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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107669/medical-comorbidity-in-bipolar-disorder-the-link-with-metabolic-inflammatory-systems
#1
REVIEW
Ana SayuriYamagata, Elisa Brietzke, Joshua D Rosenblat, Ron Kakar, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, several medical comorbidities and a decreased life expectancy. Metabolic-inflammatory changes have been postulated as one of the main links between BD and medical comorbidity, although there are few studies exploring possible mechanisms underlying this relationship. Therefore, the aims of the current narrative review were 1) synthesize the evidence for metabolic-inflammatory changes that may facilitate the link between medical comorbidity and BD and 2) discuss therapeutic and preventive implications of these pathways...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107497/worldwide-increase-of-obesity-is-related-to-the-reduced-opportunity-for-natural-selection
#2
Alicja Budnik, Maciej Henneberg
Worldwide rise of obesity may be partly related to the relaxation of natural selection in the last few generations. Accumulation of mutations affecting metabolism towards excessive fat deposition is suggested to be a result of less purging selection. Using the WHO and UN data for 159 countries there is a significant correlation (r = 0.60, p<0.01) between an index of the relaxed opportunity for selection (Biological State Index) and prevalence of obesity (percentage of individuals with BMI >30kg/m2). This correlation remains significant (r = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107459/associations-of-health-club-membership-with-physical-activity-and-cardiovascular-health
#3
Elizabeth C Schroeder, Gregory J Welk, Warren D Franke, Duck-Chul Lee
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates whether a health club membership is associated with meeting the US physical activity (PA) guidelines and/or favorable cardiovascular health. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data of health club members (n = 204) and non-members (n = 201) from April to August 2013, this is the first study to our knowledge to examine a health club membership in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators including resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness based on a non-exercise test algorithm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106816/nutrient-patterns-associated-with-fasting-glucose-and-glycated-haemoglobin-levels-in-a-black-south-african-population
#4
Tinashe Chikowore, Pedro T Pisa, Tertia van Zyl, Edith J M Feskens, Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen, Karin R Conradie
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is increasing globally. However, evidence regarding nutrient patterns associated with the biomarkers of T2D is limited. This study set out to determine the nutrient patterns associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin the biomarkers of T2D. Factor analysis was used to derive nutrient patterns of 2010 participants stratified by urban/rural status and gender. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients, computed from the quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ)...
January 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106762/contribution-of-trans-fatty-acid-intake-to-coronary-heart-disease-burden-in-australia-a-modelling-study
#5
Jason H Y Wu, Miaobing Zheng, Elise Catterall, Shauna Downs, Beth Thomas, Lennert Veerman, Jan J Barendregt
Trans-fatty acids (TFAs) intake has been consistently associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. We provided an updated assessment of TFA intake in Australian adults in 2010 and conducted modeling to estimate CHD mortality attributable to TFA intake. Data of the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was used to assess TFA intake. The CHD burden attributable to TFA was calculated by comparing the current level of TFA intake to a counterfactual setting where consumption was lowered to a theoretical minimum distribution of 0...
January 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106621/mortality-risk-reductions-from-substituting-screen-time-by-discretionary-activities
#6
Katrien Wijndaele, Stephen J Sharp, Nicholas J Wareham, Søren Brage
PURPOSE: Leisure-screen-time, including TV viewing, is associated with increased mortality risk. We estimated the all-cause mortality risk reductions associated with substituting leisure-screen-time with different discretionary physical activity types, and the change in mortality incidence associated with different substitution scenarios. METHODS: 423,659 UK Biobank participants, without stroke, myocardial infarction or cancer history, were followed for 7.6 (1.4) (median (IQR)) years...
January 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106293/diversity-of-leisure-time-sport-activities-in-adolescence-as-a-predictor-of-leisure-time-physical-activity-in-adulthood
#7
S Mäkelä, S Aaltonen, T Korhonen, R J Rose, J Kaprio
Because sustained physical activity is important for a healthy life, this paper examined whether a greater diversity of sport activities during adolescence predicts higher levels of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in adulthood. From sport activity participation reported by 17-year-old twins, we formed five groups: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5+ different sport activities. At follow-up in their mid-thirties, twins were divided into four activity classes based on LTPA, including active commuting. Multinomial regression analyses, adjusted for several confounders, were conducted separately for male (N=1288) and female (N=1770) participants...
