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Screening in prostate cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627741/proteomics-approach-to-identify-novel-metastatic-bone-markers-from-the-secretome-of-pc-3-prostate-cancer-cells
#1
EunJi Sung, Oh Kwang Kwon, Jae-Mok Lee, Sangkyu Lee
Prostate cancer is the leading type of cancer diagnosed, and the most frequent cause of worldwide male cancer-related deaths annually. The limitations of current prostate cancer screening tests demand the identification of novel biomarkers for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer bone metastasis. In the present study, we performed a proteomic analysis of secreted proteins from the prostate cancer bone metastasis cell line, PC-3, and the normal prostate cell line, RWPE-1. We thus quantified 917 proteins, of which 68 were found to be secreted at higher levels by PC-3 than by RWPE-1 cells via LC-MS/MS...
June 19, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625690/what-have-patients-been-hearing-from-providers-since-the-2012-uspstf-recommendation-against-routine-prostate-cancer-screening
#2
Mohammad Rifat Haider, Zaina P Qureshi, Ronnie Horner, Daniela B Friedman, Charles Bennett
BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to determine the relationship between prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-related information obtained from the provider and PSA test uptake. With recent focus on patient-provider communication (PC) and the guidelines recommending against PSA tests for prostate cancer (PCa), PC regarding the PSA test might affect PSA screening rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the fourth edition of the Health Information National Trends Survey, a nationally-representative US survey on the use of cancer-related information...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621943/natural-products-discovered-in-a-high-throughput-screen-identified-as-inhibitors-of-rgs17-and-as-cytostatic-and-cytotoxic-agents-for-lung-and-prostate-cancer-cell-lines
#3
Christopher R Bodle, Duncan I Mackie, Michael P Hayes, Josephine H Schamp, Michael R Miller, Michael D Henry, Jonathan A Doorn, Jon C D Houtman, Michael A James, David L Roman
Regulator of G Protein Signaling (RGS) 17 is an overexpressed promoter of cancer survival in lung and prostate tumors, the knockdown of which results in decreased tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Identification of drug-like molecules inhibiting this protein could ameliorate the RGS17's pro-tumorigenic effect. Using high-throughput screening, a chemical library containing natural products was interrogated for inhibition of the RGS17-Gαo interaction. Initial hits were verified in control and counter screens...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620736/revisiting-prostate-cancer-screening-practices-among-vermont-primary-care-physicians
#4
Laura Donnelly, Kevan M Sternberg, Takamaru Ashikaga, Mark K Plante, Scott D Perrapato
The objective of this study was to assess the prostate cancer screening practices of Vermont primary care physicians and compare them with a prior study in 2001. An electronic survey was created and emailed to all currently practicing primary care physicians in Vermont. Data was stratified by practice length, practice location, university affiliation, and internal medicine versus family practice. Surveys were received from 123 (27.2%) primary care physicians. 27.7% of physicians in practice <10 years recommended prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, compared with 55...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613202/-comparison-of-two-on-line-risk-calculators-versus-the-detection-of-circulating-prostate-cells-for-the-detection-of-high-risk-prostate-cancer-at-first-biopsy
#5
Nigel P Murray, Cynthia Fuentealba, Eduardo Reyes, Omar Jacob
OBJECTIVE: The limitations of total serum PSA values remains problematic; nomograms may improve the prediction of a positive prostate biopsy (PB). We compare in a prospective study of Chilean men with suspicion of prostate cancer due to an elevated total serum PSA and/or abnormal digital rectal examination, the use of two on-line nomograms with the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) to predict a positive PB for high risk prostate cancer. METHODS: Consecutive men with suspicion of prostate cancer underwent 12 core TRUS prostate biopsy...
