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HIV cardiomyopathy

M Hughes, K Trivedi, M Rudrappa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus in a non-HIV host, where the primary manifestation was pulmonary with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. This patient was on high dose corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. CASE: A 79 year old Caucasian man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia on 100 mg of prednisone daily, coronary artery disease s/p bypass surgery, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, and history of bilateral pulmonary emboli presented to Hematology/Oncology clinic with symptoms of productive cough, worsening shortness of breath, hemoptysis...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
Sefa Ünal, Çağrı Yayla, Burak Açar, Ahmet G Ertem, Mehmet K Akboğa, Serkan Gökaslan, Mehmet A Erdöl, Meliha Ç Sönmezer, Esra Kaya Kiliç, Çiğdem Ataman Hatipoğlu, Sinan Aydoğdu, Ahmet Temizhan
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS are known to cause cardiovascular diseases such as premature coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Recently, Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio has been shown as a novel marker of ventricular repolarization. We aimed to evaluate the ventricular repolarization using Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Totally 48 patients with HIV and 60 control subjects were enrolled to the study...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Caroline O Laurence, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Awoke Misganaw, Sintayehu A Woldie, Abiye Hiruye, Azmeraw T Amare, Yihunie Lakew, Berihun M Zeleke, Amare Deribew
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is noticeably high in sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia. Continuous nationwide systematic evaluation and assessment of the problem helps to design appropriate policy and strategy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate the trends and causes of maternal mortality in Ethiopia between 1990 and 2013. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Diseases and Risk factors (GBD) Study 2013 data that was collected from multiple sources at national and subnational levels...
February 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
Gerald S Bloomfield, Claudia Leung
Over the last 2 decades human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic disease requiring long-term management. Aging, antiretroviral therapy, chronic inflammation, and several other factors contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients infected with HIV. In low-income and middle-income countries where antiretroviral therapy access is limited, cardiac disease is most commonly related to opportunistic infections and end-stage manifestations of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, including HIV-associated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension...
February 2017: Cardiology Clinics
Julius Chacha Mwita, Matthew J Dewhurst, Mgaywa G Magafu, Monkgogi Goepamang, Bernard Omech, Koketso Lister Majuta, Marea Gaenamong, Tommy Baboloki Palai, Mosepele Mosepele, Yohana Mashalla
INTRODUCTION: Heart failure is a common cause of hospitalisation and therefore contributes to in-hospital outcomes such as mortality. In this study we describe patient characteristics and outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF) in Botswana. METHODS: Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from 193 consecutive patients admitted with AHF at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone between February 2014 and February 2015. The length of hospital stay and 30-, 90- and 180-day in-hospital mortality rates were assessed...
August 24, 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Justin M Cournoyer, Aven P Garms, Kimberly N Thiessen, Margaret T Bowers, Melissa D Johnson, Michael V Relf
HIV infection has progressed from an acute, terminal disease to a chronic illness with cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death among persons living with HIV. As persons living with HIV infection continue to become older, traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis compounded by the pathophysiological effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy markedly increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Further, persons living with HIV are also at high risk for cardiomyopathy. Critical care nurses must recognize the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the pathophysiology and complex treatment options in order to manage care of these patients and facilitate multidisciplinary collaboration...
October 2016: Critical Care Nurse
Huamin Xu, Huiling Cao, Guozhi Xiao
Particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine-rich protein (PINCH) is a LIM-domain-only adaptor that plays important roles in cytoskeletal organization and extracellular matrix adhesion, migration, proliferation and survival. Mammalian cells have two functional PINCH proteins, PINCH1 and PINCH2. PINCH not only binds to Nck2 and engages in the signaling of growth factor receptors, but also forms a ternary complex with ILK and parvin (IPP complex). Normally, the IPP complex locates to focal adhesions participating in the signaling of integrins and mediating the interaction of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM)...
December 5, 2016: Gene
Rodolphe Malebranche, Christian Tabou Moyo, Paul-Henry Morisset, Nernst-Atwood Raphael, James Robert Wilentz
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and epidemiologic profile of congestive heart failure at the principal free-care hospital in Haiti. Cardiovascular disease represents the most prevalent cause of admissions to the medical service of the University Hospital of the State of Haiti. No previous study has examined the demographics of congestive heart failure in urban Haiti. METHODS: Two hundred forty-seven patients presented to the inpatient service between May 2011 and May 2013...
August 2016: American Heart Journal
A O Mocumbi, K Sliwa, P Soma-Pillay
Maternal mortality ratio in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC) is 14 times higher than in high-income countries. This is partially due to lack of antenatal care, unmet needs for family planning and education, as well as low rates of birth managed by skilled attendants. While direct causes of maternal death such as complications of hypertension, obstetric haemorrhage and sepsis remain the largest cause of maternal death in LMICs, cardiovascular disease emerges as an important contributor to maternal mortality in both developing countries and the developed world, hampering the achievement of the millennium development goal 5, which aimed at reducing by three-quarters the maternal mortality ratio until the end of 2015...
March 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Priya Soma-Pillay, Joseph Seabe, Karen Sliwa
AIMS: Cardiac disease is emerging as an important contributor to maternal deaths in both lower-to-middle and higherincome countries. There has been a steady increase in the overall institutional maternal mortality rate in South Africa over the last decade. The objectives of this study were to determine the cardiovascular causes and contributing factors of maternal death in South Africa, and identify avoidable factors, and thus improve the quality of care provided. METHODS: Data collected via the South African National Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (NCCEMD) for the period 2011-2013 for cardiovascular disease (CVD) reported as the primary pathology was analysed...
