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Zaqueline Fernandes Guerra, Alessandra L G Lucchetti, Giancarlo Lucchetti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A number of studies have suggested that imagery training (motor imagery [MI]) has value for improving motor function in persons with neurologic conditions. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the available literature related to efficacy of MI in the recovery of individuals after stroke. METHODS: We searched the following databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane, and PEDro. Two reviewers independently selected clinical trials that investigated the effect of MI on outcomes commonly investigated in studies of stroke recovery...
October 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
M Vercellino, C Trebini, E Capello, G L Mancardi, M T Giordana, P Cavalla
Inflammatory-like changes in the white matter (WM) are commonly observed in conditions of axonal degeneration by different etiologies. This study is a systematic comparison of the principal features of the inflammatory-like changes in the WM in different pathological conditions characterized by axonal damage/degeneration, focusing in particular on Multiple Sclerosis (MS) normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) compared to non immune-mediated disorders. The study was performed on sections of NAWM from 15 MS cases, 11 cases of non immune-mediated disorders with wallerian axonal degeneration (stroke, trauma, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), 3 cases of viral encephalitis, 6 control cases...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Massimo Filippi, Paolo Preziosa, Maria A Rocca
The application of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has certainly helped to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for clinical disability and cognitive impairment in this condition. The numerous studies performed in MS patients have also provided many lessons on the structure-function relationships in the human brain, which could be applied to healthy subjects and to patients affected by other neurological conditions...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
Julia Lowin, Kavita Sail, Rakhi Baj, Yash J Jalundhwala, Thomas S Marshall, Henrietta Konwea, K R Chaudhuri
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is an incurable, progressive neurological condition, with symptoms impacting movement, walking and posture that eventually become severely disabling. Advanced PD (aPD) has a significant impact on quality of life (QoL) for patients, their caregivers/families. Levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is indicated for the treatment of advanced levodopa-responsive PD with severe motor fluctuations and hyper-/dyskinesia when available combinations of therapy have not given satisfactory results...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
Jason Margolesky, Carlos Singer
Tandem gait testing is an integral part of the neurological exam. It is informative in a wide variety of disorders ranging from cerebellar disease to vestibular and peripheral neuropathies, parkinsonism, and other neurodegenerative conditions. We discuss the history and development of tandem gait testing as well as its technique, utility, and limitations in the assessment of neurological conditions. Tandem gait has emerged as a tool in the assessment of cerebellar disease, Huntington disease, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, atypical parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathies, and vestibulopathies...
September 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Rafael Martínez-Pérez, Igor Paredes, Natalia Rayo, Pedro DE LA Rosa, Jorge Diaz Molina, Alfonso Lagares
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spontaneous spinal extradural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare but disabling disorder. Most of the previous assumptions regarding the factors that contribute to poor neurological recovery from SSEH are based on small case samples or conditions with similar clinical presentations but different physiopathologies. Our goal was to find the most relevant prognostic factors for neurological recovery in patients suffering SSEH treated with surgical evacuation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a retrospective database of 29 surgical patients with SSEH, several clinical and radiological variables were recorded...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Raj Kumar, Rohit Bavi, Min Gi Jo, Venkatesh Arulalapperumal, Ayoung Baek, Shailima Rampogu, Myeong Ok Kim, Keun Woo Lee
Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine protease that is responsible for the maturation and degradation of short neuropeptides and peptide hormones. The inhibition of POP has been demonstrated in the treatment of α-synucleinopathies and several neurological conditions. Therefore, ligand-based and structure-based pharmacophore models were generated and validated in order to identify potent POP inhibitors. Pharmacophore-based and docking-based virtual screening of a drug-like database resulted in 20 compounds...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
H D Janse van Rensburg, G Terre'Blanche, M M van der Walt, L J Legoabe
Adenosine A1 and A2A receptors are attracting great interest as drug targets for their role in cognitive and motor deficits, respectively. Antagonism of both these adenosine receptors may offer therapeutic benefits in complex neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to explore the affinity and selectivity of 2-benzylidene-1-tetralone derivatives as adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists. Several 5-hydroxy substituted 2-benzylidene-1-tetralone analogues with substituents on ring B were synthesized and assessed as antagonists of the adenosine A1 and A2A receptors via radioligand binding assays...
August 30, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
Lavan Sivarajah, Kyra J Kane, Joel Lanovaz, Derek Bisaro, Alison Oates, Ming Ye, Kristin E Musselman
AIMS: The 10-meter walk test (10 mWT) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) are assessments of speed/time with a ceiling effect in pediatric populations. This study aimed to (1) determine whether collecting spatiotemporal data with inertial sensors (Mobility Lab, APDM Inc.) during these tests improves their discriminative validity, and (2) evaluate the clinical feasibility of Mobility Lab. METHODS: Fifteen children with spina bifida (SB) or cerebral palsy (CP) (7.9 ± 3.1 years old) and fifteen age- and sex-matched typically-developing (TD) children completed the 10 mWT and TUG wearing Mobility Lab...
