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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922722/topiramate-versus-carbamazepine-monotherapy-for-epilepsy-an-individual-participant-data-review
#1
REVIEW
Sarah J Nolan, Maria Sudell, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy, the majority of which may be able to achieve remission with a single antiepileptic drug (AED).The correct choice of first-line antiepileptic therapy for individuals with newly diagnosed seizures is of great importance...
December 6, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920880/conditional-electrical-stimulation-in-animal-and-human-models-for-neurogenic-bladder-working-toward-a-neuroprosthesis
#2
C R Powell
Sacral neuromodulation has had a tremendous impact on the treatment of urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms for patients with neurologic conditions. This stimulation does not use real-time data from the body or input from the patient. Incorporating this is the goal of those pursuing a neuroprosthesis to enhance bladder function for these patients. Investigators have demonstrated the effectiveness of conditional (also called closed-loop) feedback in animal models as well as limited human studies...
December 2016: Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917260/integrative-bayesian-analysis-of-neuroimaging-genetic-data-through-hierarchical-dimension-reduction
#3
S Azadeh, B P Hobbs, L Ma, D A Nielsen, F G Moeller, V Baladandayuthapani
Advances in neuromedicine have emerged from endeavors to elucidate the distinct genetic factors that influence the changes in brain structure that underlie various neurological conditions. We present a framework for examining the extent to which genetic factors impact imaging phenotypes described by voxel-wise measurements organized into collections of functionally relevant regions of interest (ROIs) that span the entire brain. Statistically, the integration of neuroimaging and genetic data is challenging. Because genetic variants are expected to impact different regions of the brain, an appropriate method of inference must simultaneously account for spatial dependence and model uncertainty...
April 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912058/impaired-amino-acid-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-is-a-cause-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Dora C Tărlungeanu, Elena Deliu, Christoph P Dotter, Majdi Kara, Philipp Christoph Janiesch, Mariafrancesca Scalise, Michele Galluccio, Mateja Tesulov, Emanuela Morelli, Fatma Mujgan Sonmez, Kaya Bilguvar, Ryuichi Ohgaki, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Anide Johansen, Seham Esharif, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Meral Topcu, Avner Schlessinger, Cesare Indiveri, Kent E Duncan, Ahmet Okay Caglayan, Murat Gunel, Joseph G Gleeson, Gaia Novarino
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of genetic disorders often overlapping with other neurological conditions. We previously described abnormalities in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway as a cause of ASD. Here, we show that the solute carrier transporter 7a5 (SLC7A5), a large neutral amino acid transporter localized at the blood brain barrier (BBB), has an essential role in maintaining normal levels of brain BCAAs. In mice, deletion of Slc7a5 from the endothelial cells of the BBB leads to atypical brain amino acid profile, abnormal mRNA translation, and severe neurological abnormalities...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910893/interference-with-protease-activated-receptor-1-alleviates-neuronal-cell-death-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-microglial-cells-through-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#5
Yuxin Li, Wuyang Yang, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Baocheng Wang, Shujun Xu, Weijie Zhu, Feng Yu, Shaoji Yuan, Peigang Lu
Excessive microglial cells activation in response to inflammatory stimuli leads to synaptic loss, dysfunction, and neuronal cell death. Activated microglia are involved in the pathogenesis of neurological conditions and frequently contribute to several complications. Accumulating evidence suggests that signaling through PAR-1 is involved in inflammation, however, its function has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we have demonstrated that the suppression of PAR-1 leads to down-regulation of inflammatory factors including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO, as well as the prevention of activation of NF-κB in BV2 cells...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909399/a-subset-of-autism-associated-genes-regulate-the-structural-stability-of-neurons
#6
REVIEW
Yu-Chih Lin, Jeannine A Frei, Michaela B C Kilander, Wenjuan Shen, Gene J Blatt
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a range of neurological conditions that affect individuals' ability to communicate and interact with others. People with ASD often exhibit marked qualitative difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Alterations in neurite arborization and dendritic spine morphology, including size, shape, and number, are hallmarks of almost all neurological conditions, including ASD. As experimental evidence emerges in recent years, it becomes clear that although there is broad heterogeneity of identified autism risk genes, many of them converge into similar cellular pathways, including those regulating neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and spine stability, and synaptic plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909008/trajectory-of-parvalbumin-cell-impairment-and-loss-of-cortical-inhibition-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, Henry Hing Cheong Lee, Mustafa Qadir Hameed, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Takao K Hensch, Alexander Rotenberg
Many neuropsychiatric symptoms that follow traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mood disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are attributable to compromised cortical inhibition. However, the temporal trajectory of cortical inhibition loss and its underlying mechanisms are not known. Using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) and immunohistochemistry, we tracked functional and cellular changes of cortical inhibitory network elements after fluid-percussion injury (FPI) in rats...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908676/effect-of-selective-dorsal-rhizotomy-on-daily-care-and-comfort-in-non-walking-children-and-adolescents-with-severe-spasticity
#8
A I Buizer, P E M van Schie, E A M Bolster, W J van Ouwerkerk, R L Strijers, L A van de Pol, A Stadhouder, J G Becher, R J Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: In non-walking children with severe spasticity, daily care can be difficult and many patients suffer from pain. Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) reduces spasticity in the legs, and therefore has the potential to improve daily care and comfort. AIM: To examine effects of SDR on daily care and comfort in non-walking children with severe spasticity due to different underlying neurological conditions. METHODS: Medical history, changes in daily care and comfort and satisfaction with outcome were assessed retrospectively in non-walking children who underwent SDR in our center, with a mean follow-up of 1y 7m (range 11m-4y 3m)...
