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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884355/influenza-associated-thrombotic-microangiopathies
#1
REVIEW
Martin Bitzan, Jakub Zieg
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) refers to phenotypically similar disorders, including hemolytic uremic syndromes (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This review explores the role of the influenza virus as trigger of HUS or TTP. We conducted a literature survey in PubMed and Google Scholar using HUS, TTP, TMA, and influenza as keywords, and extracted and analyzed reported epidemiological and clinical data. We identified 25 cases of influenza-associated TMA. Five additional cases were linked to influenza vaccination and analyzed separately...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852674/a-review-of-clinical-influenza-a-and-b-infections-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-both-oseltamivir-and-zanamivir
#2
REVIEW
Yacine Abed, Guy Boivin
Anti-influenza drugs play major roles in the management of severe influenza infections. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), which are active against all influenza A subtypes and the 2 major influenza B lineages, constitute the only class of antivirals recommended for the control of influenza epidemics and eventual pandemics. Thus, the emergence of NAI resistance could be a major clinical concern. Although most currently circulating influenza A and B strains are susceptible to NAIs, clinical cases of influenza viruses harboring single or multiple NA substitutions or deletions conferring a cross-resistance phenotype to the 2 main NAIs (oseltamivir and zanamivir) have been reported, mostly in immunocompromised individuals...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821521/effectiveness-of-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-in-patients-with-diabetes-protocol-for-a-nested-case-control-study
#3
Ludovic Casanova, Sébastien Cortaredona, Jean Gaudart, Odile Launay, Philippe Vanhems, Patrick Villani, Pierre Verger
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal influenza vaccination (SIV) is recommended for people with diabetes, but its effectiveness has not been demonstrated. All of the available studies are observational and marred with the healthy vaccine bias, that is, bias resulting from the generally better health behaviours practised by people who choose to be vaccinated against influenza, compared with those who do not. This protocol is intended to study the effectiveness of SIV in people with treated diabetes and simultaneously to control for bias...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603679/galactosialidosis-historic-aspects-and-overview-of-investigated-and-emerging-treatment-options
#4
Ida Annunziata, Alessandra d'Azzo
INTRODUCTION: Galactosialidosis is a glycoprotein storage disease caused by mutations in the CTSA gene, encoding lysosomal protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA). The enzyme's catalytic activity is distinct from its protective function towards β-galactosidase (β-GAL) and neuraminidase 1 (NEU1), with which PPCA forms a complex. In this configuration the two glycosidases acquire their full activity and stability in lysosomes. Deficiency of PPCA results in combined NEU1/β-GAL deficiency...
2017: Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458567/drug-resistance-in-influenza-a-virus-the-epidemiology-and-management
#5
REVIEW
Mazhar Hussain, Henry D Galvin, Tatt Y Haw, Ashley N Nutsford, Matloob Husain
Influenza A virus (IAV) is the sole cause of the unpredictable influenza pandemics and deadly zoonotic outbreaks and constitutes at least half of the cause of regular annual influenza epidemics in humans. Two classes of anti-IAV drugs, adamantanes and neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) targeting the viral components M2 ion channel and NA, respectively, have been approved to treat IAV infections. However, IAV rapidly acquired resistance against both classes of drugs by mutating these viral components. The adamantane-resistant IAV has established itself in nature, and a majority of the IAV subtypes, especially the most common H1N1 and H3N2, circulating globally are resistant to adamantanes...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417272/early-administration-of-neuraminidase-inhibitors-in-adult-patients-hospitalized-for-influenza-does-not-benefit-survival-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
S-H Choi, T Kim, K-H Park, Y G Kwak, J-W Chung, M S Lee
The administration of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) within 2 days after the onset of symptoms (early NAI therapy) has been shown to reduce mortality in adult patients with severe influenza. However, there is no sufficiently solid evidence supporting the effectiveness of early NAI therapy on mortality. We reviewed the clinical data from 506 adult patients who were hospitalized for influenza between March 2010 and March 2014, to investigate the impact of early NAI therapy on mortality. Nearly one-third of the study patients were infected with influenza B (influenza A, influenza B, and co-infection of both in 68...
