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Screening in prostate cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777112/micrornas-as-potential-therapeutics-to-enhance-chemosensitivity-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#1
Hui-Ming Lin, Iva Nikolic, Jessica Yang, Lesley Castillo, Niantao Deng, Chia-Ling Chan, Nicole K Yeung, Eoin Dodson, Benjamin Elsworth, Calan Spielman, Brian Y Lee, Zoe Boyer, Kaylene J Simpson, Roger J Daly, Lisa G Horvath, Alexander Swarbrick
Docetaxel and cabazitaxel are taxane chemotherapy treatments for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, therapeutic resistance remains a major issue. MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that can silence multiple genes, regulating several signalling pathways simultaneously. Therefore, synthetic microRNAs may have therapeutic potential in CRPC by regulating genes involved in taxane response and minimise compensatory mechanisms that cause taxane resistance. To identify microRNAs that can improve the efficacy of taxanes in CRPC, we performed a genome-wide screen of 1280 microRNAs in the CRPC cell lines PC3 and DU145 in combination with docetaxel or cabazitaxel treatment...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777042/rates-of-infection-after-colonoscopy-and-osophagogastroduodenoscopy-in-ambulatory-surgery-centres-in-the-usa
#2
Peiqi Wang, Tim Xu, Saowanee Ngamruengphong, Martin A Makary, Anthony Kalloo, Susan Hutfless
OBJECTIVE: Over 15 million colonoscopies and 7 million osophagogastroduodenoscopies (OGDs) are performed annually in the USA. We aimed to estimate the rates of infections after colonoscopy and OGD performed in ambulatory surgery centres (ASCs). DESIGN: We identified colonoscopy and OGD procedures performed at ASCs in 2014 all-payer claims data from six states in the USA. Screening mammography, prostate cancer screening, bronchoscopy and cystoscopy procedures were comparators...
May 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775158/microrna-expression-in-tumour-tissue-and-plasma-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#3
Ahmed Hussein Zedan, Torben Frøstrup Hansen, Jannie Assenholt, Mindaugas Pleckaitis, Jonna Skov Madsen, Palle Jörn Sloth Osther
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the western world. Clinical practice is continuously challenged by the pitfalls of the available diagnostic tools. microRNAs may represent promising biomarkers in many types of human cancers, including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate microRNA expression in tumour tissue and matched plasma in a cohort of patients with primary metastatic prostate cancer. The relative expression of 12 microRNAs was assessed in diagnostic needle biopsies from the prostate and matched plasma samples in two prospective cohorts (screening cohorts) comprising 21 patients with metastatic prostate cancer and 25 control patients...
May 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774450/the-burden-of-prostate-cancer-in-trinidad-and-tobago-one-of-the-highest-mortality-rates-in-the-world
#4
Wayne A Warner, Tammy Y Lee, Fang Fang, Adana A M Llanos, Smriti Bajracharya, Vasavi Sundaram, Kimberly Badal, Vandana Devika Sookdeo, Veronica Roach, Marjorie Lamont-Greene, Camille Ragin, Simeon Slovacek, Krishan Ramsoobhag, Jasmine Brown, Timothy R Rebbeck, Ravi Maharaj, Bettina F Drake
PURPOSE: In Trinidad and Tobago (TT), prostate cancer (CaP) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the leading cause of cancer deaths among men. TT currently has one of the highest CaP mortality rates in the world. METHODS: 6,064 incident and 3,704 mortality cases of CaP occurring in TT from January 1995 to 31 December 2009 reported to the Dr. Elizabeth Quamina Cancer population-based cancer registry for TT, were analyzed to examine CaP survival, incidence, and mortality rates and trends by ancestry and geography...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772540/hsp70-and-gama-semino-protein-as-possible-prognostic-marker-of-prostate-cancer
#5
Sanjay Kumar, Sanjeev Gurshaney, Yori Adagunodo, Erica Gage, Shezreen Qadri, Mahak Sharma, Shalie Malik, Upender Manne, Udai P Singh, Rajesh Singh, Manoj K Mishra