June 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611215/genome-wide-crispr-screen-identifies-hnrnpl-as-a-prostate-cancer-dependency-regulating-rna-splicing
#6
Teng Fei, Yiwen Chen, Tengfei Xiao, Wei Li, Laura Cato, Peng Zhang, Maura B Cotter, Michaela Bowden, Rosina T Lis, Shuang G Zhao, Qiu Wu, Felix Y Feng, Massimo Loda, Housheng Hansen He, X Shirley Liu, Myles Brown
Alternative RNA splicing plays an important role in cancer. To determine which factors involved in RNA processing are essential in prostate cancer, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screen to identify the genes that are required for prostate cancer growth. Functional annotation defined a set of essential spliceosome and RNA binding protein (RBP) genes, including most notably heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (HNRNPL). We defined the HNRNPL-bound RNA landscape by RNA immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing and linked these RBP-RNA interactions to changes in RNA processing...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609648/when-no-treatment-is-the-best-treatment-active-surveillance-strategies-for-low-risk-prostate-cancers
#7
REVIEW
V Stavrinides, C C Parker, C M Moore
Although the incidence of prostate cancer is rising due to PSA screening and increased life expectancy, the metastatic potential of low-grade, organ-confined disease remains low. An increasing number of studies suggest that radical treatment in such cases confers little or no survival benefit at a significant cost to morbidity. Active surveillance is a promising management approach of such low-risk cancers: eligible patients are selected based on clinical and pathological findings at diagnosis and are regularly monitored with digital rectal examinations, PSA testing and biopsies...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607597/psa-and-prostate-health-index-based-prostate-cancer-screening-in-a-hereditary-migration-complicated-population-implications-in-precision-diagnosis
#8
Mariyam Akizhanova, Elzira E Iskakova, Valdemir Kim, Xiao Wang, Roman Kogay, Aiym Turebayeva, Qinglei Sun, Ting Zheng, Shenghui Wu, Lixia Miao, Yingqiu Xie
Precision diagnosis requires specific markers for differential ethnic populations. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) level (threshold of 4ng/ml) has been widely used to screen prostate cancer and as reference of pro-biopsy but false diagnosis frequently occurs. Prostate health Index (PHI) is a new diagnosis marker which combines PSA, free PSA and p2PSA4. Overall the PCa screening database is lacking in Kazakhstani patients. We analyzed the PSA levels and Gleason scores of 222 biopsies collected in 2015 in Almaty area, Kazakhstan approved by institutional ethics board...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602712/prevalence-of-self-reported-falls-balance-or-walking-problems-in-older-cancer-survivors-from-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-medicare-health-outcomes-survey
#9
Min H Huang, Jennifer Blackwood, Monica Godoshian, Lucinda Pfalzer
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of falls and balance/walking problems in the past 12months among older cancer survivors before and after cancer diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from individuals aged ≥65years with first primary cancer from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results and Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (SEER-MHOS) linkage (n=12,659). The first MHOS completed by each survivor from 0 to 2years before cancer diagnosis to 1-4years after cancer diagnosis were included...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599761/racial-disparity-in-localized-prostate-cancer-mortality
#10
Haichang Xin
This study aims to examine racial differences in all-cause mortality between African American (AA) and non-African American localized prostate cancer patients. This study advances academic discussion by being among the first to use a sample more representative of the general population that is different from certain subpopulations examined in literature. This study adopted a retrospective cohort study design using the Florida Cancer Data System. The hierarchical logistic regression was employed to analyze mortality in 2004 among living patients with localized prostate cancer from baseline 2000...
July 2017: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595942/multicomponent-access-to-androstano-arylpyrimidines-under-microwave-conditions-and-evaluation-of-their-anti-cancer-activity-in-vitro
#11
Ádám Baji, Tamás Kiss, János Wölfling, Dávid Kovács, Nóra Igaz, Mohana Krishna Gopisetty, Mónika Kiricsi, Éva Frank
Novel ring D- and A-fused pyrimidines in the androstane series were efficiently synthesized within 10-15min in polar protic solvents under microwave irradiation via two kinds of multicomponent heterocyclization reactions followed by spontaneous or promoted oxidation. The rates of the one-pot catalyst-free transformations of steroidal β-ketoaldehydes, ammonium acetate and substituted benzaldehydes in EtOH were found to be affected slightly by the steric and electronic feature of the substituents on the aromatic ring of the arylaldehyde component and the different reactivities of rings D and A of the sterane core...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595934/secular-trends-in-prostate-biopsy-criteria-and-outcomes-the-dartmouth-experience
#12
Lael Reinstatler, Cody Rissman, John D Seigne, Elias S Hyams
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in prostate biopsy and prostate cancer diagnosis at a center with conservative baseline screening practices in the pre- and post-2012 era. More restrictive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening guidelines have led to lower rates of screening, biopsy and diagnosis of prostate cancer post-2012. It is not clear, however, how regions with low baseline screening rates (e.g. the Lebanon, NH hospital referral region centered on Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, with the lowest rate of screening among Medicare patients in 2012) have responded these guidelines...
June 5, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592379/comprehensive-geriatric-assessment-in-men-aged-70-years-or-older-with-localised-prostate-cancer-undergoing-radical-radiotherapy
#13
G E C Osborne, S A Appleyard, D C Gilbert, C I Jones, C Lorimer, M Villanueva, E Peasgood, A Robinson, A Nikapota, A Ring
AIMS: Treatment decisions for men aged 70 years or over with localised prostate cancer need to take into account the risk of death from competing causes and fitness for the proposed treatment. Objective assessments such as those included in a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) might help to inform the decision-making process. The aim of this study was to describe the CGA scores of a cohort of older men with prostate cancer, evaluate potential screening tools in this population and assess whether any CGA component predicts significant acute radiotherapy toxicity...
June 4, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592290/dna-methylation-based-chromatin-compartments-and-chip-seq-profiles-reveal-transcriptional-drivers-of-prostate-carcinogenesis
#14
Poppy Simmonds, Erick Loomis, Edward Curry
BACKGROUND: Profiles of DNA methylation of many tissues relevant in human disease have been obtained from microarrays and are publicly available. These can be used to generate maps of chromatin compartmentalization, demarcating open and closed chromatin across the genome. Additionally, large sets of genome-wide transcription factor binding profiles have been made available thanks to ChIP-seq technology. METHODS: We have identified genomic regions with altered chromatin compartmentalization in prostate adenocarcinoma tissue relative to normal prostate tissue, using DNA methylation microarray data from The Cancer Genome Atlas...