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382157/progress-of-small-molecular-inhibitors-in-the-development-of-anti-influenza-virus-agents
#7
REVIEW
Xiaoai Wu, Xiuli Wu, Qizheng Sun, Chunhui Zhang, Shengyong Yang, Lin Li, Zhiyun Jia
The influenza pandemic is a major threat to human health, and highly aggressive strains such as H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 have emphasized the need for therapeutic strategies to combat these pathogens. Influenza anti-viral agents, especially active small molecular inhibitors play important roles in controlling pandemics while vaccines are developed. Currently, only a few drugs, which function as influenza neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and M2 ion channel protein inhibitors, are approved in clinical. However, the acquired resistance against current anti-influenza drugs and the emerging mutations of influenza virus itself remain the major challenging unmet medical needs for influenza treatment...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346272/influenza-in-children
#8
Janienne Kondrich, Michele Rosenthal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the current information and evidence available on the global burden of disease in the pediatric population, clinical presentation and complications, testing, treatment, and immunization. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to multiple other risk factors for influenza complications, children with neurologic and neuromuscular disorders are significantly higher risk for serious complications. In practice, there is no lower age limit for children with influenza who can be treated with oseltamivir...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240183/influenza-a-virus-nucleoprotein-a-highly-conserved-multi-functional-viral-protein-as-a-hot-antiviral-drug-target
#9
REVIEW
Yanmei Hu, Hannah Sneyd, Raphael Dekant, Jun Wang
Prevention and treatment of influenza virus infection is an ongoing unmet medical need. Each year, thousands of deaths and millions of hospitalizations are attributed to influenza virus infection, which poses a tremendous health and economic burden to the society. Aside from the annual influenza season, influenza viruses also lead to occasional influenza pandemics as a result of emerging or re-emerging influenza strains. Influenza viruses are RNA viruses that exist in quasispecies, meaning that they have a very diverse genetic background...
2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215397/clinical-mimics-an-emergency-medicine-focused-review-of%C3%A2-influenza-mimics
#10
Erica Simon, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Given the wide range of symptoms, emergency physicians must maintain a broad differential diagnosis in the evaluation and treatment of patients presenting with influenza-like illnesses. OBJECTIVE: This review addresses objective and subjective symptoms commonly associated with influenza and discusses important mimics of influenza viruses, while offering a practical approach to their clinical evaluation and treatment...
July 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204554/safety-and-effectiveness-of-neuraminidase-inhibitors-in-situations-of-pandemic-and-or-novel-variant-influenza-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-2009-15
#11
C Boikos, C Caya, M K Doll, H Kraicer-Melamed, M Dolph, G Delisle, N Winters, G Gore, C Quach
Objectives: To review systematically the published literature evaluating neuraminidase inhibitor (NI) safety and effectiveness in situations of pandemic and novel/variant influenza. Methods: We searched six online databases using comprehensive search criteria for observational studies and randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of NI treatment, prophylaxis or outbreak control in patients of all ages. Results: Overall, 165 studies were included (95% observational), which were generally of low methodological quality due to lack of adjustment for confounding variables...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189086/pterocarpan-scaffold-a-natural-lead-molecule-with-diverse-pharmacological-properties
#12
REVIEW
Chelliah Selvam, Brian C Jordan, Sandhya Prakash, Daniel Mutisya, Ramasamy Thilagavathi
Phytoalexins are substances produced by plants that act as potent inhibitors of pathogens. Pterocarpans are biologically active isoflavonoids most commonly found in the family Fabaceae that have the ability to act as phytoalexins. It is made up of a tetracyclic ring system possessing benzofuran-benzopyran. A very great number of pterocarpans have been isolated from natural sources and they are proved to have significant biological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and anti-malarial activities...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131392/improving-the-selection-and-development-of-influenza-vaccine-viruses-report-of-a-who-informal-consultation-on-improving-influenza-vaccine-virus-selection-hong-kong-sar-china-18-20-november-2015
#13
Hampson Alan, Barr Ian, Cox Nancy, Donis Ruben O, Hirve Siddhivinayak, Jernigan Daniel, Katz Jacqueline, McCauley John, Motta Fernando, Odagiri Takato, John S Tam, Waddell Anthony, Webby Richard, Ziegler Thedi, Zhang Wenqing
Since 2010 the WHO has held a series of informal consultations to explore ways of improving the currently highly complex and time-pressured influenza vaccine virus selection and development process. In November 2015 experts from around the world met to review the current status of efforts in this field. Discussion topics included strengthening influenza surveillance activities to increase the availability of candidate vaccine viruses and improve the extent, timeliness and quality of surveillance data. Consideration was also given to the development and potential application of newer laboratory assays to better characterize candidate vaccine viruses, the potential importance of antibodies directed against influenza virus neuraminidase, and the role of vaccine effectiveness studies...
