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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531978/quasi-static-and-ratcheting-properties-of-trabecular-bone-under-uniaxial-and-cyclic-compression
#1
Li-Lan Gao, Chao-Lei Wei, Chun-Qiu Zhang, Hong Gao, Nan Yang, Li-Min Dong
The quasi-static and ratcheting properties of trabecular bone were investigated by experiments and theoretical predictions. The creep tests with different stress levels were completed and it is found that both the creep strain and creep compliance increase rapidly at first and then increase slowly as the creep time goes by. With increase of compressive stress the creep strain increases and the creep compliance decreases. The uniaxial compressive tests show that the applied stress rate makes remarkable influence on the compressive behaviors of trabecular bone...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531966/how-do-disturbances-and-climate-effects-on-carbon-and-water-fluxes-differ-between-multi-aged-and-even-aged-coniferous-forests
#2
Xuguang Tang, Hengpeng Li, Mingguo Ma, Li Yao, Matthias Peichl, Altaf Arain, Xibao Xu, Michael Goulden
Disturbances and climatic changes significantly affect forest ecosystem productivity, water use efficiency (WUE) and carbon (C) flux dynamics. A deep understanding of terrestrial feedbacks to such effects and recovery mechanisms in forests across contrasting climatic regimes is essential to predict future regional/global C and water budgets, which are also closely related to the potential forest management decisions. However, the resilience of multi-aged and even-aged forests to disturbances has been debated for >60years because of technical measurement constraints...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531650/positioned-substituent-effect-on-self-assembly-behaviors-of-perylene-diimide-derivatives-on-graphite
#3
Qian Wei, Wei Wang, Erjun Zhou, Xiao-Ping Liu, Ming-Hui Liang, Ke Deng, Jing-Kui Yang, Peng Jiang
Three kinds of π-conjugated perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI)-based organic functional derivatives, i.e., N,N'-di(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,9,10-perylene diimide (molecule 1), N,N'-di(2-ethylhexyl)-1,7-dithien-2-yl-3,4,9,10-perylene diimide (molecule 2), N,N'-di(2-ethylhexyl)-1,7-di(2-bromothien-5-yl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-perylene diimide (molecule 3), have been prepared and investigated by using a scanning tunneling microscopy under ambient conditions. All of them can form long-ranged ordered self-assembled monolayer (SAM) with two different phase structures on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) surface...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531232/changes-in-primary-healthcare-providers-attitudes-and-counseling-behaviors-related-to-dietary-sodium-reduction-docstyles-2010-and-2015
#4
Zerleen S Quader, Mary E Cogswell, Jing Fang, Sallyann M Coleman King, Robert K Merritt
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The 2013 ACC/AHA Lifestyle Management Guideline recommends counseling pre-hypertensive and hypertensive patients to reduce sodium intake. Population sodium reduction efforts have been introduced in recent years, and dietary guidelines continued to emphasize sodium reduction in 2010 and 2015. The objective of this analysis was to determine changes in primary health care providers' sodium-reduction attitudes and counseling between 2010 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531179/the-gingival-vein-as-a-minimally-traumatic-site-for-multiple-blood-sampling-in-guinea-pigs-and-hamsters
#5
Mariana Valotta Rodrigues, Simone Oliveira de Castro, Cynthia Zaccanini de Albuquerque, Vânia Gomes de Moura Mattaraia, Marcelo Larami Santoro
Laboratory animals are still necessary in scientific investigation and vaccine testing, but while novel methodological approaches are not available for their replacement, the search for new, humane, easy, and painless methods is necessary to diminish their stress and pain. When multiple blood samples are to be collected from hamsters and guinea pigs, the number of available venipuncture sites-which are greatly diminished in these species in comparison with other rodents due to the absence of a long tail-, harasses animal caregivers and researchers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530820/behavior-of-germanium-and-silicon-nanowire-anodes-with-ionic-liquid-electrolytes
#6
Guk-Tae Kim, Tadhg Kennedy, Michael Brandon, Hugh Geaney, Kevin M Ryan, Stefano Passerini, Giovanni Battista Appetecchi
The electrochemical behavior of binder-free, germanium and silicon nanowires as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion battery systems are investigated in an ionic liquid electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry, cycling tests and impedance spectroscopy reveal a highly reversible lithium alloying / de-alloying process, as well as promising compatibility between the Ge and Si materials and the electrolyte components. Reversible capacities of 1,400 and 2,200 mA h g-1 are delivered by the Ge and Si anodes, respectively, matching the values exhibited in conventional organic solutions...
