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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938796/complex-interactions-of-circadian-rhythms-eating-behaviors-and-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-and-their-potential-impact-on-health
#1
Jennifer L Kaczmarek, Sharon V Thompson, Hannah D Holscher
Human health is intricately intertwined with the composition and function of the trillions of microorganisms that make up the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome. The GI microbiome is essentially a microbial organ that provides metabolic, immunologic, and protective functions for the host. Habitual diet, changes in macronutrient composition, and consumption of nondigestible dietary fibers have all been shown to impact the human GI microbiome. Intriguingly, the impact of diet on the microbiome may be related not only to what humans eat but also to the timing of food consumption...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938777/role-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-during-the-transition-from-incubation-behavior-to-rearing-behavior-in-the-female-native-thai-chicken
#2
S Namken, P Sinpru, B Kamkrathok, N Sartsoongnoen, Y Chaiseha
It is well documented that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an avian prolactin-releasing factor, regulating the reproductive cycle, that initiates and maintains incubation behavior in avian species. Native Thai chicken has strong maternal behaviors. Thus, it is an excellent animal model to study this phenomenon. Changes in the numbers of VIP neurons within the nucleus inferioris hypothalami (IH) and nucleus infundibuli hypothalami (IN) are associated with maternal behaviors in the native Thai chicken...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938250/listening-effort-how-the-cognitive-consequences-of-acoustic-challenge-are-reflected-in-brain-and-behavior
#3
Jonathan E Peelle
Everyday conversation frequently includes challenges to the clarity of the acoustic speech signal, including hearing impairment, background noise, and foreign accents. Although an obvious problem is the increased risk of making word identification errors, extracting meaning from a degraded acoustic signal is also cognitively demanding, which contributes to increased listening effort. The concepts of cognitive demand and listening effort are critical in understanding the challenges listeners face in comprehension, which are not fully predicted by audiometric measures...
September 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938207/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-in-predicted-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-leading-to-behavioral-impairments-in-male-swiss-mice
#4
Joyce Moreira de Souza, Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Thales Quintão Chagas, Thiago Lopes Rocha, Guilherme Malafaia
Although the potential neurotoxic effects from the exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on humans and on experimental models have been reported in previous studies, the effects from the exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of them remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effects from the exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of ZnO NPs on the behavior of male Swiss mice. The animals were daily exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of ZnO NPs (5...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938182/the-genetic-epidemiology-of-substance-use-disorder-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Jane Ebejer, Danielle M Dick, M Scott Bowers
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) remains a significant public health issue. A greater understanding of how genes and environment interact to regulate phenotypes comprising SUD will facilitate directed treatments and prevention. METHODS: The literature studying the neurobiological correlates of SUD with a focus on the genetic and environmental influences underlying these mechanisms was reviewed. Results from twin/family, human genetic association, gene-environment interaction, epigenetic literature, phenome-wide association studies are summarized for alcohol, nicotine, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opioids...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938078/online-lactation-education-for-healthcare-providers-a-theoretical-approach-to-understanding-learning-outcomes
#6
Amanda L Watkins, Joan E Dodgson, Darya Bonds McClain
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding competencies are not standardized in healthcare education for any of the health professions. A few continuing education/professional development programs have been implemented, but research regarding the efficacy of these programs is scarce. Research aim: After a 45-hour lactation course, (a) Does breastfeeding knowledge increase? (b) Do beliefs and attitudes about infant feeding improve? (c) Does perceived behavioral control over performance of evidence-based lactation support practices increase? and (d) Do intentions to carry out evidence-based lactation support practices increase? METHODS: A nonexperimental pretest-posttest self-report survey design was conducted with a nonprobability sample of participants ( N = 71) in a lactation course...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938031/evaluation-of-a-titanium-surface-treated-with-hydroxyapatite-nanocrystals-on-osteoblastic-cell-behavior-an-in-vitro-study
#7
Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez, Guilherme Junji Ishikawa, Alexandre Barboza de Lemos, Fábio José Barbosa Bezerra, Marcelo Sperandio, Marcelo Henrique Napimoga
PURPOSE: In the context of macrostructural and microstructural modifications to the design of dental implants, surface topography changes with different treatments have the purpose of accelerating bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of aggregated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals to surfaces treated with double acid etching (Nano) on osteoblastic cell behavior compared with a conventional double acid-etched surface (DE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Commercially pure Grade 4 titanium discs (6 × 2 mm) were selected, and both cell proliferation and viability were assessed at 24, 48, and 72 hours using Trypan blue vital dye and MTT, respectively...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937814/comparative-analyses-of-phenotypic-trait-covariation-within-and-among-populations
#8
Kathryn S Peiman, Beren W Robinson
Many morphological, behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits covary across the biological scales of individuals, populations, and species. However, the processes that cause traits to covary also change over these scales, challenging our ability to use patterns of trait covariance to infer process. Trait relationships are also widely assumed to have generic functional relationships with similar evolutionary potentials, and even though many different trait relationships are now identified, there is little appreciation that these may influence trait covariation and evolution in unique ways...
