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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214165/agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum-and-aicardi-syndrome-a%C3%A2-neuroimaging-and-clinical-comparison
#1
T Govil-Dalela, A Kumar, R Agarwal, H T Chugani
BACKGROUND: Agenesis of the corpus callosum can occur in individuals with epilepsy, either in isolation or as part of various neurological conditions, such as Aicardi syndrome. In this study, we evaluated the clinical and neuroradiological differences between children with nonsyndromic agenesis of the corpus callosum and those with Aicardi syndrome. METHODS: We evaluated 31 children with epilepsy and agenesis of the corpus callosum (11 males, 20 females), 14 of whom had Aicardi syndrome (all females)...
January 4, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213587/emergency-extracorporeal-life-support-and-ongoing-resuscitation-a-retrospective-comparison-for-refractory-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#2
A Schober, F Sterz, H Herkner, C Wallmueller, C Weiser, P Hubner, C Testori
BACKGROUND: In refractory cardiac arrest, with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for more than 30 min, chances of survival are small. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is an option for certain patients with cardiac arrest. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of patients selected for ECPR. METHODS: Anonymised data of adult patients suffering refractory cardiac arrest, transported with ongoing CPR to an ED of a tertiary care centre between 2002 and 2012 were analysed...
February 17, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210205/the-atp-gated-p2x7-receptor-as-a-target-for-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Edward Beamer, Wolfgang Fischer, Tobias Engel
Despite the progress made in the development of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the biggest challenges that epilepsy presents to drug development have remained unchanged for the last 80 years: finding a treatment with potential for modifying disease progression and reducing the percentage of patients resistant to all pharmacological interventions. The mechanism of action of the majority of AEDs is based on blocking Na(+) and/or Ca(2+) channels, promotion of GABA or inhibition of glutamate signaling. In order for further progress to be made, however, a fuller picture of epilepsy will need to be considered, including changes to blood-brain barrier permeability, synaptic plasticity, network reorganization, and gliosis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208940/neurological-disorders-complicating-pregnancy-focus-on-obstetric-outcome
#4
Sandya Renukesh, Lavanya Rai
INTRODUCTION: Neurological disorders in pregnancy can be pregnancy related or can be caused by exacerbation of a pre-existing neurological condition or sometimes may even be detected for the first time during pregnancy in which it might be an incidental finding. The diagnosis and management of the neurological disorders in pregnancy is always a challenging task due to varied symptomatology and risks to the fetus. The evaluation and management should be performed in a stepwise fashion and requires multidisciplinary approach...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208601/surgical-neurostimulation-for-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Aswin Chari, Ian D Hentall, Marios C Papadopoulos, Erlick A C Pereira
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a constellation of symptoms including paralysis, paraesthesia, pain, cardiovascular, bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Current treatment for SCI involves acute resuscitation, aggressive rehabilitation and symptomatic treatment for complications. Despite the progress in scientific understanding, regenerative therapies are lacking. In this review, we outline the current state and future potential of invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation strategies including deep brain stimulation (DBS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS), motor cortex stimulation (MCS), transcutaneous direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the context of SCI...
February 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203468/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-resembling-clinical-absence-with-atypical-eeg-pattern
#6
Channaiah Srikanth Mysore, Najib Murr, Rana Zabad, John Bertoni
Objective. We are reporting two cases: a patient with steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) and another patient with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), both presenting with altered mental status (AMS) and later diagnosed with nonconvulsive atypical absence status epilepticus (AS), with atypical EEG changes. Methods. A report of two cases. Results. A patient with history of SREAT and the other with SPMS had multiple admissions due to AMS. For both, EEG revealed the presence of a high voltage generalized sharply contoured theta activity...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202230/intergenerational-transmission-of-enhanced-seizure-susceptibility-after-febrile-seizures
#7
Dengchang Wu, Bo Feng, Yunjian Dai, Xiaohua Wu, Bin Chen, Cenglin Xu, Yangshun Tang, Kang Wang, Shihong Zhang, Shuang Wang, Benyan Luo, Zhong Chen
Environmental exposure early in development plays a role in susceptibility to disease in later life. Here, we demonstrate that prolonged febrile seizures induced by exposure of rat pups to a hyperthermic environment enhance seizure susceptibility not only in these hyperthermia-treated rats but also in their future offspring, even if the offspring never experience febrile seizures. This transgenerational transmission was intensity-dependent and was mainly from mothers to their offspring. The transmission was associated with DNA methylation...
