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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732394/surface-charge-effects-on-the-electro-orientation-of-insulating-boron-nitride-nanotubes-in-aqueous-suspension
#1
Semih Cetindag, Bishnu Tiwari, Dongyan Zhang, Yoke Khin Yap, Sangil Kim, Jerry W Shan
The alignment of hexagonal boron-nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in aqueous KCl solutions under spatially uniform electric fields was examined experimentally, using direct optical visualization to probe the orientation dynamics of individual BNNTs for different electric-field frequencies. Different from most previously studied nanowires and nanotubes, BNNTs are wide-bandgap materials which are essentially insulating at room temperature. We analyze the electro-orientation of BNNTs in the general context of polarizable cylindrical particles in liquid suspensions, whose behavior can fall into different regimes, including alignment due to Maxwell-Wagner induced dipoles at high frequencies, and alignment due to fluid motion of the electrical double layer around the particles at lower frequencies...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732217/finite-element-evaluation-of-stable-fixation-in-combined-mandibular-fractures
#2
Thalita Regina Vieira E Oliveira, Daniel Takanori Kemmoku, Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva, Pedro Yoshito Noritomi, Luis Augusto Passeri
PURPOSE: The fixation of combined mandibular fractures, especially symphyseal-condylar fractures, although occurring commonly and having a higher complication rate in the clinic, is rarely investigated regarding predictable therapeutic approaches. Thus this study's aim was to assess different forms of condylar fixation when combined with symphyseal fracture fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using finite element models, we analyzed the stress distribution that occurs when a condylar fracture is fixed with 1 miniplate, 2 miniplates, or a trapezoidal condylar miniplate and when a symphyseal fracture is fixed with 2 parallel plates, 2 perpendicular plates, or 2 lag screws...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732164/electrochemical-intercalation-of-mg-2-into-anhydrous-and-hydrated-crystalline-tungsten-oxides
#3
Ruocun Wang, Ching-Chang Chung, Yang Liu, Jacob L Jones, Veronica Augustyn
The reversible intercalation of multivalent cations, especially Mg(2+), into a solid-state electrode is an attractive mechanism for next-generation energy storage devices. These reactions typically exhibit poor kinetics due to a high activation energy for interfacial charge-transfer and slow solid-state diffusion. Interlayer water in V2O5 and MnO2 has been shown to improve Mg(2+) intercalation kinetics in non-aqueous electrolytes. Here, the effect of structural water on Mg(2+) intercalation in non-aqueous electrolytes is examined in crystalline WO3 and the related hydrated and layered WO3·nH2O (n = 1, 2)...
July 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732042/numerical-study-on-the-lubrication-performance-of-compression-ring-cylinder-liner-system-with-spherical-dimples
#4
Cheng Liu, Yan-Jun Lu, Yong-Fang Zhang, Sha Li, Norbert Müller
The effects of surface texture on the lubrication performance of a compression ring-cylinder liner system are studied in this paper. By considering the surface roughness of the compression ring and cylinder liner, a mixed lubrication model is presented to investigate the tribological behaviors of a barrel-shaped compression ring-cylinder liner system with spherical dimples on the liner. In order to determine the rupture and reformulation positions of fluid film accurately, the Jacoboson-Floberg-Olsson (JFO) cavitation boundary condition is applied to the mixed lubrication model for ensuring the mass-conservative law...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731941/the-biology-of-aging-and-cancer-frailty-inflammation-and-immunity
#5
Xinwen Zhang, Xin Meng, Yiyin Chen, Sean X Leng, Haiyan Zhang
The majority of patients with common malignancies are older adults. Intrinsic complex biological changes of aging along with inflammation, immunosenescence, age-associated chronic diseases, and extrinsic environmental and psychosocial factors have significant impact on not only development and behavior of individual malignancies, but also physiologic reserve and vulnerability of older patients who suffer from them. As a result, clinical practice of geriatric oncology demands integration of careful geriatric assessment and management...