January 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106245/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-mediterranean-diet-and-metformin-to-prevent-age-related-diseases-in-people-with-metabolic-syndrome
#8
Patrizia Pasanisi, Giuliana Gargano, Maria Gaetana Di Mauro, Mauro Cortellini, Alice Casagrande, Anna Villarini, Eleonora Bruno, Eliana Roveda, Gabriella Saibene, Elisabetta Venturelli, Franco Berrino
PURPOSE: Age-related non-communicable chronic diseases (ArCDs) are the leading cause of mortality. The major metabolic risk factor for their development is the metabolic syndrome (MetS), defined as a clustering of risk factors of metabolic origin such as abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia and high fasting glycemia. There is increasing observational and experimental evidence that improving diet and the use of metformin (a calorie-restriction mimetic drug) may modify the risk of developing MetS and ArCD...
January 20, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105986/canagliflozin-dapagliflozin-and-empagliflozin-monotherapy-for-treating-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-and-economic-evaluation
#9
Rhona Johnston, Olalekan Uthman, Ewen Cummins, Christine Clar, Pamela Royle, Jill Colquitt, Bee Kang Tan, Andrew Clegg, Saran Shantikumar, Rachel Court, J Paul O'Hare, David McGrane, Tim Holt, Norman Waugh
BACKGROUND: Most people with type 2 diabetes are overweight, so initial treatment is aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity. Even modest weight loss can improve control of blood glucose. If drug treatment is necessary, the drug of first choice is metformin. However, some people cannot tolerate metformin, which causes diarrhoea in about 10%, and it cannot be used in people with renal impairment. This review appraises three of the newest class of drugs for monotherapy when metformin cannot be used, the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors...
January 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105761/walking-sustainability-and-health-findings-from-a-study-of-a-walking-for-health-group
#10
Gordon Grant, Kasia Machaczek, Nick Pollard, Peter Allmark
Not only is it tacitly understood that walking is good for health and well-being but there is also now robust evidence to support this link. There is also growing evidence that regular short walks can be a protective factor for a range of long-term health conditions. Walking in the countryside can bring additional benefits, but access to the countryside brings complexities, especially for people with poorer material resources and from different ethnic communities. Reasons for people taking up walking as a physical activity are reasonably well understood, but factors linked to sustained walking, and therefore sustained benefit, are not...
January 20, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105511/bone-density-in-the-obese-child-clinical-considerations-and-diagnostic-challenges
#11
Jennifer C Kelley, Nicola Crabtree, Babette S Zemel
The prevalence of obesity in children has reached epidemic proportions. Concern about bone health in obese children, in part, derives from the potentially increased fracture risk associated with obesity. Additional risk factors that affect bone mineral accretion, may also contribute to obesity, such as low physical activity and nutritional factors. Consequences of obesity, such as inflammation, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, may also affect bone mineral acquisition, especially during the adolescent years when rapid increases in bone contribute to attaining peak bone mass...
January 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104556/paternal-environmental-enrichment-transgenerationally-alters-affective-behavioral-and-neuroendocrine-phenotypes
#12
Shlomo Yeshurun, Annabel K Short, Timothy W Bredy, Terence Y Pang, Anthony J Hannan
Recent studies have demonstrated that paternal stress in rodents can result in modification of offspring behavior. Environmental enrichment, which enhances cognitive stimulation and physical activity, modifies various behaviors and reduces stress responses in adult rodents. We investigated the transgenerational influence of paternal environmental enrichment on offspring behavior and physiological stress response. Adult C57BL/6J male mice (F0) were exposed to either environmental enrichment or standard housing for four weeks and then pair-mated with naïve females...
January 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104469/culturally-grounded-diabetes-prevention-program-for-obese-latino-youth-rationale-design-and-methods
#13
A N Williams, Y P Konopken, C S Keller, F G Castro, K Arcoleo, E Barraza, D L Patrick, M L Olson, G Q Shaibi
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) disproportionately impacts Latino youth yet few diabetes prevention programs address this important source of health disparities. OBJECTIVES: To address this knowledge gap, we describe the rationale, design, and methodology underpinning a culturally-grounded T2D prevention program for obese Latino youth. The study aims to: 1) to test the efficacy of the intervention for reducing T2D risk, 2) explore potential mediators and moderators of changes in health behaviors and health outcomes and, 3) examine the incremental cost-effectiveness for reducing T2D risk...
