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Behavior change

Christine Prouty, Shima Mohebbi, Qiong Zhang
Given the increasing vulnerability of communities to the negative impacts of untreated wastewater, resource recovery (RR) systems provide a paradigm shift away from a traditional approach of waste separation and treatment towards a productive recovery of water, energy and nutrients. The aim of this research is to understand the relationships between factors that influence the adoption and sustainability of wastewater-based RR systems to inform technology implementation strategies. The study presents a theory-informed, community-influenced system dynamics (SD) model to provide decision-makers with an adaptable tool that simulates system-level responses to the strategies that are developed for the coastal town of Placencia, Belize...
March 7, 2018: Water Research
Stephany M Biello, David R Bonsall, Lynsey A Atkinson, Penny C Molyneux, Mary E Harrington, Gurprit S Lall
Robust physiological circadian rhythms form an integral part of well-being. The aging process has been found to negatively impact systems that drive circadian physiology, typically manifesting as symptoms associated with abnormal/disrupted sleeping patterns. Here, we investigated the age-related decline in light-driven circadian entrainment in male C57BL/6J mice. We compared light-driven resetting of circadian behavioral activity in young (1-2 months) and old (14-18 months) mice and explored alterations in the glutamatergic pathway at the level of the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Grace Guerrero-Ramírez, Eduardo Cumba-Avilés
OBJECTIVE: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may experience significant changes in their daily routines due to this condition, which frequently results in depressive symptoms and the deterioration of their quality of life. We examined the factors associated with suicidal ideation (SI) and diabetes-related quality of life (DRQOL) in adolescents (aged 12 to 17) with T1D. METHODS: The sample consisted of 51 youths (29 girls) recruited during a treatment study for depression...
2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Sohail Ahmed Rajper, Sana Ullah, Zhongqiu Li
Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China's continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China...
2018: PloS One
Charles Hellec, Maxime Delos, Mathieu Carpentier, Agnès Denys, Fabrice Allain
Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases (HS3STs) catalyze the final maturation step of heparan sulfates. Although seven HS3ST isozymes have been described in human, 3-O-sulfation is a relatively rare modification, and only a few biological processes have been described to be influenced by 3-O-sulfated motifs. A conflicting literature has recently reported that HS3ST2, 3A, 3B and 4 may exhibit either tumor-promoting or anti-oncogenic properties, depending on the model used and cancer cell phenotype. Hence, we decided to compare the consequences of the overexpression of each of these HS3STs in the same cellular model...
2018: PloS One
Michele Furlan, Laura Babcock, Antonino Vallesi
Traditionally, the left hemisphere has been thought to extract mainly verbal patterns of information, but recent evidence has shown that the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) is active during inductive reasoning in both the verbal and spatial domains. We aimed to understand whether the left IFG supports inductive reasoning in a domain-specific or domain-general fashion. To do this we used Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis to decode the representation of domain during a rule search task. Thirteen participants were asked to extract the rule underlying streams of letters presented in different spatial locations...
2018: PloS One
Mary-Jon Ludy, Abigail P Crum, Carmen A Young, Amy L Morgan, Robin M Tucker
Studies demonstrate that first-year university students are at high risk for weight gain. These reports typically rely on self-selected participants. The purpose of this study was to explore if students who chose to participate in a health-based research study had more desirable health measures and behaviors than students who completed health assessments as part of a first-year seminar course. Health measures included blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat. Health behaviors included dietary patterns (Starting the Conversation questionnaire) and alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption)...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
William Martinez, James W Pichert, Gerald B Hickson, Casey H Braddy, Amy J Brown, Thomas F Catron, Ilene N Moore, Morgan R Stampfle, Lynn E Webb, William O Cooper
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to develop a valid and reliable taxonomy of coworker reports of alleged unprofessional behavior by physicians and advanced practice professionals and determine the prevalence of reports describing particular types of unprofessional conduct. METHODS: We conducted qualitative content analysis of coworker reports of alleged unprofessional behavior by physicians and advanced practice professionals to create a standardized taxonomy...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Jiaye Su, Yunzhen Zhao, Chang Fang
Graphene is a versatile 2D material and attracts increasing attentions from a broad scientific community, including novel nanofluidic devices. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the pressure driven water transport through graphene layers, focusing on the pore size homogeneity, realized by the arrangement of two pore sizes. For a given layer number, we find the water flux exhibits an excellent linear behavior with the pressure, in agreement with the prediction of Hagen-Poiseuille equation...
March 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Nimai Pathak, Partha Sarathi Ghosh, Suryansh Saxena, Dhanadeep Dutta, Ashok Kumar Yadav, Dibyendu Bhattacharyya, Shambhu Nath Jha, Ramakant Mahadeo Kadam
Activator-free zinc aluminate (ZA) nanophosphor was synthesized through a sol-gel combustion route, which can be used both as a blue-emitting phosphor material and a white-emitting phosphor material, depending on the annealing temperature during synthesis. The material also has the potential to be used in optical thermometry. These fascinating color-tunable emission characteristics can be linked with the various defect centers present inside the matrix and their changes upon thermal annealing. Various defect centers, such as anionic vacancy, cationic vacancy, antisite defect, etc...
