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HIV cardiomyopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608697/acute-hiv-infection-results-in-subclinical-inflammatory-cardiomyopathy
#1
Christopher Schuster, Florian J Mayer, Corinna Wohlfahrt, Rodrig Marculescu, Michael Skoll, Robert Strassl, Noemi Pavo, Theresia Popow-Kraupp, Martin Hülsmann, Martin Bauer, Maximilian C Aichelburg, Armin Rieger, Georg Goliasch
The impact of excess viral RNA on myocardial function and morphology in the setting of acute HIV infection remains unknown. In this study forty-nine patients with acute HIV infection showed increased levels of NT-proBNP as surrogate of myocardial function that decreased with viral suppression and normalization of systemic inflammation (79pg/ml vs. 28pg/ml, P<0.001). A comparable change was seen with troponin T as marker of morphologic myocardial damage (4.9ng/L vs. 1.5ng/L; P<0.001). In conclusion, we observed a significant functional and morphological myocardial impairment during acute HIV infection fueled by inflammatory activation as well as extensive viral replication resulting in a reversible subclinical inflammatory cardiomyopathy...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543672/heart-health-in-the-age-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-a-review-of-hiv-cardiomyopathy
#2
Mark N Belkin, Nir Uriel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advancements in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has led to increased survival, approaching that of the general population. These patients are at an increased risk for heart disease, specifically HIV-associated cardiomyopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Initially, HIV-associated cardiomyopathy was predominantly noted as systolic dysfunction, but diastolic dysfunction has become more common with increased use of HAART...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482027/diastolic-dysfunction-in-individuals-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-literature-review-rationale-and-design-of-the-characterizing-heart-function-on-anti-retroviral-therapy-chart-study
#3
Javed Butler, Andreas P Kalogeropoulos, Kevin J Anstrom, Priscilla Y Hsue, Raymond J Kim, Rebecca Scherzer, Sanjiv J Shah, Svati H Shah, Eric J Velazquez, Adrian F Hernandez, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Eugene Braunwald
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with a shift in the epidemiology of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy from a phenotype of primarily left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction to LV diastolic dysfunction (DD). Patients with HIV receiving ART have higher rates of DD when compared to age-matched controls and develop DD at a younger age. However, little is known about the natural history and pathogenesis of DD in virally suppressed HIV-infected patients. Current evidence suggests that immune processes modulate the risk for cardiac involvement in HIV-infected persons...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260263/systematic-literature-review-on-the-incidence-and-prevalence-of-heart-failure-in-children-and-adolescents
#4
REVIEW
Robert E Shaddy, Aneesh Thomas George, Thomas Jaecklin, Eimear Nic Lochlainn, Lalit Thakur, Rumjhum Agrawal, Susan Solar-Yohay, Fabian Chen, Joseph W Rossano, Thomas Severin, Michael Burch
While the epidemiology of adult heart failure has been extensively researched, this systematic review addresses the less well characterized incidence and prevalence of pediatric HF. The search strategy used Cochrane methodology and identified 83 unique studies for inclusion. Studies were categorized according to whether the HF diagnosis was reported as primary (n = 10); associated with other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) (n = 49); or associated with non-CVDs (n = 24). A narrative synthesis of the evidence is presented...
March 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223945/-heart-transplantation-in-an-hiv-infected-patient
#5
Pablo Mouras, Laura Barcán, César Belziti, Rodolfo Pizarro, Noelia Mañez, Ricardo Marenchino
Because of its own unfavourable evolution, HIV infection was until recently considered a contraindication for organ transplantation. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy prolonged the life expectancy of these patients and allowed the manifestation of disorders directly or indirectly related to HIV infection, mainly liver, kidney and cardiovascular diseases. We present a case of cardiac transplantation due to dilated cardiomyopathy that was performed in a patient with a recently detected HIV infection...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#6
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863015/heart-failure-in-persons-living-with-hiv-infection
#7
Priscilla Y Hsue, David D Waters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss presentation, pathophysiology, complications, and treatment of heart failure in persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the advent of effective ART and improved longevity, heart failure has become more chronic and insidious and is often characterized by preserved ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction, and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. The mechanism underlying heart failure in the setting of HIV infection remains unknown...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838969/acquired-heart-disease-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#8
REVIEW
Chris Curry, Liesl Zuhlke, Ana Mocumbi, Neil Kennedy
The burden of illness associated with acquired cardiac disease in children in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) is significant and may be equivalent to that of congenital heart disease. Rheumatic heart disease, endomyocardial fibrosis, cardiomyopathy (including HIV cardiomyopathy) and tuberculosis are the most important causes. All are associated with poverty with the neediest children having the least access to care. The associated mortality and morbidity is high. There is an urgent need to improve cardiac care in LMIC, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Southeast Asia where the burden is highest...
