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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244684/open-hip-dislocation-through-the-scrotum-without-osseous-injury-a-case-report
#1
Tyler Snoap, Jason Habeck, Jason Roberts
CASE: A 36-year-old bicyclist sustained an open anterior hip dislocation through the scrotum after being struck by 2 motor vehicles. There was no osseous injury present. The hip was irreducible by closed means and required open reduction via a Smith-Petersen approach. Postoperatively, the patient did not develop osteonecrosis of the femoral head but did have signs of mild osteoarthritis and heterotopic ossification. CONCLUSION: Open anterior hip dislocation into the scrotum is an exceedingly rare injury...
January 2017: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243234/equine-gestational-length-and-location-is-there-more-that-the-research-could-be-telling-us
#2
REVIEW
J Clothier, G Hinch, W Brown, A Small
Clear definitions of 'normal' equine gestation length (GL) are elusive, with GL being subject to a considerable number of internal and external variables that have confounded interpretation and estimation of GL for over 50 years. Consequently, the mean GL of 340 days first established by Rossdale in 1967 for Thoroughbred horses in northern Europe continues to be the benchmark value referenced by veterinarians, breeders and researchers worldwide. Application of a 95% confidence limit to reported GL range values indicates a possible connection between geographic location and GL...
December 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242050/mutant-fgfr3-associated-with-saddan-disease-causes-cytoskeleton-disorganization-through-plc%C3%AE-1-src-mediated-paxillin-hyperphosphorylation
#3
R Montone, M G Romanelli, A Baruzzi, F Ferrarini, E Liboi, P M-J Lievens
K650M/E substitutions in the Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) are associated with Severe Achondroplasia with Developmental Delay and Acanthosis Nigricans (SADDAN) and Thanatophoric Dysplasia type II (TDII), respectively. Both SADDAN and TDII present with affected endochondral ossification marked by impaired chondrocyte functions and growth plate disorganization. In vitro, K650M/E substitutions confer FGFR3 constitutive kinase activity leading to impaired biosynthesis and accumulation of immature receptors in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241828/acute-and-chronic-rapamycin-use-in-patients-with-fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva-a-report-of-two-cases
#4
REVIEW
Frederick S Kaplan, Leonid Zeitlin, Stephen P Dunn, Shira Benor, David Hagin, Mona Al Mukaddam, Robert J Pignolo
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is an ultrarare genetic disorder of progressive, disabling heterotopic ossification for which there is presently no definitive treatment. Several recent studies in genetic mouse models of FOP support involvement of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in the pathophysiology of FOP and propose the repurposed use of rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1 signaling in clinical trials for the management of FOP. Here we report two patients with the classic FOP mutation who received rapamycin-one for four months on a compassionate basis for treatment of acute flare-ups of the neck and back that were refractory to corticosteroid therapy-and the other for 18years for chronic immunosuppression following liver transplantation for intercurrent cytomegalovirus infection...
December 11, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241366/accuracy-of-dental-development-for-estimating-the-pubertal-growth-spurt-in-comparison-to-skeletal-development-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Marcos Av Bittencourt, Graziela O Cericato, Ademir Franco, Rafaela S Girão, Anderson Pb Lima, Luiz R Paranhos
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to search for scientific evidence concerning the accuracy of dental development for estimating the pubertal growth spurt. METHODS: It was conducted according to the statements of PRISMA. An electronic search was performed in six databases, including the grey literature. The PICOS strategy was used to define the eligibility criteria and only observational studies were selected. RESULTS: Out of 1,416 identified citations, ten papers fulfilled the criteria and were included in this systematic review...
December 15, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241211/the-role-of-pannexin3-modified-human-dental-pulp-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-repairing-rat-cranial-critical-sized-bone-defects
#6
Fangfang Song, Hualing Sun, Liyuan Huang, Dongjie Fu, Cui Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hDPSCs) are promising seed cells for tissue engineering due to their easy accessibility and multi-lineage differentiation. Pannexin3 (Panx3) plays crucial roles during bone development and differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Panx3 on osteogenesis of hDPSCs and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Utilizing qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry, we explored the change of Panx3 during osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs...