June 7, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591707/identification-of-novel-small-molecule-beclin-1-mimetics-activating-autophagy
#15
Jia Yu, Lan Lan, Seth J Lewin, Steven A Rogers, Anuradha Roy, Xiaoqing Wu, Philip Gao, John Karanicolas, Jeffrey Aubé, Baiwang Sun, Liang Xu
Anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL could block autophagy by binding to Beclin 1 protein, an essential inducer of autophagy. Compounds mimicking Beclin 1 might be able to disrupt Bcl-xL/2-Beclin 1 interaction, free out Beclin 1, and thus trigger autophagy. In order to identify small molecule Beclin 1 mimetics, a fluorescence polarization-based high-throughput screening of 50,316 compounds was carried out with a Z' score of 0.82 ± 0.05, and an outcome of 58 hits. After the structure analysis, three acridine analogues were unveiled and confirmed using the fluorescence polarization assay and the surface plasmon resonance assay...
May 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589750/a-unified-approach-for-assessing-heterogeneity-in-age-period-cohort-model-parameters-using-random-effects
#16
Pavel Chernyavskiy, Mark P Little, Philip S Rosenberg
Age-period-cohort models are a popular tool for studying population-level rates; for example, trends in cancer incidence and mortality. Age-period-cohort models decompose observed trends into age effects that correlate with natural history, period effects that reveal factors impacting all ages simultaneously (e.g. innovations in screening), and birth cohort effects that reflect differential risk exposures that vary across birth years. Methodology for the analysis of multiple population strata (e.g. ethnicity, cancer registry) within the age-period-cohort framework has not been thoroughly investigated...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589403/adjuvant-versus-early-salvage-radiation-therapy-following-radical-prostatectomy-for-men-with-localized-prostate-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Robert T Dess, Todd M Morgan, Paul L Nguyen, Rohit Mehra, Howard M Sandler, Felix Y Feng, Daniel E Spratt
Radical prostatectomy (RP) is now the most common definitive treatment for high-risk prostate cancer. Unfortunately, many men will have residual microscopic disease after surgery alone. Despite level 1 evidence supporting the use of adjuvant radiation therapy (ART), <10% of men with adverse pathology (positive margins or T3 disease) receive ART in the USA. Early salvage radiation therapy (eSRT) at the time of biochemical recurrence has been proposed as an alternative strategy despite the lack of published randomized trials to support this approach...
July 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589398/the-contemporary-role-of-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-active-surveillance-for-prostate-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Ariel A Schulman, Christina Sze, Efrat Tsivian, Rajan T Gupta, Judd W Moul, Thomas J Polascik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growing research supports the use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for the evaluation of localized prostate cancer (PCa). We highlight contemporary evidence supporting its use in active surveillance (AS). RECENT FINDINGS: The emerging approach to localized PCa favors risk-adapted screening, image-guided biopsies, and selective therapeutic interventions. mpMRI is increasingly critical to achieve each of these aims. Early evidence suggests a value of mpMRI before initial biopsy to guide fusion targeting and to rule out non-organ confined disease as well as in the initiation and serial monitoring of men on AS...
July 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585573/tools-for-predicting-patient-reported-outcomes-in-prostate-cancer-patients-undergoing-radical-prostatectomy-a-systematic-review-of-prognostic-accuracy-and-validity
#19
REVIEW
M E O'Callaghan, E Raymond, J Campbell, A D Vincent, K Beckmann, D Roder, S Evans, J McNeil, J Millar, J Zalcberg, M Borg, K Moretti
BACKGROUND: Radical prostatectomy is a common surgical procedure performed to treat prostate cancer. Patient-reported outcomes after surgery include urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, decreased quality of life and psychological effects. Predictive tools to assess the likelihood of an individual experiencing various patient-reported outcomes have been developed to aid decision-making when selecting treatment. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken to identify all papers describing tools for the prediction of patient-reported outcome measures in men with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy...
June 6, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584509/prostate-cancer-detected-by-screening-in-a-semi-urban-community-in-southeast-nigeria-correlations-and-associations-between-anthropometric-measurements-and-prostate-specific-antigen
#20
Fred O Ugwumba, Agharighom D Okoh, Kevin N Echetabu, Emeka I Udeh, Ikenna I Nnabugwu
CONTEXT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages in Nigeria. AIMS: To determine the screen detected PCa prevalence in a suburban community and explore any relationships between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and anthropometric measurements. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Nsukka is a town and local government area (LGA) in Southeast Nigeria in Enugu State. Towns that share a common border with Nsukka are Edem Ani, Alor-uno, Opi, Orba, and Ede-Oballa...
January 2017: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
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