February 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197002/an-exploratory-study-for-bladder-dysfunction-in-atypical-antipsychotic-emergent-urinary-incontinence
#8
Preeti Sinha, Anupam Gupta, V Senthil Kumar Reddi, Chittaranjan Andrade
INTRODUCTION: This is an exploratory study, which aimed to analyze urodynamic findings in patients who are on atypical antipsychotics and present with urinary incontinence (UI) in order to understand the mechanisms of antipsychotic-emergent UI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight patients (34 ± 7.6 years; five males and three females) diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, who were on risperidone, olanzapine, or clozapine monotherapy and having UI were recruited...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195005/current-evidence-for-ampk-activation-involvement-on-resveratrol-induced-neuroprotection-in-cerebral-ischemia
#9
Narayana Pineda-Ramírez, Germán Fernando Gutiérrez Aguilar, Mónica Espinoza-Rojo, Penélope Aguilera
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral ischemia is a neurological condition in which energetics and oxidative stress are dysregulated. Resveratrol is a stilbene with potent pharmacological effects associated with its antioxidant properties. In the brain, resveratrol produces protective responses against ischemia, decreases infarct volume and improves neurological function. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular sensor that acts as a switch to initiate adaptive changes in response to fluctuations in energy metabolism...
February 14, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194747/local-anaesthesia-with-analgosedation-in-patients-qualified-for-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-tavi-first-institute-s-results-and-experiments
#10
Robert Musiał, Magdalena Lipińska-Strasik, Agnieszka Piątkiewicz, Jarosław Stoliński, Rafał Drwiła
BACKGROUND: The authors present their own experience of the treatment of patients qualified for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) carried out in a modern hybrid operating room. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the initial results of conducting anaesthesia in high-risk patients qualified for the TAVI procedure (transcatheter aortic valve implantation). In addition, the authors' aim was also to point out to the special challenges of an anaesthesiologist conducting local anaesthesia in such a type of procedures and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the TAVI procedure conducted under remifentanil analgosedation...
February 14, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190444/management-of-neuro-oncologic-emergencies
#11
J T Jo, D Schiff
Patients with brain tumors and systemic malignancies are subject to diverse neurologic complications that require urgent evaluation and treatment. These neurologic conditions are commonly due to the tumor's direct effects on the nervous system, such as cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, seizures, spinal cord compression, and leptomeningeal metastases. In addition, neurologic complications can develop as a result of thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, hyperviscosity syndromes, infection, immune-related disorders, and adverse effects of treatment...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188210/management-of-oral-secretions-in-neurological-disease
#12
REVIEW
Alexander J McGeachan, Christopher J Mcdermott
Sialorrhoea is a common and problematic symptom that arises from a range of neurological conditions associated with bulbar or facial muscle dysfunction. Drooling can significantly affect quality of life due to both physical complications such as oral chapping, and psychological complications such as embarrassment and social isolation. Thicker, tenacious oral and pharyngeal secretions may result from the drying management approach to sialorrhoea. The management of sialorrhoea in neurological diseases depends on the underlying pathology and severity of symptoms...
February 10, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185801/lived-experience-of-having-a-child-with-stroke-a%C3%A2-qualitative-study
#13
Syrine Soufi, Stéphane Chabrier, Laurent Bertoletti, Silvy Laporte, Stéphane Darteyre
OBJECTIVE: To assess the lived experience of parents whose child has suffered a stroke. METHODS: A qualitative study model was chosen, comprising in-depth interviews with parents separately or altogether. A semi-structured interview guide was used. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using constant comparison and content analysis. Participant checking was performed. Thirteen families of children aged 1 month to 17 years, having suffered ischaemic or haemorrhagic arterial stroke within one to five years, were recruited...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182842/the-establishment-of-tocopherol-reference-intervals-for-hungarian-adult-population-using-validated-hplc-method
#14
Gábor Veres, László Szpisjak, Attila Bajtai, Andrea Siska, Péter Klivényi, István Ilisz, Imre Földesi, László Vécsei, Dénes Zádori
Evidence suggests that decreased α-tocopherol (the most biologically active substance in the vitamin E group) level can cause neurological symptoms, most likely ataxia. The aim of the current study was to first provide reference intervals for serum tocopherols in the adult Hungarian population with appropriate sample size recruiting healthy control subjects and neurological patients suffering from conditions without symptoms of ataxia, myopathy or cognitive deficiency. A validated HPLC method applying a diode array detector and rac-tocol as internal standard was utilized for that purpose...
