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neuraminidase review

Andrew McDowell, Emma Barnard, Jared Liu, Huiying Li, Sheila Patrick
Recently, strains of Propionibacterium acnes from the type III genetic division have been proposed as Propionibacterium acnes subsp. elongatum subsp. nov., with strains from the type I and II divisions collectively classified as Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes subsp. nov. Under such a taxonomic re-appraisal, we believe that types I and II should also have their own separate rank of subspecies. In support of this, we describe a polyphasic taxonomic study based on the analysis of publically available multilocus and whole genome sequence datasets, alongside a systematic review of previously published phylogenetic, genomic, phenotypic and clinical data...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Ashley Wester, Avinash K Shetty
Influenza virus infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults globally. Seasonal epidemics are common due to the rapid virus evolution, whereas the frequent emergence of antigenic variants can result in pandemics and sporadic/endemic avian influenza virus infections. Although annual vaccination is the mainstay for influenza prevention and control, the use of antiviral agents must be considered for treatment and prophylaxis against influenza. Currently available antiviral drugs include neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), adamantanes, and a novel polymerase inhibitor (favipiravir)...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
Adam G Dunn, Xujuan Zhou, Joel Hudgins, Diana Arachi, Kenneth D Mandl, Enrico Coiera, Florence T Bourgeois
OBJECTIVE: To characterise the conclusions and production of non-systematic reviews about neuraminidase inhibitors relative to financial competing interests held by the authors. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched for articles about neuraminidase inhibitors and influenza (January 2005 to April 2015), identifying non-systematic reviews and grading them according to the favourable/non-favourable presentation of evidence on safety and efficacy. We recorded financial competing interests disclosed in the reviews and from other articles written by their authors...
July 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
R Hama, C L Bennett
Oseltamivir is contraindicated for people aged 10-19 in principle in Japan, due to concern about abnormal behaviours. Sudden death is another concern. This review examines growing evidence of their association and discusses underlying mechanisms of these sudden-onset type reactions to oseltamivir. First, the importance of animal models and the concept of human equivalent dose (HED) is summarized. Second, the specific condition for oseltamivir use, influenza infection, is reviewed. Third, findings from toxicity studies conducted prior to and after the marketing of oseltamivir are reported on to provide context on the observation of a possible causal association...
June 30, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Anitha Jagadesh, Abdul Ajees Abdul Salam, Piya Paul Mudgal, Govindakarnavar Arunkumar
Influenza, the most common infectious disease, poses a great threat to human health because of its highly contagious nature and fast transmissibility, often leading to high morbidity and mortality. Effective vaccination strategies may aid in the prevention and control of recurring epidemics and pandemics associated with this infectious disease. However, antigenic shifts and drifts are major concerns with influenza virus, requiring effective global monitoring and updating of vaccines. Current vaccines are standardized primarily based on the amount of hemagglutinin, a major surface antigen, which chiefly constitutes these preparations along with the varying amounts of neuraminidase (NA)...
August 2016: Archives of Virology
Rokuro Hama
Oseltamivir is recommended for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza in persons at higher risk for influenza complications such as individuals with diabetes, neuropsychiatric illnesses, and respiratory, cardiac, renal, hepatic or haematological diseases. However, a recent Cochrane review reported that reduction of antibody production, renal disorders, hyperglycaemia, psychiatric disorders, and QT prolongation may be related to oseltamivir use. The underlying mechanisms are reviewed. There is decisive evidence that administration of a clinically compatible dose of oseltamivir in mice challenged by a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) that lacks a neuraminidase gene showed symptom-relieving effects and inhibition of viral clearance...