In the United States, Prostate Cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men. PCa resulted in abnormal growth and function of prostate gland such as secretion of high level of gamma-seminoprotein (gama-SM)/Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) which could be detected in the blood. Beside gama-SM protein, the levels of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) were also observed significantly high. Therefore, gama-SM and Hsp70 are unique proteins with high potential for PCa therapeutics and diagnostics. High level of Hsp70 suppresses apoptosis, thus allowing PCa cells to exist; however, depletion of Hsp70 induces apoptosis in PCa cells...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772243/synthesis-pharmacological-evaluation-and-docking-studies-of-progesterone-and-testosterone-derivatives-as-anticancer-agents
#6
Muafia Jabeen, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhry, Ghulam Abbas Miana, Khondaker Miraz Rahman, Umer Rashid, Hidayat-Ullah Khan, Arshia, Abdul Sadiq
Steroidal hormones progesterone and testosterone play a vital role in breast and prostate cancers. In this research, we have synthesized and characterized a total of thirty-one (31) new nitrogenous derivatives of progesterone and testosterone. The synthesized derivatives (1-31) were screened for their anti-cancer potential against MCF-7 and PC-3 cell lines of breast using MTT assay. The compounds 1-31exhibited significant inhibitory potentials against MCF-7 and PC-3 cell lines. In MCF-7 assay, compound 17 displayed IC50 value of 04 ±0...
May 14, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772218/new-evidence-for-the-benefit-of-psa-screening-data-from-400-887-kaiser-permanente-patients
#7
Paul F Alpert
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether prostate cancer screening with PSA is beneficial in reducing prostate cancer mortality, and to determine optimal screening intervals and age groups to be screened. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 400,887 men under age 80, with no prior history of prostate cancer, who had PSA testing at Kaiser Permanente Northern California in the 5 calendar years 1998 to 2002, and were followed for 12-16 years. Subjects were stratified into 6 groups based on the screening interval, and into 7 groups based on age...
May 14, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771950/biophotonic-detection-of-high-order-chromatin-alterations-in-field-carcinogenesis-predicts-risk-of-future-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-pilot-study
#8
Richard Kalman, Andrew Stawarz, David Nunes, Di Zhang, Mart A Dela Cruz, Arpan Mohanty, Hariharan Subramanian, Vadim Backman, Hemant K Roy
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) results from chronic inflammation/cirrhosis. Unfortunately, despite use of radiological/serological screening techniques, HCC ranks as a leading cause of cancer deaths. Our group has used alterations in high order chromatin as a marker for field carcinogenesis and hence risk for a variety of cancers (including colon, lung, prostate, ovarian, esophageal). In this study we wanted to address whether these chromatin alterations occur in HCC and if it could be used for risk stratification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771766/prevalence-of-extrapancreatic-malignancies-among-patients-with-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasms-of-the-pancreas
#9
Nikola Panic, Federico Macchini, Sonia Solito, Stefania Boccia, Emanuele Leoncini, Alberto Larghi, Debora Berretti, Sara Pevere, Salvatore Vadala, Marco Marino, Maurizio Zilli, Milutin Bulajic
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a study in order to assess the prevalence of extrapancreatic malignancies (EPMs) in a cohort of patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) from northeast of Italy. METHODS: A study was conducted in hospital Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine, Italy. Hospital records were screened in order to identify newly diagnosed IPMN cases in the period from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2015. We searched for EPMs diagnosed previous to, synchronous to, or after the IPMN...