May 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530816/quantitative-temperature-dependence-of-the-microscopic-hydration-structures-investigated-by-ultraviolet-photodissociation-spectroscopy-of-hydrated-phenol-cations
#7
Haruki Ishikawa, Itaru Kurusu, Reona Yagi, Ryota Kato, Yasutoshi Kasahara
To discuss the temperature effect on microscopic hydration structures in clusters, relative populations of the isomers having different hydration structures at well-defined temperatures are quite important. In the present study, we measured ultraviolet photodissociation spectra of the temperature-controlled hydrated phenol cation, [PhOH(H2O)5](+), trapped in the 22-pole ion trap. Two isomers having a distinct hydration motif with each other are identified in the spectra and a clear change in the relative populations is observed in temperature range from 30 K to 150 K...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530664/flexible-information-routing-by-transient-synchrony
#8
Agostina Palmigiano, Theo Geisel, Fred Wolf, Demian Battaglia
Perception, cognition and behavior rely on flexible communication between microcircuits in distinct cortical regions. The mechanisms underlying rapid information rerouting between such microcircuits are still unknown. It has been proposed that changing patterns of coherence between local gamma rhythms support flexible information rerouting. The stochastic and transient nature of gamma oscillations in vivo, however, is hard to reconcile with such a function. Here we show that models of cortical circuits near the onset of oscillatory synchrony selectively route input signals despite the short duration of gamma bursts and the irregularity of neuronal firing...
May 22, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530632/anisotropic-transport-of-normal-metal-barrier-normal-metal-junctions-in-monolayer-phosphorene
#9
Sangita de Sarkar, Amit Agarwal, Krishnendu Sengupta
We study transport properties of a phosphorene monolayer in the presence of single and multiple potential barriers of height $U_0$ and width $d$, using both continuum and microscopic lattice models, and show that the nature of electron transport along its armchair edge ($x$ direction) is qualitatively different from its counterpart in both conventional two-dimensional electron gas with Schr\"odinger-like quasiparticles and graphene or surfaces of topological insulators hosting massless Dirac quasiparticles...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530413/inverting-the-power-dynamic-the-process-of-first-sessions-of-psychotherapy-with-therapists-of-color-and-non-latino-white-patients
#10
Lia Okun, Doris F Chang, Gregory Kanhai, Jordan Dunn, Hailey Easley
The present study is the first to apply Trawalter, Richeson, and Shelton's (2009) stress and coping framework to qualitatively examine interracial interactions in initial sessions of psychotherapy. The sample included 22 dyads: 15 therapists of color administering various treatment modalities to 15 treatment-seeking non-Latino White (NLW) patients and a comparison group of 7 intraracial (NLW-NLW) dyads. In Phase 1, videorecordings of the first session of treatment were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis (TA) to describe patient and therapist behaviors...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530411/the-legacy-of-early-childhood-violence-exposure-to-adulthood-intimate-partner-violence-variable-and-person-oriented-evidence
#11
Angela J Narayan, Madelyn H Labella, Michelle M Englund, Elizabeth A Carlson, Byron Egeland
This study examined prospective pathways from exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) during infancy (ages 0-24 months) and toddlerhood/preschool (ages 25-64 months) to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization in adulthood (ages 23, 26, and 32 years) using 2 complementary approaches. Building on past findings, a variable-oriented approach was used to examine the effects of developmental timing of EIPV in infancy versus toddlerhood/preschool to IPV involvement in early adulthood, at age 23 years...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530343/-sexuality-in-psychiatric-hospitalization-reality-versus-policy
#12
Anat Shalev, Gabriel Weil, Ludmila Rubinstein
Psychiatric hospitalization might be a necessity for certain groups of patients with mental illness, involving acute symptoms and substantial disability which do not allow independent living in the community. In such situations, it is crucial to enable inpatients to enjoy the best possible quality of life, including the right for sexual autonomy as a basic human right. Satisfying sexual life is part of meaningful life and plays an important role in personal and social recovery. On the other hand, sexual relations in psychiatric wards raise many dilemmas, including the need to protect inpatients from sexual abuse and victimization, particularly when mental illness involves judgment deficits and decreased ability to express autonomous will...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530342/-behavioral-physiological-and-morphological-characteristics-associated-with-post-traumatic-response-to-continuous-exposure-versus-alternate-exposure-in-an-animal-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#13
Ishay Ostfeld, Zeev Kaplan, Hagit Cohen
AIMS: The aim of this study was to approximate these conditions in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). More specifically, the neurobiological basis of these conditions, focusing on stress-related behavioral changes, HPA-axis and morphological were evaluated. The intention was to employ this well-validated, reproducible and reliable model for PTSD, to elicit data which will provide some guidance in the planning of a prospective study involving military personal. BACKGROUND: Combat personnel are exposed to significant stress and hardship, both physical and emotional, during their service and especially during active combat...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530066/-position-statement-on-overactive-bladder
#14
Ilan Grunwald, Kobi Stav, Jacob Golomb, Joseph Abarbanel, Gabriel Gillon, Alexander Greenstein
Bothersome urinary symptoms during the storage phase are common among women and men. These symptoms described as urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia with or without urge urinary incontinence may be caused by various pathologies including bladder overactivity. Diagnosis of an overactive bladder is based on the patient's clinical presentation after exclusion of other disorders that may cause these symptoms. The minimal requirements for a urological evaluation include medical history, physical examination and urinalysis...