February 9, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181916/4-phenylbutyric-acid-and-metformin-decrease-sensitivity-to-pentylenetetrazol-induced-seizures-in-a-malin-knockout-model-of-lafora-disease
#15
Gentzane Sánchez-Elexpuru, José M Serratosa, Pascual Sanz, Marina P Sánchez
Lafora disease (LD) is a rare adolescent-onset progressive myoclonic epilepsy caused by loss-of-function mutations either in the EPM2A gene encoding laforin or in the EPM2B gene encoding malin. Mouse models with deletion in the Epm2a or the Epm2b gene show intracellular aggregates of polyglucosans (Lafora bodies) and neurological complications that resemble those observed in patients with LD. In the absence of laforin or malin expression, mice also show different degrees of hyperexcitability, as reflected by an enhanced response to the convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)...
February 8, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164489/multiplex-pcr-for-the-detection-of-10-viruses-causing-encephalitis-encephalopathy-and-its-application-to-clinical-samples-collected-from-japanese-children-with-suspected-viral
#16
Ngan T K Pham, Hiroshi Ushijima, Aksara Thongprachum, Quang D Trinh, Pattara Khamrin, Chikako Arakawa, Wakako Ishii, Shoko Okitsu, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Satoshi Hayakawa
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis is a serious neurological condition having a high mortality rate and affecting both children and adults. This study aimed to develop a multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous screening of clinical samples for the presence of the 10 viruses presently considered as the major viral causes of acute encephalitis/ encephalopathy in Asia. METHODS: Using previously published primers that have been widely used to screen for herpes virus-6, influenza A virus, human parechovirus, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, group A rotavirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, and dengue virus in clinical samples, a single-tube multiplex PCR assay was developed and was tested for its sensitivity and specificity...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150101/delirium-in-the-acute-phase-after-stroke-comparison-between-methods-of-detection
#17
Maria Teresa Infante, Matteo Pardini, Maurizio Balestrino, Cinzia Finocchi, Laura Malfatto, Giuseppe Bellelli, Giovanni Luigi Mancardi, Carlo Gandolfo, Carlo Serrati
Delirium is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome, very common in hospitalized people with medical and neurological conditions. The identification of delirium after stroke is not an easy task and validated psychometric instruments are needed to correctly identify it. We decided to verify if (1) formal training in DSM-V criteria is needed to correctly identify post-stroke delirium, (2) if the use of a brief psychometric instrument such as 4AT improves its identification, (3) the applicability of these scales in the stroke setting...
February 1, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146605/stretch-for-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-contractures
#18
REVIEW
Lisa A Harvey, Owen M Katalinic, Robert D Herbert, Anne M Moseley, Natasha A Lannin, Karl Schurr
BACKGROUND: Contractures are a common complication of neurological and non-neurological conditions, and are characterised by a reduction in joint mobility. Stretch is widely used for the treatment and prevention of contractures. However, it is not clear whether stretch is effective. This review is an update of the original 2010 version of this review. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to determine the effects of stretch on contractures in people with, or at risk of developing, contractures...
January 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139451/correlates-of-quality-of-life-among-individuals-with-epilepsy-enrolled-in-self-management-research-from-the-us-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-managing-epilepsy-well-network
#19
Martha Sajatovic, Curtis Tatsuoka, Elisabeth Welter, Daniel Friedman, Tanya M Spruill, Shelley Stoll, Satya S Sahoo, Ashley Bukach, Yvan A Bamps, Joshua Valdez, Barbara C Jobst
RATIONALE: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition that causes substantial burden on patients and families. Quality of life may be reduced due to the stress of coping with epilepsy. For nearly a decade, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Prevention Research Center's Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network has been conducting research on epilepsy self-management to address research and practice gaps. Studies have been conducted by independent centers across the U.S. Recently, the MEW Network sites, collaboratively, began compiling an integrated database to facilitate aggregate secondary analysis of completed and ongoing studies...
January 27, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137866/endothelium-targeted-overexpression-of-heat-shock-protein-27-ameliorates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-after-ischemic-brain-injury
#20
Yejie Shi, Xiaoyan Jiang, Lili Zhang, Hongjian Pu, Xiaoming Hu, Wenting Zhang, Wei Cai, Yanqin Gao, Rehana K Leak, Richard F Keep, Michael V L Bennett, Jun Chen
The damage borne by the endothelial cells (ECs) forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during ischemic stroke and other neurological conditions disrupts the structure and function of the neurovascular unit and contributes to poor patient outcomes. We recently reported that structural aberrations in brain microvascular ECs-namely, uncontrolled actin polymerization and subsequent disassembly of junctional proteins, are a possible cause of the early onset BBB breach that arises within 30-60 min of reperfusion after transient focal ischemia...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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