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Carlos Sardinero-García, Andrés Santiago-Sáez, M Del Carmen Bravo-Llatas, Bernardo Perea-Pérez, M Elena Albarrán-Juan, Elena Labajo-González, Julián Benito-León
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the sentences due to loss of chance that were passed by the Contentious-Administrative Court (i.e., in public medicine), in which both the origin of the disease to be treated and the damages were neurological. METHODS: We analysed the 90 sentences concerning neurological conditions that referred to the concept of loss of chance that were passed in Spain from 2003 (year of the first sentence) until May 2014. FINDINGS: Of the 90 sentences, 52 (57...
October 17, 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
Kenichiro Kakutani, Yoshitada Sakai, Koichiro Maeno, Toru Takada, Takashi Yurube, Takuto Kurakawa, Shingo Miyazaki, Yoshiki Terashima, Masaaki Ito, Hitomi Hara, Teruya Kawamoto, Yasuo Ejima, Akihiro Sakashita, Naomi Kiyota, Yoshiyuki Kizawa, Ryohei Sasaki, Toshihro Akisue, Hironobu Minami, Ryosuke Kuroda, Masahiro Kurosaka, Kotaro Nishida
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of performance status (PS) and activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with spinal metastasis. OBJECTIVE: To identify the effect of spinal surgery on PS and ADL in patients with spinal metastasis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal metastasis causes severe neurological deficits, resulting in drastic loss of patients' PS and ADL. However, the effect of spine surgery on PS and ADL is not well known...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Sylvie Chokron, Gordon N Dutton
Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) has become the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in children in industrialized countries. Its prevalence has increased sharply, due to increased survival rates of children who sustain severe neurological conditions during the perinatal period. Improved diagnosis has probably contributed to this increase. As in adults, the nature and severity of CVI in children relate to the cause, location and extent of damage to the brain. In the present paper, we define CVI and how this impacts on visual function...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Anna C Need, David B Goldstein
Only a few years after its development, next-generation sequencing is rapidly becoming an essential part of clinical care for patients with serious neurological conditions, especially in the diagnosis of early-onset and severe presentations. Beyond this diagnostic role, there has been an explosion in definitive gene discovery in a range of neuropsychiatric diseases. This is providing new pointers to underlying disease biology and is beginning to outline a new framework for genetic stratification of neuropsychiatric disease, with clear relevance to both individual treatment optimization and clinical trial design...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Giulia Umbrello, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: The microbiota colonizing the gastrointestinal tract have been associated with both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In recent years, considerable interest has been devoted to their role in the development of neurologic diseases, as many studies have described bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the gut, the so-called "microbiota-gut-brain axis". Considering the ability of probiotics (i.e., live non-pathogenic microorganisms) to restore the normal microbial population and produce benefits for the host, their potential effects have been investigated in the context of neurologic diseases...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Andrea G Edlow, Brian L Edlow, Jonathan A Edlow
Acute neurologic symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women may be caused by exacerbation of a preexisting neurologic condition, the initial presentation of a non-pregnancy-related problem, or a new neurologic problem. Pregnant and postpartum patients with headache and neurologic symptoms are often diagnosed with preeclampsia or eclampsia; however, other etiologies must also be considered. A team approach with close communication between emergency physicians, neurologists, maternal-fetal medicine specialists, and radiologists is the key to obtaining best outcomes...
November 2016: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
María Sol Pacha, Lucas Orellana, Emanuel Silva, Glenda Ernst, Fatima Pantiu, Julieta Quiroga Narvaez, Ricardo Reisin, Oscar Martinez
Status epilepticus (SE) is a severe neurological condition with significant morbidity and mortality. A reliable tool for prognosis is needed to take decision regarding treatment strategies. We compared 2 available prognostic scores of outcome: the Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS) and the Epidemiology-based Mortality score in SE (EMSE). We included 46 patients with SE evaluated out the last 5years in our hospital. We excluded patients with postanoxic encephalopathy or incomplete data. Among the 46 patients with SE, in-hospital mortality was 28%...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Anup D Patel, Robert Moss, Steven W Rust, Jeremy Patterson, Robert Strouse, Satyanarayana Gedela, Jesse Haines, Simon M Lin
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition. Seizure diary reports and patient- or caregiver-reported seizure counts are often inaccurate and underestimated. Many caregivers express stress and anxiety about the patient with epilepsy having seizures when they are not present. Therefore, a need exists for the ability to recognize and/or detect a seizure in the home setting. However, few studies have inquired on detection device features that are important to patients and their caregivers...
October 11, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Marios C Yiannakas, Francesco Grussu, Polymnia Louka, Ferran Prados, Rebecca S Samson, Marco Battiston, Daniel R Altmann, Sebastien Ourselin, David H Miller, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has recently started to be adopted into clinical investigations of spinal cord (SC) diseases. However, DTI applications to the lower SC are limited due to a number of technical challenges, related mainly to the even smaller size of the SC structure at this level, its position relative to the receiver coil elements and the effects of motion during data acquisition. Developing methods to overcome these problems would offer new means to gain further insights into microstructural changes of neurological conditions involving the lower SC, and in turn could help explain symptoms such as bladder and sexual dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
Ian Kodish
Functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD) is characterized by motor or sensory impairments inconsistent with recognized neurologic conditions. Usually emerging in adolescence, somatic symptoms remain challenging for the physician to assess and treat. Also termed "conversion disorder," FNSD has been recently reconceptualized with greater diagnostic emphasis on positive neurologic findings while eliminating the requirement for a precipitating stressor. This has broadened the initial treatment emphasis from mandating psychotherapeutic engagement to a more collaborative model that requires open communication of neurologic findings and strives to align with families' perspectives...