February 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043323/antiviral-medications-in-seasonal-and-pandemic-influenza
#14
Regine Lehnert, Mathias Pletz, Annicka Reuss, Tom Schaberg
BACKGROUND: Amantadine, oseltamivir, and zanamivir are currently available in Germany for the prevention and treatment of influenza. We review their efficacy and side-effect profiles. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent randomized and controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews retrieved by a systematic literature search, and on other relevant literature. RESULTS: The efficacy of antiviral drugs for the prevention of symptomatic influenza ranges from 60% to 90% (number needed to treat [NNT], 8-89) depending on the population and type of drug in question...
November 25, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881069/anti-influenza-virus-effects-of-catechins-a-molecular-and-clinical-review
#15
REVIEW
Kazuke Ide, Yohei Kawasaki, Koji Kawakami, Hiroshi Yamada
Influenza infection and associated epidemics represent a serious public health problem. Several preventive and curative measures exist against its spread including vaccination and therapeutic agents such as neuraminidase inhibitors (e.g., oseltamivir, zanamivir, as well as peramivir and laninamivir, which are licensed in several countries) and adamantanes (e.g., amantadine and rimantadine). However, neuraminidase inhibitor- and adamantane- resistant viruses have been detected, whereas vaccines exhibit strain-specific effects and are limited in supply...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845731/influenza-neuraminidase-inhibitors-synthetic-approaches-derivatives-and-biological-activity
#16
REVIEW
Pedro Laborda, Su-Yan Wang, Josef Voglmeir
Despite being a common viral disease, influenza has very negative consequences, causing the death of around half a million people each year. A neuraminidase located on the surface of the virus plays an important role in viral reproduction by contributing to the release of viruses from infected host cells. The treatment of influenza is mainly based on the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors. The neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir, laninamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir have been commercialized and have been demonstrated to be potent influenza viral neuraminidase inhibitors against most influenza strains...
November 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670798/proposal-to-reclassify-propionibacterium-acnes-type-i-as-propionibacterium-acnes-subsp-acnes-subsp-nov-and-propionibacterium-acnes-type-ii-as-propionibacterium-acnes-subsp-defendens-subsp-nov
#17
Andrew McDowell, Emma Barnard, Jared Liu, Huiying Li, Sheila Patrick
Recently, it has been proposed that strains of Propionibacterium acnes from the type III genetic division should be classified as P. acnessubsp. elongatum subsp. nov., with strains from the type I and II divisions collectively classified as P. acnessubsp. acnes subsp. nov. Under such a taxonomic re-appraisal, we believe that types I and II should also have their own separate rank of subspecies. In support of this, we describe a polyphasic taxonomic study based on the analysis of publicly available multilocus and whole-genome sequence datasets, alongside a systematic review of previously published phylogenetic, genomic, phenotypic and clinical data...
December 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578993/peramivir-injection-in-the-treatment-of-acute-influenza-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Ashley Wester, Avinash K Shetty
Influenza virus infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults globally. Seasonal epidemics are common due to the rapid virus evolution, whereas the frequent emergence of antigenic variants can result in pandemics and sporadic/endemic avian influenza virus infections. Although annual vaccination is the mainstay for influenza prevention and control, the use of antiviral agents must be considered for treatment and prophylaxis against influenza. Currently available antiviral drugs include neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), adamantanes, and a novel polymerase inhibitor (favipiravir)...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460462/financial-competing-interests-were-associated-with-favorable-conclusions-and-greater-author-productivity-in-nonsystematic-reviews-of-neuraminidase-inhibitors
#19
REVIEW
Adam G Dunn, Xujuan Zhou, Joel Hudgins, Diana Arachi, Kenneth D Mandl, Enrico Coiera, Florence T Bourgeois
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the conclusions and production of nonsystematic reviews about neuraminidase inhibitors relative to financial competing interests held by the authors. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched for articles about neuraminidase inhibitors and influenza (January 2005 to April 2015), identifying nonsystematic reviews and grading them according to the favorable/nonfavorable presentation of evidence on safety and efficacy. We recorded financial competing interests disclosed in the reviews and from other articles written by their authors...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364959/the-mechanisms-of-sudden-onset-type-adverse-reactions-to-oseltamivir
#20
REVIEW
R Hama, C L Bennett
Oseltamivir is contraindicated for people aged 10-19 in principle in Japan, due to concern about abnormal behaviours. Sudden death is another concern. This review examines growing evidence of their association and discusses underlying mechanisms of these sudden-onset type reactions to oseltamivir. First, the importance of animal models and the concept of human equivalent dose (HED) is summarized. Second, the specific condition for oseltamivir use, influenza infection, is reviewed. Third, findings from toxicity studies conducted prior to and after the marketing of oseltamivir are reported on to provide context on the observation of a possible causal association...
February 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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