July 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731796/bees-without-flowers-before-peak-bloom-diverse-native-bees-find-insect-produced-honeydew-sugars
#6
Joan M Meiners, Terry L Griswold, David J Harris, S K Morgan Ernest
Bee foragers respond to complex visual, olfactory, and extrasensory cues to optimize searches for floral rewards. Their abilities to detect and distinguish floral colors, shapes, volatiles, and ultraviolet signals and even gauge nectar availability from changes in floral humidity or electric fields are well studied. Bee foraging behaviors in the absence of floral cues, however, are rarely considered. We observed 42 species of wild bees visiting inconspicuous, nonflowering shrubs during early spring in a protected Mediterranean habitat...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731730/uhlmann-connection-in-fermionic-systems-undergoing-phase-transitions
#7
Bruno Mera, Chrysoula Vlachou, Nikola Paunković, Vítor R Vieira
We study the behavior of the Uhlmann connection in systems of fermions undergoing phase transitions. In particular, we analyze some of the paradigmatic cases of topological insulators and superconductors in one dimension, as well as the BCS theory of superconductivity in three dimensions. We show that the Uhlmann connection signals phase transitions in which the eigenbasis of the state of the system changes. Moreover, using the established fidelity approach and the study of the edge states, we show the absence of thermally driven phase transitions in the case of topological insulators and superconductors...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731679/binding-of-bacteria-to-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-modified-with-vancomycin-comparison-of-behavior-of-linear-and-highly-branched-polymers
#8
Pavintorn Teratanatorn, Richard Hoskins, Thomas Swift, C W Ian Douglas, Joanna Shepherd, Stephen Rimmer
The behavior of a linear copolymer of N-isopropyl acrylamide with pendant vancomycin functionality was compared to an analogous highly branched copolymer with vancomycin functionality at the chain ends. Highly branched poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) modified with vancomycin (HB-PNIPAM-van) was synthesized by functionalization of the HB-PNIPAM, prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Linear PNIPAM with pendant vancomycin functionality (L-PNIPAM-van) was synthesized by functionalization of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-vinyl benzoic acid)...
July 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731384/current-use-of-e-cigarettes-and-conventional-cigarettes-among-us-high-school-students-in-urban-and-rural-locations-2014-national-youth-tobacco-survey
#9
Melody Noland, Mary Kay Rayens, Amanda T Wiggins, Luz Huntington-Moskos, Emily A Rayens, Tiffany Howard, Ellen J Hahn
PURPOSE: Adolescent tobacco use is higher in rural than in urban areas. While e-cigarette use is increasing rapidly among this age group, differences in prevalence between rural versus urban populations for this relatively novel product have not been explored. The purpose is to investigate whether location of school (rural-urban) is associated with e-cigarette use and dual use (defined as the use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes) among high school students. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey obtained using a stratified, 3-stage cluster sample design...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731365/chemical-composition-and-antimigraine-activity-of-essential-oil-of-angelicae-dahuricae-radix
#10
Jingbo Sun, He Li, Jinghui Sun, Huimin Liu, Jianguang Chen, Chunmei Wang
The aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and the effect of essential oil of Angelicae dahuricae radix on a nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced rat model of migraine. The CO2 supercritical fluid extraction method was optimized for the extraction of essential oil of A. dahuricae radix (EOAD) and its chemical composition was determined. The migraine model was established by subcutaneous injection of NTG (10 mg/kg) 1 h after the last administration of EOAD. The therapeutic effect of EOAD and its underlying mechanism were assessed by monitoring behavioral changes, levels of nitric oxide (NO) in serum and brain tissues, plasma levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and endothelin (ET), and ET/NO ratio...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731353/altering-dna-programmable-colloidal-crystallization-paths-by-modulating-particle-repulsion
#11
Mary X Wang, Jeffrey D Brodin, Jaime A Millan, Soyoung E Seo, Martin Girard, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Byeongdu Lee, Chad A Mirkin
Colloidal crystal engineering with DNA can be used to realize precise control over nanoparticle (NP) arrangement. Here, we investigate a case of DNA-based assembly where the properties of DNA as a polyelectrolyte brush are employed to alter a hybridization-driven NP crystallization pathway. Using the coassembly of DNA-conjugated proteins and spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a model system, we explore how steric repulsion between noncomplementary, neighboring NPs due to overlapping DNA shells can influence their ligand-directed behavior...
July 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731285/plant-infection-by-two-different-viruses-induce-contrasting-changes-of-vectors-fitness-and-behavior
#12
Quentin Chesnais, Aude Couty, Maryline Uzest, Véronique Brault, Arnaud Ameline
Insect-vectored plant viruses can induce changes in plant phenotypes, thus influencing plant-vector interactions in a way that may promote their dispersal according to their mode of transmission (i.e. circulative vs. non-circulative). This indirect vector manipulation requires host-virus-vector co-evolution and would thus be effective solely in very specific plant-virus-vector species associations. Some studies suggest this manipulation may depend on multiple factors relative to various intrinsic characteristics of vectors such as transmission efficiency...
July 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731270/polarized-light-emitting-diodes-based-on-patterned-mos2-nanosheet-hole-transport-layer
#13
Gyu Jin Choi, Quyet Van Le, Kyoung Soon Choi, Ki Chang Kwon, Ho Won Jang, Jin Seog Gwag, Soo Young Kim
Here, this study successfully fabricates few-layer MoS2 nanosheets from (NH4 )2 MoS4 and applies them as the hole transport layer as well as the template for highly polarized organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The obtained material consists of polycrystalline MoS2 nanosheets with thicknesses of 2 nm. The MoS2 nanosheets are patterned by rubbing/ion-beam treatment. The Raman spectra shows that {poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole), poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)]} (F8BT) on patterned MoS2 exhibits distinctive polarization behavior...
