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Screening in prostate cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822325/are-there-regional-tendencies-toward-controversial-screening-practices-a-study-of-prostate-and-breast-cancer-screening-in-a-medicare-population
#1
Eric Raffin, Tracy Onega, Julie Bynum, Andrea Austin, Donald Carmichael, Kristen Bronner, Philip Goodney, Elias S Hyams
INTRODUCTION: Prostate and breast cancer screening in older patients continue to be controversial. Balancing the desire for early detection with avoidance of over-diagnosis has led to competing and contradictory guidelines for both practices. Despite similarities, it is not known how these screening practices are related at the regional level. In this study, we examined how screening PSA and mammography are related within healthcare regions, and, to better understand what may be driving these practices, whether they are associated with local intensity of care...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813112/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-the-clinical-effectiveness-of-screening-and-diagnostic-tests-for-cancer
#2
André Tito Pereira Bueno, Vladimir Lisboa Capelasso, Rafael Leite Pacheco, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Tiago Biachi de Castria, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of screening tests for cancer is to detect it at an early stage in order to increase the chances of treatment. However, their unrestrained use may lead to unnecessary examinations, overdiagnosis and higher costs. It is thus necessary to evaluate their clinical effects in terms of benefits and harm. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of Cochrane systematic reviews, carried out in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
July 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811834/high-risk-human-papilloma-viruses-hpvs-are-present-in-benign-prostate-tissues-before-development-of-hpv-associated-prostate-cancer
#3
Wendy K Glenn, Christopher C Ngan, Timothy G Amos, Richard J Edwards, Joshua Swift, Louise Lutze-Mann, Fei Shang, Noel J Whitaker, James S Lawson
BACKGROUND: Although high risk HPVs are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer it is not known if they have a causal role. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential role of human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in prostate cancer. The aims are (i) to investigate the presence and confirm the identity of high risk HPVs in benign prostate tissues prior to the development of HPV positive prostate cancer in the same patients, and (ii) to determine if HPVs are biologically active...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810355/effects-of-a-randomized-trial-comparing-standard-and-enhanced-counseling-for-men-at-high-risk-of-prostate-cancer-as-a-function-of-race-and-monitoring-style
#4
Pagona Roussi, Suzanne M Miller, Veda N Giri, Elias Obeid, Kuang-Yi Wen, Erin K Tagai, John Scarpato, Laura Gross, Gem Roy
Despite conflicting guidelines, a significant subset of high-risk men decide to undergo routine prostate cancer screening. Yet, there is a scarcity of available programs, and no studies evaluating interventions to support men in dealing with the psychosocial impact of screening. In this study, one of the first to explore the responses of high-risk men enrolling in a Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program ( N = 128), patients underwent a prostate cancer risk counseling visit immediately followed by either a cognitive-affective preparation session designed to help them process the information they received or a general health education session...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806741/risk-of-cancer-in-patients-with-genital-warts-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#5
Ching-Yi Cho, Yu-Cheng Lo, Miao-Chiu Hung, Chou-Cheng Lai, Chun-Jen Chen, Keh-Gong Wu
BACKGROUND: Condyloma acuminata currently affects around 1% of sexually active adults, and its incidence is increasing. The coexistence of genital warts (GW) and certain cancers and an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and various malignancies have been reported. Therefore, we conducted this large national study to analyze the risk of malignancies among men and women with GW in Taiwan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between January 2000 and December 2013, approximately 3 million patients were reported to the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804579/validity-of-prostate-health-index-and-percentage-of-2-pro-prostate-specific-antigen-as-novel-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-prostate-cancer-omani-tertiary-hospitals-experience
#6
Safana S Al Saidi, Nafila B Al Riyami, Mohammed S Al Marhoon, Mohammed S Al Saraf, Salim S Al Busaidi, Riad Bayoumi, Waad-Allah S Mula-Abed
OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer is the leading cancer in older men. The Ministry of Health Oman Cancer Incidence Registry 2013 lists cancer of the prostate as the first most common cancer in males. Therefore, early detection is important and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as an established laboratory test. However, despite its wide use, its value in screening, particularly in asymptomatic males, is controversial when considering the risks and benefits of early detection. METHODS: This prospective, observational study included 136 males (67...
July 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803925/impact-of-prostatic-specific-antigen-threshold-and-screening-interval-in-prostate-cancer-screening-outcomes-comparing-the-swedish-and-finnish-european-randomised-study-of-screening-for-prostate-cancer-centres
#7
Lasse Saarimäki, Jonas Hugosson, Teuvo L Tammela, Sigrid Carlsson, Kirsi Talala, Anssi Auvinen
BACKGROUND: The European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer trial has shown a 21% reduction in prostate cancer (PC) mortality with prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening. Sweden used a 2-yr screening interval and showed a larger mortality reduction than Finland with a 4-yr interval and higher PSA cut-off. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of screening interval and PSA cut-off on PC detection and mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analysed the core age groups (55-69 yr at entry) of the Finnish (N=31 866) and Swedish (N=5901) screening arms at 13 yr and 16 yr of follow-up...