May 17, 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769196/an-in-vivo-screen-identifies-pygo2-as-a-driver-for-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#10
Xin Lu, Xiaolu Pan, Chang-Jiun Wu, Di Zhao, Shan Feng, Yong Zang, Rumi Lee, Sunada Khadka, Samirkumar B Amin, Eun-Jung Jin, Xiaoying Shang, Pingna Deng, Yanting Luo, William R Morgenlander, Jacqueline Weinrich, Xuemin Lu, Shan Jiang, Qing Chang, Nora M Navone, Patricia Troncoso, Ronald A DePinho, Y Alan Wang
Advanced prostate cancer displays conspicuous chromosomal instability and rampant copy number aberrations, yet the identity of functional drivers resident in many amplicons remain elusive. Here, we implemented a functional genomics approach to identify new oncogenes involved in prostate cancer progression. Through integrated analyses of focal amplicons in large prostate cancer genomic and transcriptomic datasets as well as genes upregulated in metastasis, 276 putative oncogenes were enlisted into an in vivo gain-of-function tumorigenesis screen...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765202/inhibition-of-human-prostate-cancer-pc-3-cells-and-targeting-of-pc-3-derived-prostate-cancer-stem-cells-with-koenimbin-a-natural-dietary-compound-from-murraya-koenigii-l-spreng
#11
Behnam Kamalidehghan, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Elahe Motevaseli, Fatemeh Ahmadipour
Background: Inhibition of prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) is an efficient curative maintenance protocol for the prevention of prostate cancer. The objectives of this study were to assess the efficiency of koenimbin, a major biologically active component of Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng, in the suppression of PC-3 cells and to target PC-3-derived cancer stem cells (CSCs) through apoptotic and CSC signaling pathways in vitro. Materials and methods: The antiproliferative activity of koenimbin was examined using MTT, and the apoptotic detection was carried out by acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) double-staining and multiparametric high-content screening (HCS) assays...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764864/targeting-the-hsp40-hsp70-chaperone-axis-as-a-novel-strategy-to-treat-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#12
Michael A Moses, Yeong Sang Kim, Genesis M Rivera-Marquez, Nobu Oshima, Matthew J Watson, Kristin Beebe, Catherine Wells, Sunmin Lee, Abbey D Zuehlke, Hao Shao, William E Bingman, Vineet Kumar, Sanjay Malhotra, Nancy L Weigel, Jason E Gestwicki, Jane Trepel, Leonard M Neckers
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is characterized by reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in part by elevated expression of AR splice variants (ARv) including ARv7, a constitutively active, ligand binding domain (LBD)-deficient variant whose expression has been correlated with therapeutic resistance and poor prognosis. In a screen to identify small molecule dual inhibitors of both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent AR gene signatures, we identified the chalcone C86. Binding studies using purified proteins and CRPC cell lysates revealed C86 to interact with heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40)...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763267/top-20-research-studies-of-2017-for-primary-care-physicians
#13
Mark H Ebell, Roland Grad
Based on systematic surveillance of more than 110 medical journals, 247 studies met criteria as POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters) in 2017. Members of the Canadian Medical Association identified 20 of these POEMs as most relevant to practice. This article reviews the clinical questions and bottom-line answers from these studies. Blood pressure should be measured after a period of rest, using a bare arm, and orthostatic blood pressure is more predictive when measured after one minute of standing rather than three minutes...
May 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753463/de-novo-urologic-malignancies-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#14
H Antunes, E Tavares-da-Silva, R Oliveira, J Carvalho, B Parada, C Bastos, A Figueiredo
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressed organ transplant patients have an elevated risk of malignancies. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of urologic malignancies in renal transplant recipients, as well as to evaluate their monitoring, treatment, and outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study of 2897 renal transplants between January 1987 and December 2016. Recipients presenting with de novo urologic malignancies were evaluated...
March 10, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752180/-177-lu-psma-617-radionuclide-treatment-in-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-lupsma-trial-a-single-centre-single-arm-phase-2-study
#15
Michael S Hofman, John Violet, Rodney J Hicks, Justin Ferdinandus, Sue Ping Thang, Tim Akhurst, Amir Iravani, Grace Kong, Aravind Ravi Kumar, Declan G Murphy, Peter Eu, Price Jackson, Mark Scalzo, Scott G Williams, Shahneen Sandhu
BACKGROUND: Progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer is a highly lethal disorder and new effective therapeutic agents that improve patient outcomes are urgently needed. Lutetium-177 [177 Lu]-PSMA-617, a radiolabelled small molecule, binds with high affinity to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) enabling beta particle therapy targeted to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We aimed to investigate the safety, efficacy, and effect on quality of life of [177 Lu]-PSMA-617 in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who progressed after standard treatments...
