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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636961/myeloid-cells-in-the-central-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
Jasmin Herz, Anthony J Filiano, Ashtyn Smith, Nir Yogev, Jonathan Kipnis
The central nervous system (CNS) and its meningeal coverings accommodate a diverse myeloid compartment that includes parenchymal microglia and perivascular macrophages, as well as choroid plexus and meningeal macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. These myeloid populations enjoy an intimate relationship with the CNS, where they play an essential role in both health and disease. Although the importance of these cells is clearly recognized, their exact function in the CNS continues to be explored. Here, we review the subsets of myeloid cells that inhabit the parenchyma, meninges, and choroid plexus and discuss their roles in CNS homeostasis...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635482/diagnosis-and-management-of-myasthenia-gravis
#2
Christopher Barber
Myasthenia gravis is a rare long-term neurological condition that is characterised by fluctuating skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue, as well as respiratory difficulties. It is both an acquired autoimmune disease and a chronic neuromuscular disorder. Because of its rarity, myasthenia gravis is relatively unknown and may be unfamiliar to many nurses. While there are various types of myasthenia, this article focuses on myasthenia gravis, exploring its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment, and examining the nurse's role in managing the condition...
June 21, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628732/understanding-neurophobia-reasons-behind-impaired-understanding-and-learning-of-neuroanatomy-in-cross-disciplinary-healthcare-students
#3
Muhammad Asim Javaid, Shelly Chakraborty, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens, André Toulouse
Recent studies have highlighted a fear or difficulty with the study and understanding of neuroanatomy among medical and healthcare students. This has been linked with a diminished confidence of clinical practitioners and students to manage patients with neurological conditions. The underlying reasons for this difficulty have been queried among a broad cohort of medical, dental, occupational therapy, and speech and language sciences students. Direct evidence of the students' perception regarding specific difficulties associated with learning neuroanatomy has been provided and some of the measures required to address these issues have been identified...
June 19, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628597/integrating-health-promotion-into-physical-therapy-practice-to-improve-brain-health-and-prevent-alzheimer-disease
#4
Ellen McGough, Neva Kirk-Sanchez, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia, and brain pathology appears years before symptoms are evident. Primary prevention through health promotion can incorporate lifestyle improvement across the lifespan. Risk factor assessment and identifying markers of disease might also trigger preventive measures needed for high-risk individuals and groups. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: Many potential risk factors are modifiable through exercise, and may be responsive to early intervention strategies to reduce the downward slope toward disability...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625338/acute-diplopia-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department-a-cohort-multicenter-italian-study
#5
Umberto Raucci, Pasquale Parisi, Nicola Vanacore, Francesco La Penna, Valentina Ferro, Lucia Calistri, Claudia Bondone, Fabio Midulla, Agnese Suppiej, Raffaele Falsaperla, Duccio Maria Cordelli, Antonella Palmieri, Alberto Verrotti, Sabrina Becciani, Sonia Aguzzi, Mario Mastrangelo, Federica Pelizza, Filippo Greco, Giulia Carbonari, Ramona Tallone, Gabriella Bottone, Italo Trenta, Stefano Masi, Maria Pia Villa, Antonino Reale
BACKGROUND: Acute diplopia (AD) is an uncommon and distressing symptom of numerous ocular and neurological conditions, with potentially serious sequelaes. No data are present in pediatrics on the presentation and management of AD. AIM: This study investigated characteristics, etiology and health care utilization of the pediatric population with AD accessed to pediatric Emergency Departments (ED), trying to identify "red flags" associated with potentially life-threatening (LT) conditions...
June 3, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623186/assessment-of-active-video-gaming-using-adapted-controllers-by-individuals-with-physical-disabilities-a-protocol
#6
Laurie A Malone, Sangeetha Padalabalanarayanan, Justin McCroskey, Mohanraj Thirumalai
BACKGROUND: Individuals with disabilities are typically more sedentary and less fit compared to their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, engaging in physical activity can be extremely challenging due to physical impairments associated with disability and fewer opportunities to participate. One option for increasing physical activity is playing active video games (AVG), a category of video games that requires much more body movement for successful play than conventional push-button or joystick actions...
