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Wu Chao, Yuhui Zhang, Lihong Chai, Hongyuan Wang
Endochondral ossification, the process by which most of the bone is formed, is regulated by many specific groups of molecules and extracellular matrix components. Hind limb of Bufo gargarizans is a model to study endochondral ossification during metamorphosis. Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 ) from G3 to G42. The development of hind limb of B. gargarizans was observed using the double staining methodology. The transcriptome of hind limb of B...
June 10, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Chen Xu, Hao Zhang, Wei Gu, Huiqiao Wu, Yuanyuan Chen, Wenchao Zhou, Baifeng Sun, Xiaolong Shen, Zicheng Zhang, Yue Wang, Yang Liu, Wen Yuan
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) presents as pathological heterotopic ossification of the spinal ligaments. However, its underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. Our previous findings suggested that altered microRNA regulatory network are critical for the development of OPLL. Here, we set out to unveiling the detailed mechanism of those altered OPLL-specific microRNAs. We screened a set of differentially expressed OPLL-specific microRNAs from the previous sequencing data and showed that microRNA-10a actively modulates the ossification of posterior ligament cells in vitro...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
J A Suby, P Novellino, G Da Peña, C D Pandiani
The odontoid process of the axis can be affected by congenital or acquired pathologies. While abnormalities such as os odontoideum, agenesis, and fractures are reported in archaeological remains, the abnormality of an elongated length of the odontoid process has not been described in the paleopathological literature. The aim of this paper is to evaluate two individuals with elongated odontoid processes from a skeletal assemblage from the B6 archaeological site (Mendoza, Argentina), and to discuss the possible etiologies of the condition, with particular attention given to the relation to trauma and Crowned Dens Syndrome (CDS), a condition characterized by the ossification of ligaments of the odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Bong Ju Moon, Sun Kyu Choi, Dong Ah Shin, Seong Yi, Keung Nyun Kim, Do Heum Yoon, Yoon Ha
OBJECT: To evaluate the prevalence, incidence, morbidity, and mortality rates of cervical ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), using data from a 12-year national cohort of 1,025,340 Korean people. METHODS: A nested case-control cohort study was performed using the insurance claims database, during 2002 to 2013, provided by the National Health Insurance Service. We examined the prevalence and incidence of cervical OPLL. Age/sex-matched controls were randomly extracted, with 10 times the number of OPLL cases...
June 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Kutsi Tuncer, Emine Izgi, Bahar Cankaya, Hayri Ogul, Mecit Kantarci
Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumor but it rarely arises from the scapula. Scapulothoracic bursitis is quite rare and osteochondroma is one of the unusual causes of this condition. Synovial chondromatosis may occur extremely uncommonly in this bursa. We reported an unusual case of scapulothoracic bursitis with synovial chondromatosis which is caused by osteochondroma. To the best of our knowledge, there is no defined chondromatosis in the scapulothoracic bursa secondary to scapular osteochondroma in the literature...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Qingpeng Song, Wei Tian, Da He, Xiao Han, Ning Zhang, Jinchao Wang, Zuchang Li
Objective: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and influencing factors of cervical artificial disc replacement (CADR) for patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). Methods: The data of 29 CSR patients who underwent Bryan artificial disc replacement between December 2003 and December 2007 and followed up more than 10 years were retrospectively analysed. There were 16 males and 13 females with an average age of 54.1 years (range, 40-70 years). The disease duration was 2-144 months (mean, 19...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Victor Lukianchikov, Ivan Lvov, Andrey Grin, Anton Kordonskiy, Natalia Polunina, Vladimir Krylov
BACKGROUND: Kimmerle anomaly is characterised by ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane with formation of a complete or incomplete bony ridge in the area of the groove for the vertebral artery (VA) (ponticulus posticus, PP). In some cases, the bony ridge may also be formed at the level of the VA emerging from the transverse process of the С1 vertebra (ponticulus lateralis, PL). The simultaneous one-sided formation of PL and PP is very rare. There are no literature data concerning surgical treatment for compression of the VA due to PL...