October 22, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907952/neurology-of-critical-care
#9
Eelco F M Wijdicks
It is a truism that care of the patient with an acutely severe neurologic illness starts with a full neurologic examination. Neurologic examination is followed by tests (neuroimaging and laboratory) resulting in a diagnosis (presumptive or definitive) and treatment (definitive or preemptive) and followed by admission for supportive care and more treatment. The sequence of decisions depends on the diagnosis, but treatment may be needed to diagnose a neurologic disorder. To find out what underlies the acute presentation of certain neurologic conditions requires (1) interpretation of neurologic findings, (2) interpretation of neuroimaging, (3) linking laboratory abnormalities to certain clinical neurologic findings, and (4) evaluation of improvement or refractoriness after treatment...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903595/lifelong-imbalanced-linoleic-alpha-linolenic-acid-intake-impairs-emotional-and-cognitive-behavior-in-adult-rats-via-changes-in-brain-endocannabinoid-system
#10
Erica Zamberletti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Valentina De Castro, Elisabetta Murru, Marina Gabaglio, Paola Colucci, Chiara Fanali, Pamela Prini, Tiziana Bisogno, Mauro Maccarrone, Patrizia Campolongo, Sebastiano Banni, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro
Imbalanced dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA content has been associated with a number of neurological conditions. Endocannabinoids are n-6 PUFA derivatives, whose brain concentrations are sensitive to modifications of fatty acid composition of the diet, and play a central role in the regulation of mood and cognition. As such, the endocannabinoid system appears to be an ideal candidate for mediating the effects of dietary fatty acids on mood and cognition. Lifelong administration of isocaloric alpha linolenic acid (ALA) deficient and enriched diets induced short-term memory deficits, whereas only dietary ALA enrichment altered emotional reactivity in adult male rats compared to animals fed a standard diet, balanced in ALA/linoleic (LA) ratio...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903205/predicting-neurological-deficit-severity-due-to-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-soluble-cd40-ligand-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb
#11
Yoshitaka Kubo, Takahiro Koji, Jun Yoshida, Akira Ogawa, Kuniaki Ogasawara
BACKGROUND: Several biological markers can predict outcomes in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), but markers to predict neurological deficit severity in patients with SAH and poor neurological condition have not yet been established. Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are related to the systemic inflammatory response. OBJECTIVE: In a prospective study, to investigate the relationship between clinical outcomes and blood test results in patients with SAH and severe neurological deficits...
December 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900773/systematic-review-of-immunoglobulin-use-in-paediatric-neurological-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan Gadian, Emma Kirk, Kate Holliday, Ming Lim, Michael Absoud
AIM: A systematic literature review of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment of paediatric neurological conditions was performed to summarize the evidence, provide recommendations, and suggest future research. METHOD: A MEDLINE search for articles reporting on IVIG treatment of paediatric neuroinflammatory, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative conditions published before September 2015, excluding single case reports and those not in English. Owing to heterogeneous outcome measures, meta-analysis was not possible...