September 7, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
Cesar Marquez-Chin, Kathryn Atwell, Milos R Popovic
Objective To identify specific hand movements from electroencephalographic activity. Design Proof of concept study. Setting Rehabilitation hospital in Toronto, Canada. Participants Fifteen healthy individuals with no neurological conditions. Intervention Each individual performed six different hand movements, including four grasps commonly targeted during rehabilitation. All of them used their dominant hand and four of them repeated the experiment with their non-dominant hand. EEG was acquired from 8 different locations (C1, C2, C3, C4, CZ, F3, F4 and Fz)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Iris Speigel, Edyta K Bichler, Paul S García
Anesthetics produce unconsciousness by modulating ion channels that control neuronal excitability. Research has shown that specific GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subtypes in particular regions of the central nervous system contribute to different hyperpolarizing conductances, and behaviorally to distinct components of the anesthetized state. The expression of these receptors on the neuron cell surface, and thus the strength of inhibitory neurotransmission, is dynamically regulated by intracellular trafficking mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Tamara Yawno, Suzie L Miller, Laura Bennet, Flora Wong, Jonathan J Hirst, Michael Fahey, David W Walker
Neonatal seizures are amongst the most common neurologic conditions managed by a neonatal care service. Seizures can exacerbate existing brain injury, induce "de novo" injury, and are associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities in post-neonatal life. In this mini-review, we present evidence in support of the use of ganaxolone, a GABA(A) agonist neurosteroid, as a novel neonatal therapy. We discuss evidence that ganaxolone can provide both seizure control and neuroprotection with a high safety profile when administered early following birth-related hypoxia, and show evidence that it is likely to prevent or reduce the incidence of the enduring disabilities associated with preterm birth, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Corbin Muetterties, Eric Weiss, Sandra Tomlinson-Hansen, William Hughes
Reports of iatrogenic cold thermal injuries are rare in the literature. Conductive cooling devices, typically employed for their neuroprotective effects, use conductive hydrogel pads to achieve rapid and precise temperature control approaching the level of water immersion. Despite a number of built-in safeguards, prolonged or improper use of these devices can lead to significant thermal injury. To the best of their knowledge, the authors describe the first report of a significant iatrogenic full-thickness injury caused by the use of a surface cooling system in a patient who had recently suffered a cerebrovascular accident...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Sanghee Moon, Maud Ranchet, Mark Tant, Abiodun E Akinwuntan, Hannes Devos
OBJECTIVE: To compare risks of unsafe driving in patients with medical conditions. METHODS: This large population-based study included all patients who were referred for a fitness-to-drive evaluation at an official driving evaluation center in 2013 and 2014. Risks of unsafe driving included physician's fitness-to-drive recommendation, comprehensive fitness-to-drive decision, motor vehicle crash history, and traffic violation history. RESULTS: A total of 6584 patients were included in the study...
September 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Toshihiro Takami, Kentaro Naito, Toru Yamagata, Shinichi Kawahara, Kenji Ohata
BACKGROUND: Selection of the access myelotomy is a key issue in surgery for spinal intramedullary tumors. This study focused on surgical outcomes with the posterolateral sulcus (PLS) approach, equivalent to dorsal root entry zone myelotomy. METHODS: This retrospective study of the 10-year period from 2007 to 2016 included 90 cases of spinal intramedullary lesions (99 operations). A PLS approach was indicated for intramedullary lesions situated laterally in the spinal cord showing no contact with the spinal cord surface...
August 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
Joseph M Rozell, Shan Li
The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of emergent life-threatening neurologic conditions and what are considered "do not miss" pathologies has dramatically increased over the past 10 years due to its increasing importance in the emergency department. Although computed tomography is likely to remain the more significantly used imaging modality due to lower cost and faster speeds, continuing technological advances in MRI have made its use more mainstream. Knowledge of specific clinical signs and symptoms as well as the technical limitations of MRI should help to guide emergency department clinicians with both the recognition and the appropriate use of emergent MRI...
August 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Neurotoxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Neurotoxicology
James Veater, Farhan Mehedi, Chee Kay Cheung, Laura Nabarro, Jane Osborne, Nicholas Wong, Martin Wiselka, Julian W Tang
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients have a long list of differentials for causes of acute confusion and altered consciousness levels, including infectious agents. In addition, elderly, retired patients often have more time to travel for tourism, particularly to exotic, warmer locations. Mediterranean countries such as Spain and Italy are popular holiday destinations for British and other tourists, especially during the winter months. However, these warm climates allow insect vectors to proliferate, increasing the risk of exposure to endemic vectorborne viral infections whilst on vacation...
August 29, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
Jennifer D Verriotto, Alex Gonzalez, Mariela C Aguilar, Jean-Marie A Parel, William J Feuer, Andrew R Smith, Byron L Lam
PURPOSE: Visual photosensitivity is a common symptom difficult to measure and diagnose, and is found in many ocular and neurological disorders. We developed two novel reproducible quantitative assessments of visual photosensitivity. METHODS: We designed and built the ocular photosensitivity analyzer (OPA), an automated instrument to determine light intensity visual photosensitivity threshold (VPT), and developed the Visual Light Sensitivity Questionnaire-8 (VLSQ-8), an eight-question survey to assess the presence and severity of photosensitivity symptoms...
July 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
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