August 10, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801852/phase-1-study-of-darolutamide-odm-201-a-new-generation-androgen-receptor-antagonist-in-japanese-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#8
Nobuaki Matsubara, Hirofumi Mukai, Ako Hosono, Mai Onomura, Masaoki Sasaki, Yoko Yajima, Kensei Hashizume, Masanobu Yasuda, Miho Uemura, Christian Zurth
PURPOSE: This trial assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of darolutamide (ODM-201), a new-generation nonsteroidal androgen receptor antagonist, in Japanese patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: In this open-label, nonrandomized, two-cohort, dose-escalating phase 1 study, Japanese patients with mCRPC were enrolled after a screening period. In the single-dose period (≈1 week), darolutamide was administered at 300 mg (Cohort 1) or 600 mg (Cohort 2) on day-5 (fasting state) and day-2 (fed condition)...
August 11, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800317/identification-of-prostate-cancer-hub-genes-and-therapeutic-agents-using-bioinformatics-approach
#9
Enhao Fang, Xiuqing Zhang, Qi Wang, Daoming Wang
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among men in America. As the molecular mechanism of PCa has not yet been completely discovered, identification of hub genes and potential drug of this disease is an important area of research that could provide new insights into exploring the mechanisms underlying PCa. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify potential biomarkers and novel drug for prostate cancer treatment...
July 30, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795403/prostate-and-breast-cancer-in-four-nordic-countries-a-comparison-of-incidence-and-mortality-trends-across-countries-and-age-groups-1975-2013
#10
R Kvåle, T A Myklebust, G Engholm, S Heinävaara, E Wist, B Møller
In recent decades, management of prostate and breast cancer patients has changed considerably. The purpose of the present study is to interpret patterns of prostate and breast cancer incidence and mortality in four Nordic countries across age groups and time periods. Prostate and breast cancer incidence and mortality data (1975-2013) were obtained from the NORDCAN database. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify changes in the trends. A more prominent increase in prostate than breast cancer incidence was observed...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793236/prostate-specific-antigen-screening-an-update-of-physician-beliefs-and-practices
#11
Ingrid J Hall, Sun Hee Rim, Greta M Massetti, Cheryll C Thomas, Jun Li, Lisa C Richardson
PSA testing for early detection of prostate cancer decreased dramatically following the 2012 PSA screening recommendation against routine screening of asymptomatic men. In an assessment of the screening behaviors of primary care providers, the majority (61%) of family medicine and internal medicine practitioners who responded to a 2016 DocStyles online survey (608 of 1003) recommended prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing based on individual risk or other factors, rather than routinely screening all men for prostate cancer...
August 6, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790115/msh2-loss-in-primary-prostate-cancer
#12
Liana Guedes, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Michael T Schweizer, Nooshin Mirkheshti, Fawaz Almutairi, Jong Chul Park, Stephanie A Glavaris, Jessica L Hicks, Mario A Eisenberger, Angelo M De Marzo, Jonathan I Epstein, William B Isaacs, James R Eshleman, Colin C Pritchard, Tamara L Lotan
PURPOSE: Inactivation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes may predict sensitivity to immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancers. We studied primary prostate tumors with MMR defects. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 1133 primary prostatic adenocarcinomas and 43 prostatic small cell carcinomas (NEPC) were screened by MSH2 immunohistochemistry with confirmation by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Microsatellite instability (MSI) was assessed by PCR and NGS (mSINGS). RESULTS: Of primary adenocarcinomas and NEPC, 1...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780740/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-towards-prostate-cancer-screening-amongst-men-living-in-the-southern-italian-peninsula-the-prevention-and-research-in-oncology-pro-non-profit-foundation-experience
#13
Vincenzo Mirone, Ciro Imbimbo, Davide Arcaniolo, Marco Franco, Roberto La Rocca, Luca Venturino, Lorenzo Spirito, Massimiliano Creta, Paolo Verze
PURPOSE: We aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards prostate cancer (PCa) risk factors and prevention amongst men living in the southern Italian peninsula. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data collected during free preventive visits carried out by the Prevention and Research in Oncology (PRO) non-profit Foundation between July 2013 and July 2016. The following data were collected: demographic and clinical features, knowledge about PCa prevention and sources of knowledge, knowledge about PCa risk factors, previous prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, previous digital rectal examination (DRE), previous prostate ultrasound, and general attitudes towards DRE...