November 30, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900731/the-validity-and-reliability-of-the-korean-version-of-the-stigma-scale-for-chronic-illness-8-items-ssci-8-in-patients-with-neurological-disorders
#13
Sung-Hee Yoo, Sung Reul Kim, Hyang Sook So, Hyang-In Cho Chung, Duck Hee Chae, Myeong-Kyu Kim, Byeong C Kim, Man-Seok Park, Seung-Han Lee, Tai-Seung Nam, Helena Correia, David Cella
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness 8-items (SSCI-8) and then assess its reliability and construct validity among patients with neurological conditions. METHOD: Patients diagnosed with stroke, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were recruited. Reliability was assessed for internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to extract potential factors of Korean SSCI-8...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899894/moderate-load-eccentric-exercise-a-distinct-novel-training-modality
#14
REVIEW
Hans Hoppeler
Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899037/a-comparison-of-hmgb1-concentrations-between-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-blood-in-patients-with-neurological-disease
#15
Lauren Elizabeth Walker, Michael Griffiths, Fiona McGill, Penelope Lewthwaite, Graeme John Sills, Andrea Jorgensen, Daniel James Antoine, Tom Solomon, Anthony Guy Marson, Munir Pirmohamed
AIMS: To determine whether a correlation exists between paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum levels of a novel inflammatory biomarker, HMGB1, in different neurological conditions. METHODS: HMGB1 was measured in the serum and CSF of 46 neurological patients (18 idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), 18 neurological infection/inflammation (NII) and 10 Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE)). RESULTS: Mean serum (± SD) HMGB1 levels were 1...
November 30, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896986/network-map-of-adverse-health-effects-among-victims-of-intimate-partner-violence
#16
Kathleen Whiting, Larry Y Liu, Mehmet Koyutürk, Günnur Karakurt
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious problem with devastating health consequences. Screening procedures may overlook relationships between IPV and negative health effects. To identify IPV-associated women's health issues, we mined national, aggregated de-identified electronic health record data and compared female health issues of domestic abuse (DA) versus non-DA records, identifying terms significantly more frequent for the DA group. After coding these terms into 28 broad categories, we developed a network map to determine strength of relationships between categories in the context of DA, finding that acute conditions are strongly connected to cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and neurological conditions among victims...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896320/influences-of-do-not-resuscitate-order-prohibition-on-cpr-outcomes
#17
Umut Gulacti, Ugur Lok
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to determine factors affecting the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) ratios, neurological outcomes at discharge, the ratio of living patients discharged from the hospital and due to Do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) prohibition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study conducted on patients of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed in emergency department (ED) and intensive care units between February 2010 and February 2012...
June 2016: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895506/patient-reported-financial-barriers-to-adherence-to-treatment-in-neurology
#18
Lidia Mvr Moura, Eli L Schwamm, Valdery Moura Junior, Michael P Seitz, Daniel B Hoch, John Hsu, Lee H Schwamm
OBJECTIVE: Many effective medical therapies are available for treating neurological diseases, but these therapies tend to be expensive and adherence is critical to their effectiveness. We used patient-reported data to examine the frequency and determinants of financial barriers to medication adherence among individuals treated for neurological disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients completed cross-sectional surveys on iPads as part of routine outpatient care in a neurology clinic...
2016: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893997/psychometric-properties-of-dual-task-balance-and-walking-assessments-for-individuals-with-neurological-conditions-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Lei Yang, Freddy Man Hin Lam, Lin Rong Liao, Mei Zhen Huang, Cheng Qi He, Marco Yiu Chung Pang
BACKGROUND: The ability of performing a balance or walking task in conjunction with a secondary cognitive or motor task, referred to as dual-task (DT) ability, is essential in daily living. While there is some evidence that DT performance is impaired in individuals with neurological conditions, using reliable and valid tools to measure DT performance is essential. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of DT balance and walking assessments in individuals with different neurological conditions...
November 15, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891112/deep-brain-stimulation-for-tourette-s-syndrome-the-case-for-targeting-the-thalamic-centromedian-parafascicular-complex
#20
REVIEW
Paola Testini, Hoon-Ki Min, Asif Bashir, Kendall H Lee
Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurologic condition characterized by both motor and phonic tics and is typically associated with psychiatric comorbidities, including obsessive-compulsive disorder/behavior and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can be psychologically and socially debilitating. It is considered a disorder of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry, as suggested by pathophysiology studies and therapeutic options. Among these, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the centromedian-parafascicular nucleus (CM-Pf) of the thalamus is emerging as a valuable treatment modality for patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant TS...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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