May 7, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748182/a-pdx-organoid-biobank-of-advanced-prostate-cancers-captures-genomic-and-phenotypic-heterogeneity-for-disease-modeling-and-therapeutic-screening
#16
Michael L Beshiri, Caitlin M Tice, Crystal Tran, Holly M Nguyen, Adam G Sowalsky, Supreet Agarwal, Keith H Jansson, Qi Yang, Kerry A McGowen, Juan Juan Yin, Aian Neil Alilin, Fatima H Karzai, William Dahut, Eva Corey, Kathleen Kelly
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer translational research has been hampered by the lack of comprehensive and tractable models   that represent the genomic landscape of clinical disease. Metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) recapitulate the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the disease. We sought to establish a representative, preclinical platform of PDX-derived organoids that is experimentally facile for high throughput and mechanistic analysis...
May 10, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744304/insights-for-public-education-provided-by-french-media-on-ideas-about-prostate-cancer-a-media-analysis-study
#17
Margareth S Zanchetta, Marguerite Cognet, Mary Rachel Lam-Kin-Teng, Marie Elisabeth Dumitriu, Carlos Haag, Bernard Kadio, François Desgrandchamps, Lise Rénaud
Background: This study explored the French media's presentation of ideas and medical information about prostate cancer (PC) that may influence men's understanding, attitudes and behavior. Methods: A qualitative media content analysis centered on PC information delivered by French professional media. The selected data were produced in the aftermath of the High Health Authority's decision in 2008 not to recommend systematic screening by prostate specific antigen(PSA) for men over 50. Source was the Media Archives of the French National Library...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743538/which-technology-to-select-for-primary-focal-treatment-of-prostate-cancer-european-section-of-urotechnology-esut-position-statement
#18
REVIEW
Roman Ganzer, Vinodh Kumar Adithyaa Arthanareeswaran, Hashim U Ahmed, Andrea Cestari, Pascal Rischmann, Georg Salomon, Dogu Teber, Evangelos Liatsikos, Jens-Uwe Stolzenburg, Eric Barret
BACKGROUND: With growing interest in focal therapy (FT) of prostate cancer (PCa) there is an increasing armamentarium of treatment modalities including high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), cryotherapy, focal laser ablation (FLA), irreversible electroporation (IRE), vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP), focal brachytherapy (FBT) and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). Currently there are no clear recommendations as to which of these technologies are appropriate for individual patient characteristics...
May 9, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743218/living-in-cold-spot-communities-is-associated-with-poor-health-and-health-quality
#19
Winston Liaw, Alex H Krist, Sebastian T Tong, Roy Sabo, Camille Hochheimer, Jennifer Rankin, David Grolling, Jene Grandmont, Andrew W Bazemore
PURPOSE: Little is known about incorporating community data into clinical care. This study sought to understand the clinical associations of cold spots (census tracts with worse income, education, and composite deprivation). METHODS: Across 12 practices, we assessed the relationship between cold spots and clinical outcomes (obesity, uncontrolled diabetes, pneumonia vaccination, cancer screening-colon, cervical, and prostate-and aspirin chemoprophylaxis) for 152,962 patients...
May 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743049/cost-implications-of-psa-screening-differ-by-age
#20
Karthik Rao, Stella Liang, Michael Cardamone, Corinne E Joshu, Kyle Marmen, Nrupen Bhavsar, William G Nelson, H Ballentine Carter, Michael C Albert, Elizabeth A Platz, Craig E Pollack
BACKGROUND: Multiple guidelines seek to alter rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening. The costs borne by payers associated with PSA-based screening for men of different age groups-including the costs of screening and subsequent diagnosis, treatment, and adverse events-remain uncertain. We sought to develop a model of PSA costs that could be used by payers and health care systems to inform cost considerations under a range of different scenarios. METHODS: We determined the prevalence of PSA screening among men aged 50 and higher using 2013-2014 data from a large, multispecialty group, obtained reimbursed costs associated with screening, diagnosis, and treatment from a commercial health plan, and identified transition probabilities for biopsy, diagnosis, treatment, and complications from the literature to generate a cost model...
May 9, 2018: BMC Urology
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