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Falls prevention

Isatou K Jallow, John Britton, Tessa Langley
Introduction: Smoking is the biggest preventable cause of death, and kills about 7 million people annually. As smoking prevalence is falling in developed countries, tobacco businesses are turning to low and middle-income countries (LMICs) to generate new tobacco markets. To prevent young people from initiating smoking and becoming regular smokers it is important to understand the causes of susceptibility to smoking. In this study we report a nationwide survey of the prevalence and risk factors of smoking susceptibility among students aged 12-20 in The Gambia...
June 20, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Andy C M Chan, Deborah A Jehu, Marco Y C Pang
Background: Individuals with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) often experience pain and reduced balance control, which may predispose them to greater fall risk. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and circumstance of falls and fall-related risk factors within a 6-month follow-up period in individuals after TKA. Design: This study was a prospective cohort study. Methods: Knee proprioception, the Balance Systems Evaluation Test, knee pain, knee extension and flexion muscle strength, knee range of motion, and balance confidence were evaluated in 134 individuals (39 men, 95 women; mean age = 66...
June 19, 2018: Physical Therapy
Vardaman M Buckalew
Endogenous digitalis-like factor(s), originally proposed as a vasoconstrictor natriuretic hormone, was discovered in fetal and neonatal blood accidentally because it cross-reacts with antidigoxin antibodies (ADAs). Early studies using immunoassays with ADA identified the digoxin-like immuno-reactive factor(s) (EDLF) in maternal blood as well, and suggested it originated in the feto-placental unit. Mammalian digoxin-like factors have recently been identified as at least two classes of steroid compounds, plant derived ouabain (O), and several toad derived bufodienolides, most prominent being marinobufagenin (MBG)...
June 29, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
N C Herath, T Kudagammana, T T Sanathchandra, H K Gamage, I M Razik, V Liynapathirana
OBJECTIVES: A lack of correct awareness about immunization among parents put them at risk of falling prey to the anti-vaccine movement. This risk is present even in countries with a high vaccine uptake. This study was done with the objective of assessing the awareness of parents childhood vaccination. RESULTS: In this study conducted among 141 parents accompanying children to a routine clinic we found that 53.2% of the participants had average or above average knowledge...
June 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Jong-Il Kim, Min Soo Park, Tae-Gu Kim
Background: This research investigates the degrees of slipperiness felt by the participants who walk on contaminants applied to a floor surface to decide degrees of slipperiness for various contaminants. Methods: For the experiment, 30 participants walked on a floor to which six contaminants were applied. All participants took the analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-based slipperiness questionnaire survey for the six kinds of contaminants, and the results were compared with the coefficient of friction...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Amy Jewett, Alexis B Peterson, Erin K Sauber-Schatz
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol or drug impaired driving can cause motor vehicle crashes, injuries, and death. Estimates of drug impaired driving are difficult to obtain. This study explores self-reported prevalence of and factors associated with alcohol, marijuana, and prescription opioid use and impaired driving among adults aged 21 years and older in the U.S. METHODS: Self-reported data from 3,383 adults in the 2015 Fall ConsumerStyles survey were analyzed. Respondents were asked about alcohol, marijuana, and prescription opioid use and driving while impaired in the last 30 days...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Eleanor L S Leavens, Julie Croff, Rachel Feddor, Kathleen Olson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and related consequences is a problem on many college campuses. Tailgating parties before college sporting events may be contributing, however, little recent research has investigated alcohol consumption at these events. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the drinking behaviors of college game day tailgate attendees and subsequent alcohol-related consequences. METHODS: Participants (N = 89; 44...
June 21, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Ting Zhao, Hong-Ying Pi, Hong-An Ku, Li Pan, Zhu-Yun Gong
OBJECTIVES: To investigate establishing, applying and evaluating the fall prevention and control information system in elderly community. METHODS: Relying on internet technology and informatization means, the fall comprehensive prevention and control strategy of elderly was guided into online from offline. The fall prevention and control information system which was a collection of risk assessment, remote education and feedback was established. One hundred and twenty-six elderly (over 60 years old) in community were screened in this study and 84 high-risk elders who were involved in the remote continuous comprehensive intervention were screened out...
February 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Anne Tiedemann, Sandra O'Rourke, Catherine Sherrington
Objectives and importance of study: Yoga improves balance and mobility, and therefore has potential as a fall prevention strategy, yet its validity for preventing falls has not been established. The Otago Exercise Programme (OEP) and tai chi are proven to prevent falls. This study aimed to evaluate the perceptions and preferences of older people towards a yoga-based program with potential to decrease falls, to compare these perceptions to the views expressed about the OEP and tai chi, and to identify participant characteristics associated with a preference for the yoga program...
June 14, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
Courtney A Miller, Geraud Canis Tasse Taboue, Mary M P Ekane, Matthew Robak, Paul R Sesink Clee, Corinne Richards-Zawacki, Eric B Fokam, Nkwatoh Athanasius Fuashi, Nicola M Anthony
The amphibian disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians is caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and has resulted in dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations worldwide. A hypervirulent, globally-dispersed pandemic lineage (Bd-GPL) is thought to be largely responsible for population declines and extinctions, although numerous endemic lineages have also been found. Recent reports of amphibian declines have been linked to the emergence of Bd in Cameroon, a major hotspot of African amphibian diversity...
2018: PloS One
Takuto Takahashi, Yusuke Okubo, Maria A Pereda, Atsuhiko Handa, Scott Miller
OBJECTIVES: Acute chest syndrome is the leading cause of death in children with sickle cell disease and is generally due to respiratory failure. Epidemiologic factors for a need for mechanical ventilation in children with acute chest syndrome require further clarification. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Nationally representative pediatric inpatient records in the United States by using the Kids' Inpatient Database for the years 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012...
