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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109189/parents-and-peers-normative-influence-on-adolescents-smoking-results-from-a-swiss-italian-sample-of-middle-schools-students
#1
Francesca Scalici, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND AND METHOD: Adolescents observe and imitate people to whom they are associated in their social context, and the normative factors sent out by reference groups are crucial determinants of their decision to smoke. The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' smoking changes when they are exposed to factors of pro-smoking normative influence by parents and peers, and how age moderate this relation. A cross sectional survey collected data from 5657 students, aged between 11 and 14, from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) on their smoking habits, perceived parents' and peers' approval and smoking...
January 21, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109096/-vildagliptin-suppresses-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-by-up-regulating-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#2
Yue-Tao Wen, Kun-Lun Wu, Quan-Hong Shi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vildagliptin on pentamethazol (PTZ)-induced epilepsy in rats and explore the molecular mechanism. METHODS: Samples of temporal cortex from 23 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were collected as epilepsy group and samples of temporal cortex from 14 patients with brain trauma were used as control group. Ninety male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (group A), PTZ-induced epilepsy group (group B), saline 2 mL/kg group (group C), vildagliptin 2...
January 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108936/a-group-mediated-physical-activity-intervention-in-older-knee-osteoarthritis-patients-effects-on-social-cognitive-outcomes
#3
Brian C Focht, Matthew J Garver, Alexander R Lucas, Steven T Devor, Charles F Emery, Kevin V Hackshaw, Ciaran M Fairman, Jessica Bowman, W Jack Rejeski
The objective of the present study was to compare a group-mediated cognitive behavioral (GMCB) physical activity intervention with traditional exercise therapy (TRAD) upon select social cognitive outcomes in sedentary knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) patients. A total of 80 patients (mean age = 63.5 years; 84% women) were recruited using clinic and community-based strategies to a 12-month, single-blind, two-arm, randomized controlled trial. Mobility-related self-efficacy, self-regulatory self-efficacy (SRSE), and satisfaction with physical function (SPF) were assessed at baseline, 3, and 12 months...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108929/jaboya-sex-for-fish-a-qualitative-analysis-of-contextual-risk-factors-for-extramarital-partnerships-in-the-fishing-communities-in-western-kenya
#4
Zachary A Kwena, Chris A Shisanya, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Janet M Turan, Shari L Dworkin, Grace A Rota, Isaac J Mwanzo
Extramarital partnerships exacerbate high HIV prevalence rates in many communities in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored contextual risk factors and suggested interventions to reduce extramarital partnerships among couples in the fishing communities on Lake Victoria, Kenya. We conducted 12 focus group discussions with 9-10 participants each (N = 118) and 16 in-depth interviews (N = 16) with fishermen and their spouses. Couples who participated were consented and separated for simultaneous gender-matched discussions/interviews...
January 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108647/effects-of-early-life-exposure-to-thip-on-brainstem-neuronal-excitability-in-the-mecp2-null-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome-before-and-after-drug-withdrawal
#5
Weiwei Zhong, Christopher M Johnson, Ningren Cui, Max F Oginsky, Yang Wu, Chun Jiang
Rett syndrome (RTT) is mostly caused by mutations of the X-linked MECP2 gene. Although the causal neuronal mechanisms are still unclear, accumulating experimental evidence obtained from Mecp2(-/Y) mice suggests that imbalanced excitation/inhibition in central neurons plays a major role. Several approaches may help to rebalance the excitation/inhibition, including agonists of GABAA receptors (GABAAR). Indeed, our previous studies have shown that early-life exposure of Mecp2-null mice to the extrasynaptic GABAAR agonist THIP alleviates several RTT-like symptoms including breathing disorders, motor dysfunction, social behaviors, and lifespan...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108393/introduction-to-the-special-issue-using-neuroimaging-to-probe-mechanisms-of-behavior-change
#6
EDITORIAL
Tammy Chung, Marc Tittgemeyer, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108334/a-study-of-glutamate-levels-nr1-nr2a-nr2b-receptors-and-oxidative-stress-in-rat-model-of-japanese-encephalitis
#7
Prashant Singh Chauhan, Usha Kant Misra, Jayantee Kalita
There is paucity of studies on the role of glutamate excitotoxicity in cell damage in Japanese encephalitis. In this study the glutamate levels, its NMDA receptors, oxidative stress markers in different brain regions have been evaluated and correlated with neurobehavioral changes at different time points. Twelve day old Wistar rats were inoculated with 3×10(6)pfu/ml intracerebrally. The neurobehavioral effects were evaluated by spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA), grip strength and rota rod test on 10, 33 and 48days post inoculation (dpi)...