January 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834662/human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-heart-failure-in-sub-saharan-africa-evolution-in-the-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-clinical-manifestations-in-the-antiretroviral-era
#9
REVIEW
Ntobeko A B Ntusi, Mpiko Ntsekhe
The survival of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically increased in recent times. This review focuses on HIV-associated heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In HIV infected persons, heart failure may be related to pathology of the pericardium, the myocardium, the valves, the conduction system, or the coronary and pulmonary vasculature. HIV-associated heart failure can be because of direct consequences of HIV infection, autoimmune reactions, pro-inflammatory cytokines, opportunistic infections (OIs) or neoplasms, use of ART or therapy for OIs and presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors...
September 2016: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819214/hiv-1-nef-induced-cardiotoxicity-through-dysregulation-of-autophagy
#10
Manish K Gupta, Rafal Kaminski, Brian Mullen, Jennifer Gordon, Tricia H Burdo, Joseph Y Cheung, Arthur M Feldman, Muniswamy Madesh, Kamel Khalili
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of co-morbidity in HIV-1 positive patients, even those in whom plasma virus levels are well-controlled. The pathogenic mechanism of HIV-1-associated cardiomyopathy is unknown, but has been presumed to be mediated indirectly, owing to the absence of productive HIV-1 replication in cardiomyocytes. We sought to investigate the effect of the HIV-1 auxiliary protein, Nef, which is suspected of extracellular release by infected CD4+ T cells on protein quality control and autophagy in cardiomyocytes...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730326/infectious-diseases-causing-autonomic-dysfunction
#11
REVIEW
Francisco Javier Carod-Artal
OBJECTIVES: To review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Review of published papers indexed in medline/embase. RESULTS: Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus), herpes viruses, flavivirus, enterovirus 71 and lyssavirus infections. Autonomic dysfunction is relatively common in HIV-infected patients and heart rate variability is reduced even in early stages of infection...
February 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414687/disseminated-cryptococcal-disease-with-diffuse-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-non-hiv-host
#12
M Hughes, K Trivedi, M Rudrappa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus in a non-HIV host, where the primary manifestation was pulmonary with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. This patient was on high dose corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. CASE: A 79 year old Caucasian man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia on 100 mg of prednisone daily, coronary artery disease s/p bypass surgery, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, and history of bilateral pulmonary emboli presented to Hematology/Oncology clinic with symptoms of productive cough, worsening shortness of breath, hemoptysis...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285972/tp-e-interval-and-tp-e-qt-ratio-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#13
Sefa Ünal, Çağrı Yayla, Burak Açar, Ahmet G Ertem, Mehmet K Akboğa, Serkan Gökaslan, Mehmet A Erdöl, Meliha Ç Sönmezer, Esra Kaya Kiliç, Çiğdem Ataman Hatipoğlu, Necla Tulek, Fatma S Erdinç, Sinan Aydoğdu, Ahmet Temizhan
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS are known to cause cardiovascular diseases such as premature coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Recently, Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio has been shown as a novel marker of ventricular repolarization. We aimed to evaluate the ventricular repolarization using Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Totally 48 patients with HIV and 60 control subjects were enrolled to the study...
January 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152987/trends-and-causes-of-maternal-mortality-in-ethiopia-during-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-diseases-study-2013
#14
Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Caroline O Laurence, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Awoke Misganaw, Sintayehu A Woldie, Abiye Hiruye, Azmeraw T Amare, Yihunie Lakew, Berihun M Zeleke, Amare Deribew
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is noticeably high in sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia. Continuous nationwide systematic evaluation and assessment of the problem helps to design appropriate policy and strategy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate the trends and causes of maternal mortality in Ethiopia between 1990 and 2013. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Diseases and Risk factors (GBD) Study 2013 data that was collected from multiple sources at national and subnational levels...