June 11, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Koushik Tripathy, Rohan Chawla, Shreyas Temkar, Pradeep Sagar, Seema Kashyap, Neelam Pushker, Yog Raj Sharma
Phthisis bulbi denotes end-stage eye disease characterized by shrinkage and disorganization of the eye with the resultant functional loss. The major factors associated with the pathogenesis of phthisis are hypotony, deranged blood-ocular barriers, and inflammation. Common causes include trauma, surgery, infection, inflammation, malignancy, retinal detachment, and vascular lesions. A phthisical globe shows a small squared off shape, opaque and thickened cornea, thickened sclera, neovascularization of iris, cataract, cyclitic membrane, ciliochoroidal detachment, and retinal detachment...
June 14, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Clarissa Rocha Dos Santos, Richard da Rocha Filgueiras, Patrícia Furtado Malard, Andre Rodrigues da Cunha Barreto-Vianna, Kaique Nogueira, Carolina da Silva Leite, Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima
BACKGROUND: The cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is the most commonly encountered orthopedic condition in dogs. Among the various techniques to treat this condition, tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) has been used to obtain rapid recovery of the affected knee. The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) implanted in the osteotomy site obtained by TTA in nine dogs diagnosed with CCLR. METHODS: The MSC were isolated from the adipose tissue of the dogs and cultured for eight days, the animals were divided into two groups...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Hidetoshi Tsushima, Yuning J Tang, Vijitha Puviindran, Shu-Hsuan Claire Hsu, Puviindran Nadesan, Chunying Yu, Hongyuan Zhang, Anthony J Mirando, Matthew J Hilton, Benjamin A Alman
During enchondral ossification, mesenchymal cells express genes regulating the intracellular biosynthesis of cholesterol and lipids. Here we investigated conditional deletion of Scap or Insig1 and Insig2 (inhibits or activates intracellular biosynthesis respectively). Mesenchymal condensation and chondrogenesis was disrupted in mice lacking Scap in mesenchymal progenitors, while mice lacking the Insig genes in mesenchymal progenitors had short limbs, but normal chondrogenesis. Mice lacking Scap in chondrocytes showed severe dwarfism, with ectopic hypertrophic cells, while deletion of Insig genes in chondrocytes caused a mild dwarfism and shorting of the hypertrophic zone...
June 13, 2018: Development
Alexander Arzeno, Tim Wang, James I Huddleston
Revision hip arthroplasty in the setting of periacetabular bone loss presents a significant challenge, as options for restoring bone loss are limited. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 may offer a solution by promoting bone growth to restore bone stock before implant reimplantation. Here we present a case of a patient with a periprosthetic acetabulum fracture, resulting in pelvic discontinuity as the result of significant periacetabular bone loss. Using a staged approach, periacetabular bone stock was nearly entirely reconstituted using recombinant BMPs and allograft, which resulted in stable fixation, but with abundant heterotopic bone formation...
June 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Hyeon Jun Kim, Sung Soo Kim, Young Hun Jung, Kyung Ho Lee
Purpose: This study is performed to evaluate the usefulness of arthroscopic surgery prior to open reduction and fixation surgery to treat acetabular fractures and hip fractures-dislocation. Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to March 2014, a total of 54 patients with acetabular fractures or hip fractures with dislocation were treated arthroscopically via fracture surface before open reduction and fixation (group 1, n=11), and without hip arthroscopy prior to open reduction and fixation (group 2; n=43)...
June 2018: Hip & Pelvis
Christopher R Rowland, Katherine A Glass, Adarsh R Ettyreddy, Catherine C Gloss, Jared R L Matthews, Nguyen P T Huynh, Farshid Guilak
Cartilage-derived matrix (CDM) has emerged as a promising scaffold material for tissue engineering of cartilage and bone due to its native chondroinductive capacity and its ability to support endochondral ossification. Because it consists of native tissue, CDM can undergo cellular remodeling, which can promote integration with host tissue and enables it to be degraded and replaced by neotissue over time. However, enzymatic degradation of decellularized tissues can occur unpredictably and may not allow sufficient time for mechanically competent tissue to form, especially in the harsh inflammatory environment of a diseased joint...