June 19, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
A E Brown, S Nash, N Connor, P D Kirwan, D Ogaz, S Croxford, D De Angelis, V C Delpech
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to present recent trends in the UK HIV epidemic (2007-2016) and the public health response. METHODS: HIV diagnoses and clinical markers were extracted from the HIV and AIDS Reporting System; HIV testing data in sexual health services (SHS) were taken from GUMCAD STI Surveillance System. HIV data were modelled to estimate the incidence in men who have sex with men (MSM) and post-migration HIV acquisition in heterosexuals. Office for National Statistics (ONS) data enabled mortality rates to be calculated...
June 20, 2018: HIV Medicine
Rebekka M Lee, Shoba Ramanadhan, Gina R Kruse, Charles Deutsch
Background: Strong partnerships are critical to integrate evidence-based prevention interventions within clinical and community-based settings, offering multilevel and sustainable solutions to complex health issues. As part of Massachusetts' 2012 health reform, The Prevention and Wellness Trust Fund (PWTF) funded nine local partnerships throughout the state to address hypertension, pediatric asthma, falls among older adults, and tobacco use. The initiative was designed to improve health outcomes through prevention and disease management strategies and reduce healthcare costs...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Giulio Pioli, Chiara Bendini, Paolo Pignedoli, Andrea Giusti, David Marsh
A high proportion of patients with fragility fracture, mainly hip fracture, have a variable degree of comorbidity and show some degree of dependence in basic or more complex activities of daily living. Evaluating these patents following the geriatric concept of frailty, about one third of hip fracture patients may be categorised as frail with high risk of poor outcomes and prolonged length of stay, one third as not frail, and about one third with an intermediate condition. Due to the high vulnerability, combined with the hip fracture event and surgical repair procedures, a multidisciplinary approach that includes geriatric competencies becomes essential to improve short and long-term outcomes after hip fracture...
April 20, 2018: Injury
Louis-Solal Giboin, Markus Gruber, Andreas Kramer
OBJECTIVES: We wanted to verify if the "learning to learn" effect observed in the learning of visuomotor tasks is also present when learning a balance task, i.e., whether the learning rate of a balance task is improved by prior practice of similar balance tasks. DESIGN: Single centre, parallel group, controlled training study. METHODS: 32 young healthy participants were divided into a control and a training group. The training group's practice consisted of 90 trials of three balance tasks...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Isabelle Gauthier, Aisling A Clancy, Jennifer Lipson, Dante Pascali
BACKGROUND: Vaginal injury can result from entry of water into the vagina under high pressure. Previously reported cases describe water-jet vaginal injuries in women participating in water-related activities, including: water skiing, personal watercraft use, waterslides, water hose and fountains, with and without foreign body in situ. CASE: We describe the case of a severe vaginal laceration and hemorrhage in a 44-year-old female from a high-pressure water-jet generated during a water-ski fall requiring operative repair...
July 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Gillian E Caughey, Jodie B Hillen, Stephanie Bacon, Nicholas Bullock, Virginia Bullock, Lisa Kalisch Ellett
Initial assessment: Older people are at increased risk of medication-related potentially preventable hospitalizations (MR-PPH) due to the presence of multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity) and subsequent polypharmacy. Choice of solution: A pilot study was conducted, using evidence-based indicators to detect older patients in a chronic disease management program (CDMP) at risk of hospitalization due to sub-optimal medication use. Implementation: Previously validated indicators for MR-PPH were applied to patients with multimorbidity, aged 65 years or older and who were enrolled in a national community-based CDMP...
June 18, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Giuseppe Taino, Concetta R P Buonocore, Maria C Mongiovi, Enrico Oddone, Marcello Imbriani
OBJECTIVES: The suspension trauma syndrome is a clinical condition that could lead to death, also in short time, by coupling the suspension with loss of consciousness and multiorgan failure. Health risks linked to temporary work in suspension are characterized both by infortunistic ones (for instance: trauma, falls, etc.) and by clinical ones, like the suspension trauma syndrome or compressive issues due to different fall protection systems. METHODS: This study deal with the technical and medical meseasures devoted to the prevention of the suspension trauma syndrome...
December 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Ewa Gawecka, Oddbjørn Viken
Background and purpose Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of acute herpes zoster (HZ). The evidence base for management of PHN has increased by recent publications. Therefore, we reviewed incidence of HZ, prevalence, risk factors, and mechanism of PHN pain, prevention and treatment of PHN with special interest in studies on adult vaccination and topical application of lidocaine and concentrated capsaicin patch. Methods We searched databases with an English language restriction: MEDLINE 1944-2011, EMBASE 1988-2011, PubMed, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register and Cochrane Library (2011)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Elizabeth A Fehlberg, Robert J Lucero, Michael T Weaver, Anna M McDaniel, A Michelle Chandler, Phyllis A Richey, Lorraine C Mion, Ronald I Shorr
Background and Objectives: In October 2008, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) stopped reimbursing hospitals for costs related to patient falls. This study aimed to examine whether the CMS no-pay policy influenced four fall prevention practices: bed alarms, sitters, room changes, and physical restraints. Research Design and Methods: Using electronic medical record data collected from four hospitals between 2005 and 2010, this secondary observational analysis examined the associations between the CMS no-pay policy and nursing interventions and medical orders related to fall prevention...
November 2017: Innovation in Aging
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