June 16, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620348/the-utility-of-fdg-pet-ct-in-clinically-suspected-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndrome-a-literature-review-and-retrospective-case-series
#7
Mark P Maskery, Jonathan Hill, John R Cain, Hedley C A Emsley
Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) describes a spectrum of rare, heterogeneous neurological conditions associated with an underlying malignancy. Diagnosis of PNS is inherently difficult, with frequent misdiagnosis and delay. The literature suggests an underlying immune-mediated pathophysiology, and patients are usually tested for the presence of onconeural antibodies. With direct tumor therapy being the most effective method of stabilizing patients, there is a strong emphasis on detecting underlying tumors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620341/the-intersection-between-ocular-and-manual-motor-control-eye-hand-coordination-in-acquired-brain-injury
#8
REVIEW
John-Ross Rizzo, Maryam Hosseini, Eric A Wong, Wayne E Mackey, James K Fung, Edmond Ahdoot, Janet C Rucker, Preeti Raghavan, Michael S Landy, Todd E Hudson
Acute and chronic disease processes that lead to cerebral injury can often be clinically challenging diagnostically, prognostically, and therapeutically. Neurodegenerative processes are one such elusive diagnostic group, given their often diffuse and indolent nature, creating difficulties in pinpointing specific structural abnormalities that relate to functional limitations. A number of studies in recent years have focused on eye-hand coordination (EHC) in the setting of acquired brain injury (ABI), highlighting the important set of interconnected functions of the eye and hand and their relevance in neurological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619447/similar-movements-are-associated-with-drastically-different-muscle-contraction-velocities
#9
Daniel A Hagen, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
We investigated how kinematic redundancy interacts with the neurophysiological control mechanisms required for smooth and accurate, rapid limb movements. Biomechanically speaking, tendon excursions are over-determined because the rotation of few joints determines the lengths and velocities of many muscles. But how different are the muscle velocity profiles induced by various, equally valid hand trajectories? We used an 18-muscle sagittal-plane arm model to calculate 100,000 feasible shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint rotations that produced valid basketball free throws with different hand trajectories, but identical initial and final hand positions and velocities...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617165/transplant-professionals-perceptions-of-long-term-care-residents-candidacy-for-kidney-transplantation
#10
Megan Urbanski, Teri Browne, Mythili Ghanta, Serban Constantinescu, Avrum Gillespie, Heather Hammer, Heather Traino
CONTEXT: Given the aging end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population, kidney transplant (KTx) centers may experience an increase in referrals of patients living in long-term care (LTC) settings (eg, skilled nursing facilities, assisted living facilities, group homes, and boarding homes). OBJECTIVE: To identify best practices among KTx professionals when considering individuals in LTC settings for transplantation. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional survey administered online to US transplant professionals via e-mail LISTSERVs and other professional networks...
June 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615436/hospital-safety-among-neurologic-patients-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-adverse-events
#11
Khara M Sauro, Hude Quan, Khokan C Sikdar, Peter Faris, Nathalie Jette
OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency and type of adverse events (AEs) experienced by neurologic patients in hospital. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used hospital discharge abstract data for children and adults admitted to hospital from 2009 to 2015 with 1 of 9 neurologic conditions (Alzheimer disease and related dementia, brain tumor, epilepsy, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, parkinsonism/Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and stroke)...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607434/a-translational-approach-to-capture-gait-signatures-of-neurological-disorders-in-mice-and-humans
#12
Lauren Broom, Brian A Ellison, Audrey Worley, Lara Wagenaar, Elina Sörberg, Christine Ashton, David A Bennett, Aron S Buchman, Clifford B Saper, Ludy C Shih, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Veronique G VanderHorst
A method for capturing gait signatures in neurological conditions that allows comparison of human gait with animal models would be of great value in translational research. However, the velocity dependence of gait parameters and differences between quadruped and biped gait have made this comparison challenging. Here we present an approach that accounts for changes in velocity during walking and allows for translation across species. In mice, we represented spatial and temporal gait parameters as a function of velocity and established regression models that reproducibly capture the signatures of these relationships during walking...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606659/m2-monocyte-microparticles-are-increased-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#13
Kyle B Walsh, Begoña Campos, Kimberly Hart, Charuhas Thakar, Opeolu Adeoye
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a severe neurologic condition with no proven treatment. Recent evidence suggests that monocytes, a heterogenous group of cells with M1 and M2 phenotypes, contribute to secondary damage following ICH. Microparticles are vesicles .1-1 µm in size that are released from cells. We hypothesized that M1 and M2 monocyte microparticles (mMP) would be differentially expressed in ICH cases and controls. METHODS: In a single-center, prospective, observational study, consecutive ICH cases were enrolled within 12 hours of symptom onset...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605723/a-combined-cognitive-and-gait-quantification-to-identify-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-from-its-mimics-the-geneva-s-protocol
#14
Gilles Allali, Magali Laidet, Stéphane Armand, Shahan Momjian, Bruno Marques, Arnaud Saj, Frédéric Assal
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is very prevalent in aging, underdiagnosed, and represents a rare cause of reversible neurological condition. The clinical triad of iNPH - gait, cognitive and urinary symptoms - and its neuroradiological features (i.e. ventriculomegaly) are not specific and found a various neurodegenerative and/or vascular conditions. We present our iNPH standardized protocol at the Geneva University Hospitals involving a multispecialty team of behavioral neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuropsychologists, engineers, and physical therapists...