September 2016: Infectious Diseases
Carl J Heneghan, Igho Onakpoya, Mark A Jones, Peter Doshi, Chris B Del Mar, Rokuro Hama, Matthew J Thompson, Elizabeth A Spencer, Kamal R Mahtani, David Nunan, Jeremy Howick, Tom Jefferson
BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs) are stockpiled and recommended by public health agencies for treating and preventing seasonal and pandemic influenza. They are used clinically worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To (1) describe the potential benefits and harms of NIs for influenza in all age groups by reviewing all clinical study reports (CSRs) of published and unpublished randomised, placebo-controlled trials and regulatory comments; and (2) determine the effect of oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®), Roche) treatment on mortality in patients with 2009A/H1N1 influenza...
May 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Jie Yang, Shuwen Liu, Lanying Du, Shibo Jiang
The entire life cycle of influenza virus involves viral attachment, entry, replication, and release. Previous studies have demonstrated that neuraminidase (NA) is an essential glycoprotein on the surface of influenza virus and that it is responsible for release of progeny virions from the host cell to infect new cells. However, recent studies have also suggested that NA may play other roles in the early stages of the viral life cycle, that is, viral attachment and entry. This review focuses on the new role of NA in the early stages of influenza life cycle and the corresponding development of novel NA inhibitors...
July 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Fiona Haxho, Ronald J Neufeld, Myron R Szewczuk
Several of the growth factors and their receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and insulin are promising candidate targets for cancer therapy. Indeed, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have been developed to target these growth factors and their receptors, and have demonstrated dramatic initial responses in cancer therapy. Yet, most patients ultimately develop TKI drug resistance and relapse...
March 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Amandine Scandolera, Ludivine Odoul, Stéphanie Salesse, Alexandre Guillot, Sébastien Blaise, Charlotte Kawecki, Pascal Maurice, Hassan El Btaouri, Béatrice Romier-Crouzet, Laurent Martiny, Laurent Debelle, Laurent Duca
Elastin, one of the longest-lived proteins, confers elasticity to tissues with high mechanical constraints. During aging or pathophysiological conditions such as cancer progression, this insoluble polymer of tropoelastin undergoes an important degradation leading to the release of bioactive elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), named elastokines. EDP exhibit several biological functions able to drive tumor development by regulating cell proliferation, invasion, survival, angiogenesis, and matrix metalloproteinase expression in various tumor and stromal cells...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Chamira Rodrigo, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Jonathan Nguyen-Van-Tam, Wei Shen Lim
BACKGROUND: Specific treatments for influenza are limited to neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantanes. Corticosteroids show evidence of benefit in sepsis and related conditions, most likely due to their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Although commonly prescribed for severe influenza, there is uncertainty over their potential benefit or harm. OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the effectiveness and potential adverse effects of corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of influenza, taking into account differences in timing and doses of corticosteroids...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Linda Brunotte, Martin Beer, Masayuki Horie, Martin Schwemmle
The identification of influenza A-like genomic sequences in bats suggests the existence of distinct lineages of chiropteran influenza viruses in South and Central America. These viruses share similarities with conventional influenza A viruses but lack the canonical receptor-binding property and neuraminidase function. The inability to isolate infectious bat influenza viruses impeded further studies, however, reverse genetic analysis provided new insights into the molecular biology of these viruses. In this review, we highlight the recent developments in the field of the newly discovered bat-derived influenza A-like viruses...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Vanitha A Jagannath, G V Asokan, Zbys Fedorowicz, Tim W R Lee
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is the most common, life-threatening, recessively inherited disease of Caucasian populations. It is a multisystem disorder caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein which is important in producing sweat, digestive juices and mucus.The impaired or absent function of this protein results in the production of viscous mucus within the lungs and an environment that is susceptible to chronic airway obstruction and pulmonary colonization by a range of pathogenic bacteria...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Noor Haliza Hasan, Jagoda Ignjatovic, Anne Peaston, Farhid Hemmatzadeh
Vaccination is becoming a more acceptable option in the effort to eradicate avian influenza viruses (AIV) from commercial poultry, especially in countries where AIV is endemic. The main concern surrounding this option has been the inability of the conventional serological tests to differentiate antibodies produced due to vaccination from antibodies produced in response to virus infection. In attempts to address this issue, at least six strategies have been formulated, aiming to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), namely (i) sentinel birds, (ii) subunit vaccine, (iii) heterologous neuraminidase (NA), (iv) nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein, (v) matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e) protein, and (vi) haemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2) glycoprotein...