July 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731101/selective-molecular-annealing-in-situ-small-angle-x-ray-scattering-study-of-microwave-assisted-annealing-of-block-copolymers
#14
Daniel T W Toolan, Kevin Adlington, Anna Isakova, Alexis Kalamiotis, Parvaneh Mokarian-Tabari, Georgios Dimitrakis, Christopher Dodds, Thomas Arnold, Nick J Terrill, Wim Bras, Daniel Hermida Merino, Paul D Topham, Derek J Irvine, Jonathan R Howse
Microwave annealing has emerged as an alternative to traditional thermal annealing approaches for optimising block copolymer self-assembly. A novel sample environment enabling small angle X-ray scattering to be performed in situ during microwave annealing is demonstrated, which has enabled, for the first time, the direct study of the effects of microwave annealing upon the self-assembly behavior of a model, commercial triblock copolymer system [polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-block-polystyrene]...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731097/dba-induced-caspase-3-dependent-apoptosis-occurs-through-mitochondrial-translocation-of-cyt-c-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#15
Wenbo Jiang, Yingying Chen, Bai Li, Shuying Gao
Dibromoacetic acid (DBA), a by-product of disinfection, develops in drinking water during chlorination or ozonation processes. Water intake is the main source of DBA exposure in humans, which is potentially neurotoxic. The present study investigated the neurotoxic effects of DBA by assessing the behavioral and biochemical characteristics of Sprague Dawley rats intragastrically treated with DBA at concentrations of 20, 50 and 125 mg kg(-1) body weight for 28 consecutive days. The results indicated that animal weight gain and food consumption were not significantly affected by DBA...
July 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730841/effectiveness-of-a-worksite-intervention-for-male-construction-workers-on-dietary-and-physical-activity-behaviors-body-mass-index-and-health-outcomes-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Laura Viester, Evert A L M Verhagen, Paulien M Bongers, Allard J van der Beek
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of an individually tailored intervention for improvement in lifestyle behavior, health indicators, and prevention and reduction of overweight among construction workers. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Various blue-collar departments of a large construction company in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Blue-collar workers randomized to an intervention (n = 162) or a control group (n = 152)...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730834/resveratrol-alleviates-ethanol-induced-hormonal-and-metabolic-disturbances-in-the-rat
#17
J Popelář, M Díaz Gómez, J Lindovský, N Rybalko, J Burianová, T Oohashi, J Syka
Brain-specific link protein Bral2 represents a substantial component of perineuronal nets (PNNs) enwrapping neurons in the central nervous system. To elucidate the role of Bral2 in auditory signal processing, the hearing function in knockout Bral2(-/-) (KO) mice was investigated using behavioral and electrophysiological methods and compared with wild type Bral2(+/+) (WT) mice. The amplitudes of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and the efficiency of the prepulse inhibition of ASR (PPI of ASR), produced by prepulse noise stimulus or gap in continuous noise, was similar in 2-week-old WT and KO mice...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730748/extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-activation-in-the-spinal-cord-contributes-to-visceral-hypersensitivity-induced-by-craniofacial-injury-followed-by-stress
#18
Y-J Zhao, J-H Li, B Hu, Y Wang, X-F Chang, R J Traub, D-Y Cao
BACKGROUND: We previously developed an animal model to examine mechanisms that underlie the emergence of visceral hypersensitivity modeling pain characteristics of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients with comorbid irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In ovariectomized (OVx) rats with estradiol (E2) replacement, visceral hypersensitivity developed subsequent to masseter muscle inflammation followed by repeated forced swim (FS) stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the spinal cord contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in this overlapping pain model...
July 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730682/structure-and-development-of-the-subesophageal-zone-of-the-drosophila-brain-i-segmental-architecture-compartmentalization-and-lineage-anatomy
#19
Volker Hartenstein, Jaison J Omoto, Kathy T Ngo, Darren Wong, Philipp A Kuert, Heinrich Reichert, Jennifer K Lovick, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein
The subesophageal zone (SEZ) of the Drosophila brain houses the circuitry underlying feeding behavior and is involved in many other aspects of sensory processing and locomotor control. Formed by the merging of four neuromeres, the internal architecture of the SEZ can be best understood by identifying segmentally reiterated landmarks emerging in the embryo and larva, and following the gradual changes by which these landmarks become integrated into the mature SEZ during metamorphosis. In previous works, the system of longitudinal fibers (connectives) and transverse axons (commissures) has been utilized as a scaffold that provides internal landmarks for the neuromeres of the larval ventral nerve cord...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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