August 5, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774426/novel-anti-prostate-cancer-scaffold-identified-by-the-combination-of-in-silico-and-cell-based-assays-targeting-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#14
Marta Érica Saidel, Karen C Dos Santos, Luís F P Nagano, Carlos Alberto Montanari, Andrei Leitão
Phenotypic assays were performed in prostate cancer cell lines to describe the biological activity of PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibitors retrieved from the virtual screening initiative. These novel chemicals share in common the aminopyridine scaffold, hitting PC-3 cells in macromolar range, with selectivity index over fibroblast cell lines. Moreover, a preliminary study of the mode of action by flow cytometry assay pointed out that these compounds had a rapamycin-like response for the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway modulation...
July 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772302/cancer-risk-in-families-fulfilling-the-amsterdam-criteria-for-lynch-syndrome
#15
N Jewel Samadder, Ken Robert Smith, Jathine Wong, Alun Thomas, Heidi Hanson, Kenneth Boucher, Cathryn Kopituch, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, Randall W Burt, Karen Curtin
Importance: The data describing cancer risks associated with Lynch syndrome are variable. Objectives: To quantify the prevalence of families that fulfill the Amsterdam I or II criteria for Lynch syndrome in the Utah population and investigate the risk of colonic and extracolonic cancers in family members and their relatives. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a population-based study, 202 families with Amsterdam I and II criteria-positive pedigrees in the Utah Population Database were identified...
August 3, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766004/-psychosocial-stress-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer-experiences-by-using-psychooncological-screening-questionnaires
#16
D L Dräger, N N Harke, K-D Sievert, C Protzel, O W Hakenberg
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and accounts for most surgical procedures in uro-oncology. Stressful sequelae of radical prostatectomy are incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Hormone ablation and radiation therapy are also known stressors. Mental stress has a low prevalence compared to other tumor entities. It is highly probable that there is an underexpression of verbally reported emotional experiences. Therefore, a low-threshold access to psycho-oncological services and accurate identification of patients with mental comorbidities is important...
August 1, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765855/what-is-overdiagnosis-and-why-should-we-take-it-seriously-in-cancer-screening
#17
Stacy M Carter, Alexandra Barratt
Overdiagnosis occurs in a population when conditions are diagnosed correctly but the diagnosis produces an unfavourable balance between benefits and harms. In cancer screening, overdiagnosed cancers are those that did not need to be found because they would not have produced symptoms or led to premature death. These overdiagnosed cancers can be distinguished from false positives, which occur when an initial screening test suggests that a person is at high risk but follow-up testing shows them to be at normal risk...
July 26, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765854/psa-testing-for-men-at-average-risk-of-prostate-cancer
#18
Bruce K Armstrong, Michael J Barry, Mark Frydenberg, Robert A Gardiner, Ian Haines, Stacy M Carter
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing of men at normal risk of prostate cancer is one of the most contested issues in cancer screening. There is no formal screening program, but testing is common - arguably a practice that ran ahead of the evidence. Public and professional communication about PSA screening has been highly varied and potentially confusing for practitioners and patients alike. There has been much research and policy activity relating to PSA testing in recent years. Landmark randomised controlled trials have been reported; authorities - including the 2013 Prostate Cancer World Congress, the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, Cancer Council Australia, and the National Health and Medical Research Council - have made or endorsed public statements and/or issued clinical practice guidelines; and the US Preventive Services Task Force is revising its recommendations...
July 26, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765069/prostate-cancer-screening-in-early-medicaid-expansion-states
#19
Jesse D Sammon, Emily C Serrell, Patrick Karabon, Jeffrey J Leow, Firas Abdollah, Joel S Weismann, Paul K J Han, Moritz Hansen, Mani Menon, Quoc-Dien Trinh
PURPOSE: The Affordable Care Act of 2010 included a provision to expand Medicaid by 2014. Six states and jurisdictions elected to expand Medicaid early, before 2012. This provided a natural experiment to test the association between expanded insurance coverage and preventive service utilization, including prostate cancer screening. METHODS: Using 2012 and 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys, we identified men aged 40-64 years who reported prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing in the preceding 12 months...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762556/nadph-oxidase-5-nox5-induced-reactive-oxygen-signaling-modulates-normoxic-hif-1%C3%AE-and-p27-kip1-expression-in-malignant-melanoma-and-other-human-tumors
#20
Smitha Antony, Guojian Jiang, Yongzhong Wu, Jennifer L Meitzler, Hala R Makhlouf, Diana C Haines, Donna Butcher, Dave S Hoon, Jiuping Ji, Yiping Zhang, Agnes Juhasz, Jiamo Lu, Han Liu, Iris Dahan, Mariam Konate, Krishnendu K Roy, James H Doroshow
NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5) generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in signaling cascades that regulate cancer cell proliferation. To evaluate and validate NOX5 expression in human tumors, we screened a broad range of tissue microarrays (TMAs), and report substantial overexpression of NOX5 in malignant melanoma and cancers of the prostate, breast, and ovary. In human UACC-257 melanoma cells that possesses high levels of functional endogenous NOX5, overexpression of NOX5 resulted in enhanced cell growth, increased numbers of BrdU positive cells, and increased γ-H2AX levels...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
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