May 2016: Viral Immunology
Yan Zhang, Hainv Gao, Weifeng Liang, Lingling Tang, Yida Yang, Xiaoxin Wu, Liang Yu, Ping Chen, Shufa Zheng, Huilin Ou, Lanjuan Li
BACKGROUND: Since the novel H7N9 avian influenza outbreak occurred in China in 2013, neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) such as oseltamivir and peramivir have been used as first-line drugs to treat the influenza virus infection. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of oseltamivir-peramivir combination therapy versus oseltamivir monotherapy. METHODS: A retrospective study of 82 H7N9 confirmed patients was conducted by reviewing medical charts at the First Affiliated Hospital of ZheJiang University in China from April 1, 2013 to Feb 28, 2014...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Michele Tonelli, Elena Cichero
In this review we discuss drug design strategies directed to the development of potential anti-influenza A(H1N1) inhibitors of M2 ion channel, neuraminidase (NA), hemagglutinin (HA) and RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase complex (RdRp) major targets, following temporal chronology of their findings. Besides searching for new chemotypes, eventually active against new targets of influenza A (H1N1), the design of optimized analogues of proven drugs is largely pursued, taking into account the emerging insight into the mechanisms of resistance to existing antivirals...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Elena Zavyalova, Alexey Kopylov
Influenza virus can cause epidemics and pandemics of flu. A highly variable virus genome is responsible for the existence of different viral strains and acquired resistance to antiviral drugs. Today, only one class of therapeutics, neuraminidase inhibitors, is efficient and proved for influenza prophylaxis and treatment; whereas M2 protein inhibitors became inefficient due to evolving drug resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutics. Aptamers are promising molecular recognition elements of high specificity and low toxicity, but only a few of them are under development as therapeutics...
February 3, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
L M Ghulmiyyah, M M Alame, F G Mirza, H Zaraket, A H Nassar
The influenza viral infection has dramatic effects during pregnancy on the mother and the fetus. We present a review article on the prevention and treatment recommendations of influenza infection in pregnant women, and the effects of antiviral medications on maternal-fetal outcomes. This viral infection not only leads to miscarriages, preterm deliveries and a high maternal mortality rate, but it also poses negative risks to the fetus including small-for-gestational age infants, and admissions to neonatal intensive care units...
2015: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Yan Xiao, Hongfei Chen, Chen Song, Xianliang Zeng, Qutong Zheng, Yinxiang Zhang, Xiaoyong Lei, Xing Zheng
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a well-known natural polyphenol compound. It is reported that resveratrol possesses strong anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular protective and cancer chemo-preventive effects. Therefore, there has been a considerable interest in its biological activity, pharmacological activity and also synthetic resveratrol analogues in recent years. Up to now, many new resveratrol derivatives have been synthesized and some new biological activities of these compounds have been found, so in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and the inhibition of influenza H1N1 neuraminidase...
December 2015: Die Pharmazie
Michael K Abraham, Jack Perkins, Gary M Vilke, Christopher J Coyne
BACKGROUND: Influenza is an acute respiratory virus that results in significant worldwide morbidity and mortality each year. As emergency physicians, we are often the first to encounter patients with seasonal influenza. It is therefore critical that we draw on the most recent and relevant research when we make clinical decisions regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of this disease. METHODS: A MEDLINE literature search from August 2009 to August 2015 was performed using the keywords influenza vaccination efficacy AND systematic, influenza AND rapid antigen testing, and Oseltamivir AND systematic, while limiting the search to human studies written in the English language...
March 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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