January 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108331/recovery-cycle-of-inferior-collicular-neurons-in-hipposideros-pratti-under-behavior-related-sound-stimulus-and-the-best-doppler-shift-compensation-conditions
#8
Jia Tang, Chen-Xue Wei, Meng-Xia Chen, Qiao-Chao Wang, Hui-Fang Kong, Zi-Ying Fu, Qi-Cai Chen
The Doppler-shift compensation (DSC) behavior of constant frequency - frequency modulation (CF-FM) bat (Hipposideros pratti) is vital for extraction and analysis of echo information. This type of behavior affects the recovery cycles of sound-sensitive neurons, but their precise relationship remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of DSC on the recovery cycles of inferior collicular (IC) neurons in H. pratti. We simulated the pulse-echo pair in bats by changing the emitted pulse frequency and keeping the echo frequency constant during DSC in echolocation...
January 18, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108161/behavioral-response-and-gene-expression-changes-in-fipronil-administered-male-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica
#9
Samah R Khalil, Ashraf Awad, Hesham H Mohammed
Fipronil is an important member of the phenylpyrazole group of insecticides and is widely used for various crops and vegetables to control insects, thereby exposing birds, animals, and humans to fipronil. Currently, there is limited information on the effects of fipronil exposure in Japanese quail. Therefore, our aim was to assess the reproductive toxicological effects of fipronil in the Japanese quail in a 15-day gavage study and then its recovery over a period of 60 days. Fipronil-administration led to significant losses in both feed intake and body weight...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107893/influence-of-stress-systems-and-physical-activity-on-different-dimensions-of-fatigue-in-female-fibromyalgia-patients
#10
Johanna M Doerr, Susanne Fischer, Urs M Nater, Jana Strahler
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is a defining characteristic and one of the most debilitating features of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The mechanisms underlying different dimensions of fatigue in FMS remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to test whether stress-related biological processes and physical activity modulate fatigue experience. METHODS: Using an ambulatory assessment design, 26 female FMS patients reported general, mental, and physical fatigue levels at six time points per day for 14 consecutive days...
February 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107891/telephone-administered-versus-live-group-cognitive-behavioral-stress-management-for-adults-with-cfs
#11
Daniel L Hall, Emily G Lattie, Sara F Milrad, Sara Czaja, Mary Ann Fletcher, Nancy Klimas, Dolores Perdomo, Michael H Antoni
OBJECTIVE: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptoms have been shown to be exacerbated by stress and ameliorated by group-based psychosocial interventions such as cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM). Still, patients may have difficulty attending face-to-face groups. This study compared the effects of a telephone-delivered (T-CBSM) vs a live (L-CBSM) group on perceived stress and symptomology in adults with CFS. METHODS: Intervention data from 100 patients with CFS (mean age 50years; 90% female) participating in T-CBSM (N=56) or L-CBSM (N=44) in previously conducted randomized clinical trials were obtained...
February 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107811/biomimetic-versus-sintered-calcium-phosphates-the-in-vitro-behavior-of-osteoblasts-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Joanna Maria Sadowska, Jordi Guillem-Marti, Edgar B Montufar, Montserrat Espanol, Maria-Pau Ginebra
The fabrication of calcium phosphates using biomimetic routes, namely, precipitation processes at body temperature, results in distinct features compared to conventional sintered calcium phosphate ceramics, such as a high specific surface area and micro or nanometric crystal size. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of these parameters on cell response, focusing on two bone cell types: rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and human osteoblastic cells (SaOS-2). Biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) was obtained by a low temperature setting reaction, and α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) and β- tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were subsequently obtained by sintering CDHA either at 1400 °C or 1100 °C...
January 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107807/continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-may-improve-visuospatial-neglect-via-modulating-the-attention-network-a-randomized-controlled-study
#13
Wei Fu, Lei Cao, Yanming Zhang, Su Huo, JuBao Du, Lin Zhu, Weiqun Song
BACKGROUND: Visuospatial neglect (VSN) is devastating and common after stroke, and is thought to involve functional disturbance of the attention network. Non-invasive theta-burst stimulation (TBS) may help restore the normal function of attention network, therefore facilitating recovery from VSN. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of continuous TBS on resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the attention network, and behavioral performances of patients with VSN after stroke...
January 20, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107715/metabolical-shifts-towards-alternative-btex-biodegradation-intermediates-induced-by-perfluorinated-compounds-in-firefighting-foams
#14
Renato Nallin Montagnolli, Paulo Renato Matos Lopes, Jaqueline Matos Cruz, Marina Turini Claro, Gabriela Mercuri Quiterio, Ederio Dino Bidoia
The type and concentration of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) can induce different types of enzymes and promote alternate patterns of BTEX transformation. However, it is not known how the presence of active fluorocarbon-degrading microbial populations affects the transformation of BTEX. In addition to chemical analysis at the molecular level, our research approached the aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) and BTEX co-contamination at a large-scale with respirometers to quantify the total microbial metabolism of soil via CO2 output levels...