October 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937579/pyrethroids-inhibit-k2p-channels-and-activate-sensory-neurons-basis-of-insecticide-induced-paraesthesias
#9
Aida Castellanos, Alba Andres, Laura Bernal, Gerard Callejo, Nuria Comes, Arcadi Gual, Jonathan P Giblin, Carolina Roza, Xavier Gasull
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for pest control, in agriculture or in human public health commonly as a topical treatment for scabies and head lice. Exposure to pyrethroids such as permethrin or tetramethrin (TM) causes sensory alterations such as transient pain, burning, stinging sensations and paraesthesias. Despite the well-known effects of pyrethroids on sodium channels, actions on other channels that control sensory neuron excitability are less studied. Given the role of two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels in modulating sensory neuron excitability and firing, both in physiological and pathological conditions, we examined the effect of pyrethroids on K2P channels mainly expressed in sensory neurons...
September 19, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937300/infants-processing-of-prosodic-cues-electrophysiological-evidence-for-boundary-perception-beyond-pause-detection
#10
Julia Holzgrefe-Lang, Caroline Wellmann, Barbara Höhle, Isabell Wartenburger
Infants as young as six months are sensitive to prosodic phrase boundaries marked by three acoustic cues: pitch change, final lengthening, and pause. Behavioral studies suggest that a language-specific weighting of these cues develops during the first year of life; recent work on German revealed that eight-month-olds, unlike six-month-olds, are capable of perceiving a prosodic boundary on the basis of pitch change and final lengthening only. The present study uses Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neuro-cognitive development of prosodic cue perception in German-learning infants...
September 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937282/development-and-implementation-of-nutrition-education-on-dietary-diversification-for-primary-school-children
#11
Vanessa Hlekani Mbhatsani, Xikombiso G Mbhenyane, Solomon Ngoako Mabapa
A quasi-experimental one group pretest/posttest design study was undertaken in two primary schools from two rural villages of Vhembe District in Limpopo Province, South Africa. About 172 children aged 9-14 years in Grades 5 and 6 were recruited for the study. All children in the grades were invited to participate pending written consent from parents and verbal assent from children. Due to school migration and absenteeism, only 154 children were available for posttest evaluation. However, nutrition education was administered to all 172 children...
September 22, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937241/preejection-period-as-a-sympathetic-activity-index-a-role-of-confounding-factors
#12
J Krohova, B Czippelova, Z Turianikova, Z Lazarova, I Tonhajzerova, M Javorka
In previous studies, one of the systolic time intervals - preejection period (PEP) - was used as an index of sympathetic activity reflecting the cardiac contractility. However, PEP could be also influenced by several other cardiovascular variables including preload, afterload and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The aim of this study was to assess the behavior of the PEP together with other potentially confounding cardiovascular system characteristics in healthy humans during mental and orthostatic stress (head-up tilt test - HUT)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937233/new-perspectives-in-the-model-of-stress-response
#13
I Tonhajzerova, M Mestanik
The reactions of human organism to changes of internal or external environment termed as stress response have been at the center of interest during recent decades. Several theories were designed to describe the regulatory mechanisms which maintain the stability of vital physiological functions under conditions of threat or other environmental challenges. However, most of the models of stress reactivity were focused on specific aspects of the regulatory outcomes - physiological (e.g. neuroendocrine), psychological or behavioral regulation...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937017/the-effects-of-repeated-low-level-blast-exposure-on-hearing-in-marines
#14
Lina R Kubli, Robin L Pinto, Holly L Burrows, Philip D Littlefield, Douglas S Brungart
BACKGROUND: The study evaluates a group of Military Service Members specialized in blast explosive training called "Breachers" who are routinely exposed to multiple low-level blasts while teaching breaching at the U.S. Marine Corps in Quantico Virginia. The objective of this study was to determine if there are any acute or long-term auditory changes due to repeated low-level blast exposures used in training. The performance of the instructor group "Breachers" was compared to a control group, "Engineers"...