October 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Kendra M Cherry-Allen, Jeff M Gidday, Jin-Moo Lee, Tamara Hershey, Catherine E Lang
The authors tested whether 2 doses of remote limb ischemic conditioning (RLIC), induced via blood pressure cuff inflation, enhanced motor and cognitive learning to an equal extent, and explored a panel of blood biomarkers of RLIC. Thirty-two young adults were randomized to 3 groups and underwent a 7-day protocol of RLIC/sham followed by motor and cognitive training, with follow-up. Both RLIC groups had greater motor learning and a trend toward greater cognitive learning compared with the sham group. RLIC at the lower inflation pressure was as effective as RLIC with the higher inflation pressure...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Elizabeth Fairgray, Anna Miles
PURPOSE: Moebius Syndrome is a rare congenital neurological condition often characterized by multiple cranial nerve involvement. This case study presents an eight-year old girl with Moebius Syndrome (MC) who received 30 sessions of speech therapy. This occurred after presenting to clinic 11 months after left facial reanimation with gracilis thigh muscle transfer surgery. On examination, only flickers of left facial movement were observed. There was no movement on the right side of the face...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Deepak K Kaushik, Heather Y F Yong, Jennifer N Hahn, Claudia Silva, Steven Casha, R John Hurlbert, Francois H Jacques, Robert Lisak, Omar Khan, Carolina Ionete, Catherine Larochelle, Alex Prat, Amit Bar-Or, V Wee Yong
Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN, CD147) is an inducer of matrix metalloproteinases and has roles in leukocyte activation and migration. We reported previously that in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, cell surface-associated EMMPRIN was significantly elevated in leukocytes around inflammatory perivascular cuffs in the CNS. In this study we report that activated T-cells can secrete soluble form of EMMPRIN (sEMMPRIN) upon activation. As sEMMPRIN is also present in biological fluids, we determined whether sEMMPRIN is altered in the CSF and sera of MS subjects...
2016: PloS One
Jung Ju Choi, Hong Soon Kim, Kyung Cheon Lee, Youseok Shin, Youn Yi Jo
BACKGROUND: Citrullinemia type II is an autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder and a subtype of citrin deficiency. However, the management of recurrent hyperammonemia with neurologic symptoms in patients with citrullinemia type II is quite different from the management of other types of urea cycle disorders. In pats with citrullinemia type II, regional anesthesia might be a good choice for the early detection of hyperammonemic symptoms and addressing psychic stress. CASE PRESENTATION: A 48-year-old male with adult onset citrullinemia type II was scheduled for urethral scrotal fistula repair...
October 11, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Sophia Miryam Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Dawei Xie, Joel E Streim, Qiang Pan, Pui L Kwong, Margaret G Stineman
BACKGROUND: To address the impact of using multiple sources of data in the United States Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) compared to using only one source of data to identify those with neuropsychiatric diagnoses. METHODS: Our data source was the 2010 MCBS with associated Medicare claims files (N = 14, 672 beneficiaries). The MCBS uses a stratified multistage probability sample design to select a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries...
October 1, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Julian Little, Caroline Barakat-Haddad, Rosemary Martino, Tamara Pringsheim, Helen Tremlett, Kyla A McKay, Pascal van Lieshout, Stephanie J Walsh, James Gomes, Daniel Krewski
This paper presents an overview of genetic variation associated with the onset and progression of 14 neurological disorders, focusing primarily on association studies. The 14 disorders are heterogeneous in terms of their frequency, age of onset, etiology and progression. There is substantially less evidence on progression than onset. With regard to onset, the conditions are diverse in terms of their epidemiology and patterns of familial aggregation. While the muscular dystrophies and Huntington's disease are monogenic diseases, for the other 12 conditions only a small proportion of cases is associated with specific genetic syndromes or mutations...
October 3, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Alexandra Ferreira
This study aimed to determine whether creatine kinase (CK) activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has diagnostic value for various groups of neurological conditions or for different anatomical areas of the nervous system (NS). The age, breed, results of CSF analysis, and diagnosis of 578 canine patients presenting with various neurological conditions between January 2009 and February 2015 were retrospectively collected. The cases were divided according to anatomical areas of the nervous system, i.e., brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system, and into groups according to the nature of the condition diagnosed: vascular, immune/inflammatory/infectious, traumatic, toxic, anomalous, metabolic, idiopathic, neoplastic, and degenerative...
October 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Marco Mula, Josemir W Sander
SUMMARY: Epilepsy is one of the most serious neurological conditions and has an impact not only on the affected individual but also on the family and, indirectly, on the community. A global approach to the individual must take into account cognitive problems, psychiatric comorbidities and all psychosocial complications that often accompany epilepsy. We discuss psychosocial issues in epilepsy with special focus on the relationship between stigma and psychiatric comorbidities. Social barriers to optimal care and health outcomes for people with epilepsy result in huge disparities, and the public health system needs to invest in awareness programmes to increase public knowledge and reduce stigma in order to minimise such disparities...
July 2016: BJPsych Open
Mannie Man Wai Lam, Jonathan P Mapletoft, Matthew S Miller
Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are a few examples of debilitating neurological/neurodegenerative diseases for which there are currently no curative treatments. Recent evidence has strongly suggested a role for neuroinflammation in both the onset and progression of these diseases. However, the mechanisms that initiate neuroinflammation are presently unclear. Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors are likely involved. One proposed mechanism linking both genetic and environmental factors is dysregulation of the antiviral response...
December 2016: Cytokine
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