December 30, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107643/does-psychological-well-being-change-following-treatment-an-exploratory-study-on-outpatients-with-eating-disorders
#15
Elena Tomba, Lucia Tecuta, Romana Schumann, Donatella Ballardini
Psychological well-being changes following cognitive-behavioral therapy-based treatment were investigated in outpatients with eating disorders (ED). While it is known that CBT reduces symptomatology in EDs, less is known about how changes in positive functioning may ensue. One-hundred and eighty five ED outpatients were analyzed for pre-treatment and post-treatment changes in psychological well-being (PWB) by last observation carried forward - Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Significant gains in all PWB dimensions were found, with moderate effect size correlations in environmental mastery (r=-...
January 7, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107523/look-into-the-hiv-epidemic-of-gay-community-with-a-socio-cultural-perspective-a-qualitative-study-in-china-2015-2016
#16
Huijing He, Fan Lv, Nanci Nanyi Zhang, Zunyou Wu, Qinghua Liao, Zhanjun Chang, Yi Li, Huifang Xu, Lin OuYang, Xiping Huan, Juan Yang
BACKGROUND: Current Chinese studies continue to view male homosexuality through a disease focused lens which pays limited attention to socio-cultural aspects of sexual behavior and HIV transmission. This qualitative study aimed to investigate how socio-cultural factors influence gay men's sexual beliefs and behaviors in contemporary China, and their implications for HIV epidemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Qualitative methodology was used in this study. During 2015-2016, in-depth interviews were conducted with 61 self identified gay men in Jiangxi, Henan, Heilongjiang, Guangdong, Jiangsu provinces and Chongqing municipality of China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107359/sustained-cortical-and-subcortical-measures-of-auditory-and-visual-plasticity-following-short-term-perceptual-learning
#17
Bonnie K Lau, Dorea R Ruggles, Sucharit Katyal, Stephen A Engel, Andrew J Oxenham
Short-term training can lead to improvements in behavioral discrimination of auditory and visual stimuli, as well as enhanced EEG responses to those stimuli. In the auditory domain, fluency with tonal languages and musical training has been associated with long-term cortical and subcortical plasticity, but less is known about the effects of shorter-term training. This study combined electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures to investigate short-term learning and neural plasticity in both auditory and visual domains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107358/modeling-an-excitable-biosynthetic-tissue-with-inherent-variability-for-paired-computational-experimental-studies
#18
Tanmay A Gokhale, Jong M Kim, Robert D Kirkton, Nenad Bursac, Craig S Henriquez
To understand how excitable tissues give rise to arrhythmias, it is crucially necessary to understand the electrical dynamics of cells in the context of their environment. Multicellular monolayer cultures have proven useful for investigating arrhythmias and other conduction anomalies, and because of their relatively simple structure, these constructs lend themselves to paired computational studies that often help elucidate mechanisms of the observed behavior. However, tissue cultures of cardiomyocyte monolayers currently require the use of neonatal cells with ionic properties that change rapidly during development and have thus been poorly characterized and modeled to date...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107288/effects-of-infant-formula-with-human-milk-oligosaccharides-on-growth-and-morbidity-a-randomized-multicenter-trial
#19
Giuseppe Puccio, Philippe Alliet, Cinzia Cajozzo, Elke Janssens, Giovanni Corsello, Norbert Sprenger, Susan Wernimont, Delphine Egli, Laura Gosoniu, Philippe Steenhout
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated effects of infant formula supplemented with 2 human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) on infant growth, tolerance and morbidity. METHODS: Healthy infants, 0-14 days old, were randomized to an intact-protein, cow's-milk-based infant formula (Control, n = 87) or the same formula with 1.0 g/L 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL) and 0.5 g/L lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) (Test, n = 88) from enrollment to 6 months; all infants received standard follow-up formula without HMOs from 6-12 months...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107251/internet-delivered-self-management-support-for-improving-coronary-heart-disease-and-self-management-related-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#20
Jorge Palacios, Geraldine A Lee, Maria Duaso, Abigail Clifton, Ian J Norman, Derek Richards, Elizabeth Alexandra Barley
INTRODUCTION: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including mental health comorbidity, which is associated with poor outcomes. Self-management is key, but there is limited access to self-management support. Internet-delivered interventions may increase access. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to (1) determine the effectiveness of Internet-delivered CHD self-management support for improving CHD, mood, and self-management related outcomes and (2) identify and describe essential components for effectiveness...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
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