March 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Rebecca H Lumsden, Gerald S Bloomfield
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed the clinical profile of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from an acute infection with a high mortality into a treatable, chronic disease. As a result, the clinical sequelae of HIV infection are changing as patients live longer. HIV-associated cardiomyopathy (HIVAC) is a stage IV, HIV-defining illness and remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected individuals despite ART. Causes and clinical manifestations of HIVAC depend on the degree of host immunosuppression...
2016: BioMed Research International
Alain Patrick Menanga, Christelle Kougang Ngomseu, Ahmadou M Jingi, Brigitte Molu Mfangam, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Marie Ntep Gweth, Kathleen Ngu Blackett, Samuel Kingue
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is an increasingly important issue in human immunodeficiency viral (HIV)-infected individuals. There is dearth of information on the patterns of cardiovascular disease especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) patients. This study reports on the clinical, biological, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic characteristics of a group of HIV-infected patients presenting with symptoms of heart disease in Yaoundé, Cameroon. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Yaoundé Central Hospital and Jamot Hospital...
December 2015: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Sudheer Koganti, Sabine Kinloch-de Loes, Samantha Hutchinson, Margaret Johnson, Roby D Rakhit
The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular diagnoses and management in a cohort of patients diagnosed with HIV, and the performance of a joint HIV/Cardiology Clinic in a tertiary hospital setting. A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients referred to a joint HIV/Cardiology Clinic at our hospital. Data on 120 patients were collected. In this predominantly male population (male 101 and female 19) coronary artery disease (CAD) was the most common diagnosis (34%, n = 41). Other diseases included hypertension (12...
October 2015: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Joseph Y Cheung, Jennifer Gordon, JuFang Wang, Jianliang Song, Xue-Qian Zhang, Douglas G Tilley, Erhe Gao, Walter J Koch, Joseph Rabinowitz, Paul E Klotman, Kamel Khalili, Arthur M Feldman
Since highly active antiretroviral therapy improved long-term survival of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, AIDS cardiomyopathy has become an increasingly relevant clinical problem. We used human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transgenic (Tg26) mouse to explore molecular mechanisms of AIDS cardiomyopathy. Tg26 mice had significantly lower left ventricular (LV) mass and smaller end-diastolic and end-systolic LV volumes. Under basal conditions, cardiac contractility and relaxation and single myocyte contraction dynamics were not different between wild-type (WT) and Tg26 mice...
August 2015: Clinical and Translational Science
Christine Kirlew, Kobina Wilmot, Jorge L Salinas
A 58 year old male presented with a 14 day history of progressive forgetfulness and aggressiveness. He had a history of human immunodeficiency virus infection, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and a myxomatous mitral valve (status post Saint Jude's mitral valve replacement 8 years before presentation). International normalized ratio was supra-therapeatutic on admission. A non-contrast computed tomography of the brain indicated multiple infarcts with hemorrhagic conversion. The source was later found to be a rare case of Neisseria sicca endocarditis...
September 2015: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Jose A Pérez-Molina, Angela Martinez Perez, Francesca F Norman, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Rogelio López-Vélez
Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a neglected disease, which can lead to cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, megaviscera, and more rarely, polyneuropathy in up to 30-40% of patients around 20 to 30 years after acute infection. Although it is endemic in the Americas, global population movements mean that it can be located wherever migrants from endemic areas settle. The disease was first described 100 years ago and still challenges clinicians worldwide, since diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic methods remain insufficient...
November 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Thuy Van Pham, Mercedes Torres
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral medications are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In the pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, HIV-infected patients had increased morbidity and mortality from opportunistic infections; in the post-ART era, these patients are at increased risk of chronic diseases such as acute coronary syndrome, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy. They may present with vague symptoms such as weakness, dyspnea, or fatigue as the initial presentation of their cardiovascular disease...
August 2015: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Adele Stewart, Biswanath Maity, Rory A Fisher
Regulator of G protein signaling 6 (RGS6) is unique among the members of the RGS protein family as it remains the only protein with the demonstrated capacity to control G protein-dependent and -independent signaling cascades in vivo. RGS6 inhibits signaling mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors, serotonin 1A receptors, μ opioid receptors, and muscarinic acetylcholine 2 receptors. RGS6 deletion triggers distinct behavioral phenotypes resulting from potentiated signaling by these G protein-coupled receptors namely ataxia, a reduction in anxiety and depression, enhanced analgesia, and increased parasympathetic tone, respectively...
2015: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Clovis Nkoke, Liliane Mfeukeu Kuate, Engelbert Bain Luchuo, Sandrine Dikosso Edie, Jerome Boombhi, Alain Menanga
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing epidemiological transition with an increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases that will add to the already devastating burden of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus infection. Human immunodeficiency virus infection is increasingly being recognized as an important etiological factor for dilated cardiomyopathy with the potential complication of intraventricular thrombus. However, biventricular thrombi are extremely rare...
April 28, 2015: BMC Research Notes
Twalib Olega Aliku, Sulaiman Lubega, Peter Lwabi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular dysfunction is a recognized complication of HIV infection in children. Cardiac complications of HIV usually occur late in the course of the disease; they may be associated with drug therapy, and hence become more common as therapy and survival improve. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction at baseline is a risk factor for death independent of the CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and neurological disease. CLINICAL CASE: We present the case of a 15 year old girl with HIV who developed left ventricular dysfunction while non-compliant on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
March 2015: African Health Sciences
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