January 16, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104052/assessment-of-a-chronic-disease-self-management-program-to-increase-physical-activity-of-adults-with-severe-mental-illness
#14
Julia Ringgold Strong, Gail Schoen Lemaire, Lyn Stankiewicz Murphy
Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) experience excessive co-morbidities and early mortality. Self-management programs have the potential to increase physical activity levels of individuals with SMI and reduce the incidence of co-morbidities. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to assess a chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP) to increase physical activity of adults with SMI measured by daily steps tracked with a pedometer. Results of data analysis indicated no statistically significant difference in steps across the six-week program...
February 2017: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103861/the-saskatchewan-new-brunswick-healthy-start-d%C3%A3-part-sant%C3%A3-intervention-implementation-cost-estimates-of-a-physical-activity-and-healthy-eating-intervention-in-early-learning-centers
#15
Nazmi Sari, Nazeem Muhajarine, Amanda Froehlich Chow
BACKGROUND: Participation in daily physical activity and consuming a balanced diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in processed foods are behaviours associated with positive health outcomes during all stages of life. Previous literature suggests that the earlier these behaviours are established the greater the health benefits. As such, early learning settings have been shown to provide an effective avenue for exploring and influencing the physical activity and healthy eating behaviours of children before school entry...
January 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103842/one-size-doesn-t-fit-all-cross-sectional-associations-between-neighborhood-walkability-crime-and-physical-activity-depends-on-age-and-sex-of-residents
#16
Andrea S Richardson, Wendy M Troxel, Madhumita B Ghosh-Dastidar, Robin Beckman, Gerald P Hunter, Amy S DeSantis, Natalie Colabianchi, Tamara Dubowitz
BACKGROUND: Low-income African American adults are disproportionately affected by obesity and are also least likely to engage in recommended levels of physical activity (Flegal et al. JAMA 303(3):235-41, 2010; Tucker et al. Am J Prev Med 40(4):454-61, 2011). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is an important factor for weight management and control, as well as for reducing disease risk (Andersen et al. Lancet 368(9532):299-304, 2006; Boreham and Riddoch J Sports Sci 19(12):915-29, 2001; Carson et al...
January 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103811/study-protocol-effect-of-playful-training-on-functional-abilities-of-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Jari Due Jessen, Henrik Hautop Lund
BACKGROUND: Loss of functional capabilities due to inactivity is one of the most common reasons for fall accidents, and it has been well established that loss of capabilities can be effectively reduced by physical activity. Pilot studies indicate a possible improvement in functional abilities of community dwelling elderly as a result of short-term playing with an exergame system in the form of interactive modular tiles. Such playful training may be motivational to perform and viewed by the subjects to offer life-fulfilling quality, while providing improvement in physical abilities, e...
January 19, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103767/behavior-risk-factors-among-russian-students
#18
Aleksander Anischenko, Anna Arhangelskaya, Michael Klenov, Ekaterina Burdukova, Valrii Ogarev, Nikolay Ignatov, Irina Osadchenko, Konstantin Gurevich
Purpose To analyze the prevalence of risk factors among Russian students. Methods In this study, 834 students were included from five Federal universities which were localized in four Federal regions of Russian Federation. Future doctors, school teachers, and wellness trainers were included in this study. Students were specifically asked about smoking, physical activity International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and food preference. Waist, hip, weight, and height were measured. Results The region of study and ethnic group were not influenced with respect to age and body mass index ( p > ...
January 1, 2017: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103520/using-health-promotion-guidelines-for-persons-with-disabilities-to-develop-and-evaluate-a-physical-activity-program-for-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-feasibility-study
#19
Alicia Dixon-Ibarra, Mara Nery-Hurwit, Simon Driver, Megan MacDonald
The Health Education for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis (HEMS) program was developed in response to the need for interventions aimed at increasing physical activity for individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). It was developed and evaluated using Drum and colleagues (2009) guidelines for implementing health promotion programs for individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this feasibility study is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of the HEMS program. Thirteen individuals with MS completed the 8-week health education program...
December 13, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103494/factors-associated-with-meeting-physical-activity-guidelines-by-adults-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities
#20
Roger J Stancliffe, Lynda L Anderson
BACKGROUND: Many individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have sedentary lifestyles. AIMS: (a) compare adults with IDD with the general adult population on adherence to U.S. physical activity (PA) guidelines, and (b) determine what factors predict adherence to PA guidelines by adults with IDD. METHODS: We compared adults with IDD from the 2011-2012 National Core Indicators Adult Consumer Survey (NCI-ACS) with the general U...
January 16, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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