September 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936816/-effect-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-sexual-satisfaction-marital-adjustment-and-levels-of-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-couples-with-vaginismus
#15
Cennet Şafak Öztürk, Haluk Arkar
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on sexual functions of women with vaginismus and their husbands, their marital adjustment, and their levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. METHOD: Twenty-six couples diagnosed as vaginismus according to DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria in gynecology outpatient clinics of Izmir Ege Maternity Hospital and Gynecological Diseases Training and Research Hospital were included in the study...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936735/dual-behavior-of-exosomes-in-septic-cardiomyopathy
#16
Valter Vinícius Silva Monteiro, Jordano Ferreira Reis, Rafaelli de Souza Gomes, Kely Campos Navegantes, Marta Chagas Monteiro
Sepsis is one of the main causes of ICU hospitalization worldwide, with a high mortality rate, and is associated with a large number of comorbidities. One of the main comorbidities associated with sepsis is septic cardiomyopathy. This process occurs mainly due to mechanisms of damage in the cardiovascular system that will lead to changes in cardiovascular physiology, such as decreased Ca(2+) response, mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased β-adrenergic receptor response. Within this process the exosomes play an important role in the pathophysiology of this disease, in which the exosomal content is related to mechanisms that will trigger its development...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936725/ampa-receptors-at-ribbon-synapses-in-the-mammalian-retina-kinetic-models-and-molecular-identity
#17
Espen Hartveit, Bas-Jan Zandt, Eirik Madsen, Áurea Castilho, Svein Harald Mørkve, Margaret Lin Veruki
In chemical synapses, neurotransmitter molecules released from presynaptic vesicles activate populations of postsynaptic receptors that vary in functional properties depending on their subunit composition. Differential expression and localization of specific receptor subunits are thought to play fundamental roles in signal processing, but our understanding of how that expression is adapted to the signal processing in individual synapses and microcircuits is limited. At ribbon synapses, glutamate release is independent of action potentials and characterized by a high and rapidly changing rate of release...
September 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936654/imaging-ca-2-dynamics-in-wild-type-and-nadph-oxidase-deficient-mutant-pollen-tubes-with-yellow-cameleon-and-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy
#18
Christina Maria Franck, Jens Westermann, Aurélien Boisson-Dernier
While cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) plays a central role in a myriad of signaling pathways as a secondary messenger, how dynamic changes of cytosolic calcium relate to cell growth control remains poorly understood. The engineering and continuous improvements of genetically encoded calcium sensors such as the Yellow Cameleon (YC) sensors combined with advances in microscopy have allowed imaging with great resolution of the spatiotemporal characteristics of cytosolic [Ca(2+)]cyt in individual cells. An exciting new step consists therefore in cautiously studying calcium dynamics in mutant backgrounds that display disturbed cellular growth behavior to further enhance our understanding on growth-related processes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936596/age-related-behavioral-morphological-and-physiological-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-zitter-rats
#19
Ayuka Ehara, Masao Maekawa, Yuuichi Hori, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shiuchi Ueda
Convulsive seizure is known to be associated with hippocampal abnormalities, such as hilar cell degeneration, abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus (DG) and abnormal expression of immediate early genes. However, whether these morphological changes are a cause or consequence of convulsive seizures has remained contentious. Zitter (zi/zi) rats carry a mutation of the attractin gene and display spongiform degeneration of the brain. Spontaneous convulsive seizures in zi/zi rats over 8 months (M) old were demonstrated using 24-h video monitoring...
September 21, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936510/low-temperature-and-high-pressure-phases-of-a-room-temperature-ionic-liquid-and-polyiodides-1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium-iodide
#20
Hiroshi Abe, Hiroaki Kishimura, Mayumi Takaku, Mai Watanabe, Nozomu Hamaya
Using simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combined with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) combined with DSC measurements, low-temperature (LT) solid phases of a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) and its mixtures were examined at ambient pressure. The considered RTIL was 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide ([C3mim][I]), and the mixtures could be expressed as [C3mim][Im]. Under high-pressure (HP), the crystallization of pure [C3mim][I] was suppressed, as a LT-amorphous form of pure [C3mim][I] was formed...
September 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
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