, Edet E Udo, Rosa del Campo, Jaana Vuopio-Varkila, Norazah Ahmad, Sima Tokajian, Georg Peters, Frieder Schaumburg, Barbro Olsson-Liljequist, Michael Givskov, Elizabeth E Driebe, Henrik E Vigh, Adebayo Shittu, Nadjia Ramdani-Bougessa, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Lance B Price, Francois Vandenesch, Anders R Larsen, Frederic Laurent
UNLABELLED: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was recognized in Europe and worldwide in the late 1990s. Within a decade, several genetically and geographically distinct CA-MRSA lineages carrying the small SCCmec type IV and V genetic elements and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) emerged around the world. In Europe, the predominant CA-MRSA strain belongs to clonal complex 80 (CC80) and is resistant to kanamycin/amikacin and fusidic acid. CC80 was first reported in 1993 but was relatively rare until the late 1990s...
2014: MBio
Ayano Miyagi, Isamu Nakasone, Nobuhisa Yamane
It is well known that some isolates of Staphylococcus aureus produce pathogenic toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), and that the toxin has been reported to be highly associated with community acquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA). Currently, the PCR method using specific primers for the PVL gene (LukS-PV-lukF-PV) have been widely used to detect PVL. In this study, we evaluated the PVL-RPLA "Seiken", diagnostic reagent based on a reserved passive latex agglutination reaction with a specific monoclonal antibody for detecting PVL...
June 2014: Rinsho Byori. the Japanese Journal of Clinical Pathology
Houda H Harastani, Sima T Tokajian
BACKGROUND: The emergence of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has caused a change in MRSA epidemiology worldwide. In the Middle East, the persistent spread of CA-MRSA isolates that were associated with multilocus sequence type (MLST) clonal complex 80 and with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV (CC80-MRSA-IV), calls for novel approaches for infection control that would limit its spread. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the epidemiology of CC80-MRSA-IV was investigated in Jordan and Lebanon retrospectively covering the period from 2000 to 2011...
2014: PloS One
Bidya Shrestha, Winny Singh, V Samuel Raj, Bharat Mani Pokhrel, Tribhuban Mohan Mohapatra
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carrying the important virulence determinant, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), is an emerging infectious pathogen associated with skin and soft tissue infections as well as life-threatening invasive diseases. In carrying out the first PVL prevalence study in Nepal, we screened 73 nosocomial isolates of S. aureus from 2 tertiary care Nepali hospitals and obtained an overall PVL-positivity rate of 35.6% among the hospital isolates: 26.1% of MRSA and 51.9% of methicillin sensitive S...
2014: BioMed Research International
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