March 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Ioana Miruna Balmus, Radu Lefter, Alin Ciobica, Iulia Antioch, Daniela Ababei, Romeo Dobrin
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin (OT) is a well-known neuropeptides which together with vasopressin, melatonin, insulin and other hormones can alter both behavior and physiological or neuronal functions. This growing interest on OT roles is also based on the demonstrated beneficial effects as a stress reliever and a social bonding agent. The association between old age and OT was only vaguely studied. Little or few is known on the effect of the OT hormone on the old body. Hereby, we present our preliminary results in the research on behavioral changes regarding the intraperitoneal administration of OT in aged rats...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Yang Ye, Cun-Zhi Liu, Rui Wang, Yu-Wei Zhang, Bo Zhang, Yu Cui, Xue-Wei Liu, Shu-Ming Huang
Previous small animal models for menopausal transition are mainly performed to mimic the biochemical changes of patients with menopausal transition. The psychological symptoms in animal models are often overlooked. To mimic clinical situation, we developed a new mouse model of menopausal transition: the combination of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and empty bottle stimulation (EBS). After OVX and 21 days of EBS, behavioral test and pentobarbital-induced sleep test were carried out. Then all the animals were euthanized for further investigations...
March 16, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Min-Hui Tang, Nan Gao, Jiao Zhou, Yan Zhao, Jing-Sheng Cheng, Wen-Kun Su, Ying-Jin Yuan
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) has frequently been detected in aquatic environments. In natural environment, not only individual microorganism but also microbial consortia are involved in some biotransformation of pollutants. The competition for space under consortia causing cell-cell contact inhibition changes the cellular behaviors. Herein, the membrane bioreactor system (MBRS) was applied to improve SMX elimination thorough exchanging the cell-free broths (CFB). The removal efficiency of SMX was increased by more than 24% whether under the pure culture of A...
March 15, 2018: Biodegradation
Natália Duarte, Susan L Hughes, Constança Paúl
Fit & Strong! is a physical activity/behavior change evidence-based intervention for persons with osteoarthritis (OA) that was developed and tested in USA. This article describes the development of a new culturally adapted Portuguese version of Fit & Strong!, reviews the methods used, and describes the new features of the Portuguese program. Six steps were implemented for the cultural adaptation: training the Portuguese research team, materials translation, needs assessment which includes literature review, focus group with older adults with lower extremity joint pain, interviews with experts about Fit & Strong! format and content, program instructor training, and pilot study and program implementation...
March 13, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Gary R Zirpoli, Susan E McCann, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Dawn L Hershman, Gregory Ciupak, Warren Davis, Joseph M Unger, Halle C F Moore, James A Stewart, Claudine Isaacs, Timothy J Hobday, Muhammad Salim, Gabriel N Hortobagyi, Julie R Gralow, G Thomas Budd, Kathy S Albain, Christine B Ambrosone
Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) can interfere with daily function and quality of life, and there are no known preventive approaches. In a cohort of breast cancer patients receiving paclitaxel as part of a clinical trial (SWOG 0221), we examined the use of dietary supplements both before diagnosis and during treatment in relation to CIPN. Methods: At registration to S0221, 1225 breast cancer patients completed questionnaires regarding the use of multivitamins and supplements before and at diagnosis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Jef L Leroy, Deanna Olney, Marie Ruel
Background: Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to address undernutrition, but little is known about their effectiveness in improving child linear growth. Objective: We assessed the impact of Burundi's Tubaramure FA-MCHN program on linear growth. The program targeted women and their children during the first 1000 d and included 1) food rations, 2) strengthening of health services and promotion of their use, and 3) behavior change communication (BCC)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Ziv Bell, Tiffany Shader, Carolyn Webster-Stratton, M Jamila Reid, Theodore P Beauchaine
Abnormal patterns of sympathetic- and parasympathetic- linked cardiac activity and reactivity are observed among externalizing children, and mark deficiencies in central nervous system regulation of behavior and emotion. Although changes in these biomarkers have been observed following treatment, mechanisms remain unexplored. We used MEMORE-a new approach to analyzing intervening variable effects-to evaluate improvements in parenting as mediators of changes in SNS- and PNS-linked cardiac activity and reactivity among 99 preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treated using an empirically supported intervention...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Elisa Pelosin, Ambra Bisio, Thierry Pozzo, Giovanna Lagravinese, Oscar Crisafulli, Roberta Marchese, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Laura Avanzino
Postural reactions can be influenced by concomitant tasks or different contexts and are modulated by a higher order motor control. Recent studies investigated postural changes determined by motor contagion induced by action observation (chameleon effect) showing that observing a model in postural disequilibrium induces an increase in healthy subjects' body sway. Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with postural instability and impairments in cognitively controlled balance tasks. However, no studies investigated if viewing postural imbalance might influence postural stability in PD and if patients are able to inhibit a visual postural perturbation...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Lynn A Barnett
This longitudinal study identified degrees of playfulness in 278 kindergarten-aged children, and followed them through their next three school years to determine how playfulness was viewed by the children themselves, their classmates, and teachers. Perceptions of the social competence, disruptiveness, and labeling as the class clown, were assessed from all perspectives in each of first through third grades. Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to account for the nesting of the data (children within classrooms within schools) and for the lack of independence between the measures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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