June 6, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605362/recording-eeg-in-freely-moving-neonatal-rats-using-a-novel-method
#15
Qing-Wei Huo, Sidra Tabassum, Afzal Ali Misrani, Cheng Long
EEG is a useful method to detect electrical activity in the brain. Moreover, it is a widely used diagnostic tool for various neurological conditions, such as epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders. However, it is technically difficult to obtain EEG recordings in neonates as it requires specialized handling and great care. Here, we present a novel method to record EEG in neonatal rat pups (P8-P15). We designed a simple and reliable electrode using computer pin loci; it can be easily implanted into the skull of a rat pup to record high-quality EEG signals in the normal and epileptic brain...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604565/droxidopa-for-symptomatic-neurogenic-hypotension
#16
Nadia Ferguson-Myrthil
Droxidopa is a first-in-class, orally available, synthetic amino acid precursor of norepinephrine that received accelerated Food and Drug Administration approval in February 2014 after Orphan Drug status for a debilitating condition known as symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Neurogenic disorders often lead to postural hypotension as a result of poor norepinephrine release from its storage sites. Clinical data suggest increases in standing systolic blood pressure and improvements in many other markers for subjective relief in patients with symptomatic neurogenic hypotension who received droxidopa therapy over 1-2 weeks...
May 4, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604212/joubert-syndrome
#17
Doreen Crawford, Annette Dearmun
Named after the French doctor who first described this rare neurological condition, Joubert syndrome is characterised by developmental delay, hypotonia, ataxia and oculomotor apraxia.
June 12, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603767/lumbar-puncture-in-patients-with-neurologic-conditions
#18
Rosha Babapour Mofrad, Femke H Bouwman, Rosalinde E R Slot, Tessa Timmers, Wiesje M van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen
A lumbar puncture is performed to obtain cerebral spinal fluid. It is implemented in the clinic on a routine basis to aid the diagnosis of neurologic diseases, such as dementia. This video will show the lumbar puncture procedure as routinely performed in the VUmc Alzheimer Center.
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602630/correlation-between-standardized-assessment-of-concussion-scores-and-small-world-brain-network-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Yan Yan, Jian Song, Guozheng Xu, Shun Yao, Chenglong Cao, Chang Li, Guibao Peng, Hao Du
This study investigated the characteristics of the small-world brain network architecture of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), and a correlation between brain functional connectivity network properties in the resting-state fMRI and Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) parameters. The neurological conditions of 22 MTBI patients and 17 normal control individuals were evaluated according to the SAC. Resting-state fMRI was performed in all subjects 3 and 7days after injury respectively. After preprocessing the fMRI data, cortex functional regions were marked using AAL90 and Dosenbach160 templates...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599619/a-devastating-case-of-diarrhea-associated-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-associated-with-extensive-cerebral-infarction-why-we-need-to-do-better
#20
Werner Keenswijk, Evelyn Dhont, Ann Raes, An Bael, Johan Vande Walle
A 4-year-old girl with diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS) was transferred to the PICU of our center due to deteriorating renal function and neurological involvement. On admission, a comatous child was seen with hypoventilation and she was placed on mechanical ventilation. Hemodialysis was commenced but plasma exchange was discontinued due to repeated hypersensitivity reactions. A trial of eculizumab was given in light of the worsening of her neurologic condition with development of a pyramidal syndrome and deepening of the coma...
June 9, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
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