November 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529196/the-usage-of-mock-oral-examinations-for-program-improvement
#15
Shari L Meyerson, Stuart Lipnick, Edward Hollinger
OBJECTIVE: Mock oral examinations are often used to prepare residents for the American Board of Surgery certifying examination. Another potential use of these examinations is to identify programmatic weaknesses. Results from a multi-institutional mock oral examination were evaluated to determine if specific areas of weakness within each of the participating programs could be identified to facilitate program development. DESIGN: A mock oral examination was administered annually consisting of 3 examination rooms per resident with 3 cases in each room...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529063/methodologies-for-studying-the-spliceosome-s-rna-dynamics-with-single-molecule-fret
#16
REVIEW
Clarisse van der Feltz, Aaron A Hoskins
The spliceosome is an extraordinarily dynamic molecular machine in which significant changes in composition as well as protein and RNA conformation are required for carrying out pre-mRNA splicing. Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) can be used to elucidate these dynamics both in well-characterized model systems and in entire spliceosomes. These types of single-molecule data provide novel information about spliceosome components and can be used to identify sub-populations of molecules with unique behaviors...
May 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529019/assessing-patterns-and-determinants-of-latrine-use-in-rural-settings-a-longitudinal-study-in-odisha-india
#17
Antara Sinha, Corey L Nagel, Wolf P Schmidt, Belen Torondel, Sophie Boisson, Parimita Routray, Thomas F Clasen
INTRODUCTION: Monitoring of sanitation programs is often limited to sanitation access and coverage, with little emphasis on use of the facilities despite increasing evidence of widespread non-use. OBJECTIVES: We assessed patterns and determinants of individual latrine use over 12 months in a low- income rural study population that had recently received latrines as part of the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in coastal Puri district in Odisha, India...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528905/a-pheromone-antagonist-regulates-optimal-mating-time-in-the-moth-helicoverpa-armigera
#18
Hetan Chang, Yang Liu, Dong Ai, Xingchuan Jiang, Shuanglin Dong, Guirong Wang
Many insect species use multi-component sex pheromones to discriminate among potential mating partners [1-5]. In moths, pheromone blends tend to be dominated by one or two major components, but behavioral responses are frequently optimized by the inclusion of less abundant minor components [6]. An increasing number of studies have shown that female insects use these chemicals to convey their mating availability to males, who can assess the maturity of females and thus decide when to mate [7, 8]. However, little is known about the biological mechanisms that enable males to assess female reproductive status...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528901/responses-to-spatial-contrast-in-the-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nuclei
#19
Joshua W Mouland, Adam R Stinchcombe, Daniel B Forger, Timothy M Brown, Robert J Lucas
A direct retinal projection targets the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (an important hypothalamic control center). The accepted function of this projection is to convey information about ambient light (irradiance) to synchronize the SCN's endogenous circadian clock with local time and drive the diurnal variations in physiology and behavior [1-4]. Here, we report that it also renders the SCN responsive to visual images. We map spatial receptive fields (RFs) for SCN neurons and find that only a minority are excited (or inhibited) by light from across the scene as expected for irradiance detectors...
May 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528893/body-temperature-responses-to-handling-stress-in-wintering-black-capped-chickadees-poecile-atricapillus-l
#20
Agnès Lewden, Andreas Nord, Magali Petit, François Vézina
Body temperature variation in response to acute stress is typically characterized by peripheral vasoconstriction and a concomitant increase in core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia). It is poorly understood how this response differs between species and within individuals of the same species, and how it is affected by the environment. We therefore investigated stress-induced body temperature changes in a non-model species, the Black-capped Chickadee, in two environmental conditions: outdoors in low ambient temperature (mean: -6...
May 18, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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