May 30, 2018: Biomaterials
Angélica Arenas-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco Rubiano Vargas, Julio Mario Hoyos
Although comparative studies of anuran ontogeny have provided new data on heterochrony in the life cycles of frogs, most of them have not included ossification sequences. Using differential staining techniques, we observe and describe differences and similarities of cranial and postcranial development in two hylid species, Scinax ruber (Scinaxinae) and Dendropsophus labialis (Hylinae), providing new data of ontogenetic studies in these Colombian species. We examined tadpoles raining from Gosner Stages 25 to 45...
2018: PeerJ
Yeong J Lau, Shashank Sarmah, Johan D Witt
INTRODUCTION: 3rd generation ceramic bearings were introduced in total hip arthroplasty (THA) with the potential to have better mechanical strength and wear properties than their predecessors. At present, there are few studies looking at the long-term results of this latest generation of ceramic bearings. The purpose of our study was to investigate the long-term clinical and radiographic results of 3rd generation ceramic-on-ceramic THA and the incidence of ceramic specific complications such as squeaking and bearing surface fracture...
March 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
L H Gong, W F Liu, Y Ding, W Zhang, Y K Yang, F Yu, G Q Wong, X Y Huang, X H Niu
Objective: To investigate the radiological and histopathological features of giant cell tumor of bone treated with RANKL inhibitor denosumab. Methods: Eleven cases were retrieved from the surgical pathology records between March 2015 and June 2017 in Beijing Jishuitan Hospital. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded specimens were collected and the histological features were evaluated. The imaging features including X ray, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography were also reviewed. Results: These 11 cases of giant cell tumor of bone were derived from five female and six male patients, with age ranged from 20 to 62 years (mean age, 35 years)...
June 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Tristan Maerz, Michael Newton, Abigail A Marek, Michael Planalp, Kevin Baker
BACKGROUND/CONTEXT: Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is associated with longitudinal remodeling of paravertebral tissues. While chronic vertebral changes in advanced stages of DDD are well-studied, very little data exists on acute vertebral bone remodeling at the onset and progression of DDD. PURPOSE: To longitudinally characterize bony remodeling in a rodent model of disc injury-induced DDD. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: In vivo animal study involving a rat annulus fibrosus injury model of DDD...
June 7, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Dan Min Wang, Ling Lin, Jian Hua Peng, Yao Gong, Zhi Duo Hou, Su Biao Chen, Zheng Yu Xiao
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of sacroiliitis is unclear; therefore, we aimed to systematically study the immunopathology of sacroiliitis in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and explore the relationship between pannus formation, inflammation, and the structural damage caused by sacroiliitis. METHODS: Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was performed in 193 patients with axSpA. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected at baseline and during the follow up...
June 8, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Celia L Gregson, Felicity Newell, Paul J Leo, Graeme R Clark, Lavinia Paternoster, Mhairi Marshall, Vincenzo Forgetta, John A Morris, Bing Ge, Xiao Bao, J H Duncan Bassett, Graham R Williams, Scott E Youlten, Peter I Croucher, George Davey Smith, David M Evans, John P Kemp, Matthew A Brown, Jon H Tobias, Emma L Duncan
BACKGROUND: Generalised high bone mass (HBM), associated with features of a mild skeletal dysplasia, has a prevalence of 0.18% in a UK DXA-scanned adult population. We hypothesized that the genetic component of extreme HBM includes contributions from common variants of small effect and rarer variants of large effect, both enriched in an extreme phenotype cohort. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of adults with either extreme high or low BMD...
June 5, 2018: Bone
Véronique Freire, Thomas P Moser, Marianne Lepage-Saucier
Musculoskeletal calcifications are frequent on radiographs and sometimes problematic. The goal of this article is to help radiologists to make the correct diagnosis when faced with an extraosseous musculoskeletal calcification. One should first differentiate a calcification from an ossification or a foreign body and then locate the calcification correctly. Each location has a specific short differential diagnosis, with minimal further investigation necessary. Intra-tendon calcifications are most frequently associated with hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD)...
June 7, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
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