February 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886790/cardiac-disease-associated-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#15
REVIEW
Gerald S Bloomfield, Claudia Leung
Over the last 2 decades human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic disease requiring long-term management. Aging, antiretroviral therapy, chronic inflammation, and several other factors contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients infected with HIV. In low-income and middle-income countries where antiretroviral therapy access is limited, cardiac disease is most commonly related to opportunistic infections and end-stage manifestations of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, including HIV-associated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension...
February 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701482/presentation-and-mortality-of-patients-hospitalised-with-acute-heart-failure-in-botswana
#16
Julius Chacha Mwita, Matthew J Dewhurst, Mgaywa G Magafu, Monkgogi Goepamang, Bernard Omech, Koketso Lister Majuta, Marea Gaenamong, Tommy Baboloki Palai, Mosepele Mosepele, Yohana Mashalla
INTRODUCTION: Heart failure is a common cause of hospitalisation and therefore contributes to in-hospital outcomes such as mortality. In this study we describe patient characteristics and outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF) in Botswana. METHODS: Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from 193 consecutive patients admitted with AHF at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone between February 2014 and February 2015. The length of hospital stay and 30-, 90- and 180-day in-hospital mortality rates were assessed...
March 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694356/cardiovascular-disease-and-hiv-pathophysiology-treatment-considerations-and-nursing-implications
#17
Justin M Cournoyer, Aven P Garms, Kimberly N Thiessen, Margaret T Bowers, Melissa D Johnson, Michael V Relf
HIV infection has progressed from an acute, terminal disease to a chronic illness with cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death among persons living with HIV. As persons living with HIV infection continue to become older, traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis compounded by the pathophysiological effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy markedly increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Further, persons living with HIV are also at high risk for cardiomyopathy. Critical care nurses must recognize the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the pathophysiology and complex treatment options in order to manage care of these patients and facilitate multidisciplinary collaboration...
October 2016: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590440/signaling-via-pinch-functions-binding-partners-and-implications-in-human-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Huamin Xu, Huiling Cao, Guozhi Xiao
Particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine-rich protein (PINCH) is a LIM-domain-only adaptor that plays important roles in cytoskeletal organization and extracellular matrix adhesion, migration, proliferation and survival. Mammalian cells have two functional PINCH proteins, PINCH1 and PINCH2. PINCH not only binds to Nck2 and engages in the signaling of growth factor receptors, but also forms a ternary complex with ILK and parvin (IPP complex). Normally, the IPP complex locates to focal adhesions participating in the signaling of integrins and mediating the interaction of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM)...
December 5, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502863/clinical-and-echocardiographic-characteristics-and-outcomes-in-congestive-heart-failure-at-the-hospital-of-the-state-university-of-haiti
#19
Rodolphe Malebranche, Christian Tabou Moyo, Paul-Henry Morisset, Nernst-Atwood Raphael, James Robert Wilentz
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and epidemiologic profile of congestive heart failure at the principal free-care hospital in Haiti. Cardiovascular disease represents the most prevalent cause of admissions to the medical service of the University Hospital of the State of Haiti. No previous study has examined the demographics of congestive heart failure in urban Haiti. METHODS: Two hundred forty-seven patients presented to the inpatient service between May 2011 and May 2013...
August 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213855/medical-disease-as-a-cause-of-maternal-mortality-the-pre-imminence-of-cardiovascular-pathology
#20
REVIEW
A O Mocumbi, K Sliwa, P Soma-Pillay
Maternal mortality ratio in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC) is 14 times higher than in high-income countries. This is partially due to lack of antenatal care, unmet needs for family planning and education, as well as low rates of birth managed by skilled attendants. While direct causes of maternal death such as complications of hypertension, obstetric haemorrhage and sepsis remain the largest cause of maternal death in LMICs, cardiovascular disease emerges as an important contributor to maternal mortality in both developing countries and the developed world, hampering the achievement of the millennium development goal 5, which aimed at reducing by three-quarters the maternal mortality ratio until the end of 2015...
March 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
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