December 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240012/surgical-treatment-of-chronic-elbow-dislocation-allowing-early-range-of-motion-operative-technique-and-clinical-results
#7
Duane R Anderson, Justin M Haller, Lucas A Anderson, Samuel Hailu, Abebe Chala, Shawn W O'Driscoll
OBJECTIVES: Describe the surgical treatment and patient outcomes of chronic elbow dislocations. DESIGN: Retrospective review SETTING:: Two tertiary referral centers. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: All patients with surgically treated chronic elbow dislocation with no associated articular fracture from January 2009 - January 2015. INTERVENTION: Review of patient demographics, injury chronicity, surgical technique, and patient outcomes...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239487/evolution-of-skull-shape-in-the-family-salamandridae-amphibia-caudata
#8
Ana Ivanović, Jan W Arntzen
We carried out a comparative morphometric analysis of 56 species of salamandrid salamanders, representing 19 out of 21 extant genera, with the aim of uncovering the major patterns of skull shape diversification, and revealing possible trends and directions of evolutionary change. To do this we used micro-computed tomography scanning and three-dimensional geometric morphometrics, along with a well-resolved molecular phylogeny. We found that allometry explains a relatively small amount of shape variation across taxa...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234663/reconstruction-with-iliac-pedestal-cup-and-proximal-femur-tumor-prosthesis-after-wide-resection-of-chondrosarcoma-10-year-follow-up-results
#9
Diogo Lino Moura, Rúben Fonseca, João Freitas, António Figueiredo, José Casanova
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant cartilage-forming neoplasm. It is difficult to treat because of resistance to both chemotherapy and radiation, making wide local excision the only treatment. This report presents an active, 43 year-old man who was diagnosed with recurrent clear cell chondrosarcoma of the proximal left femur, previously reconstructed with a total hip prosthesis, extending to the weight-bearing dome of the acetabulum. Cancer staging study revealed no signs of tumor dissemination at distance. Given the excellent functional status of the patient, the authors performed a Enneking-Dunham type periacetabular pelvic resection and resected en bloc, with the total hip prosthesis including 22 cm of the femur and a portion of the hip abductor apparatus...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232500/developmental-osteology-of-the-parafrontal-bones-of-the-sphaerodactylidae
#10
Aaron H Griffing, Juan D Daza, Jonathan C DeBoer, Aaron M Bauer
Well-resolved phylogenetic hypotheses and ontogenetic data are often necessary for investigating the evolution of structural novelty. The Sphaerodactylidae comprises 12 genera of predominantly miniaturized geckos. The genera Aristelliger and Teratoscincus are exceptions, with taxa reaching snout-to-vent lengths far exceeding those of other sphaerodactylids. These two genera possess enigmatic, supraorbital ossifications - parafrontal bones - which are encountered nowhere else among squamates. At the time of their discovery, these structures were believed to be the result of evolutionary convergence...
December 12, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230632/ghrelin-accelerates-the-cartilagic-differentiation-of-rabbit-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-the-erk1-2-pathway
#11
Nan Ye, Lin Wang, Zhe Dou, Jian Huang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into chondroblasts, adipocytes, or cartilage under appropriate stimulation. Identifying a mechanism triggering the differentiation of MSCs into cartilage may help develop novel therapeutic approaches for treating heterotopic ossification, the pathological formation of lamellar bone in soft tissue outside the skeleton that can lead to debilitating immobility. Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, stimulates growth hormone secretion, and has both orexigenic and adipogenic effects...
December 12, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230389/cyclic-tensile-strain-can-play-a-role-in-directing-both-intramembranous-and-endochondral-ossification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Simon F Carroll, Conor T Buckley, Daniel J Kelly
Successfully regenerating damaged or diseased bone and other joint tissues will require a detailed understanding of how joint specific environmental cues regulate the fate of progenitor cells that are recruited or delivered to the site of injury. The goal of this study was to explore the role of cyclic tensile strain (CTS) in regulating the initiation of mesenchymal stem cell/multipotent stromal cell (MSC) differentiation, and specifically their progression along the endochondral pathway. To this end, we first explored the influence of CTS on the differentiation of MSCs in the absence of any specific growth factor, and secondly, we examined the influence of the long-term application of this mechanical stimulus on markers of endochondral ossification in MSCs maintained in chondrogenic culture conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230181/calvarial-suture-derived-stem-cells-and-their-contribution-to-cranial-bone-repair
#13
REVIEW
Daniel H Doro, Agamemnon E Grigoriadis, Karen J Liu
In addition to the natural turnover during life, the bones in the skeleton possess the ability to self-repair in response to injury or disease-related bone loss. Based on studies of bone defect models, both processes are largely supported by resident stem cells. In the long bones, the source of skeletal stem cells has been widely investigated over the years, where the major stem cell population is thought to reside in the perivascular niche of the bone marrow. In contrast, we have very limited knowledge about the stem cells contributing to the repair of calvarial bones...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229351/evaluation-of-the-measuring-methods-of-the-spinal-canal-occupation-rate-in-thoracic-ossification-of-ligamentum-flavum
#14
Sheng-Yuan Zhou, Bo Yuan, Chuang Qian, Xiong-Sheng Chen, Lian-Shun Jia
OBJECTIVE: The degree of hypertrophy of thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum (TOLF) is related to the severity of the myelopathy. There is no uniform measuring method to calculate the spinal canal occupation ratio (COR) of TOLF simply and effectively. The study was to determine an appropriate measuring method to calculate the COR of TOLF. METHODS: A total of 37 computerized tomography (CT) cross-sectional imaging scans (bone window) from 22 patients were analyzed retrospectively in this study...
December 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229348/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-usage-in-anterior-lumbar-inter-body-fusion-what-else-can-go-wrong
#15
Elias Elias, Zeina Nasser, Lona Winegan, Terence Verla, Ibrahim Omeis
BACKGROUND: Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) graft showed promising outcome during early phases of its use. However unreported adverse events and off label use shattered its safe profile and raised concerns regarding its indication. In 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prohibited its use in anterior cervical spine procedures due to possibility of edema, hematoma and need of intubation. At the molecular level, BMP act as multifactorial growth factors playing a role in cartilage, heart, and bone formation...
December 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228885/multiplex-analysis-of-serum-hormone-and-cytokine-in-patients-with-cervical-copll-towards-understanding-the-potential-pathogenic-mechanisms
#16
Guo-Dong Cai, Zhuang-Chen Zhu, Jun-Qin Wang, Guang Chen, Zeng Wang, Chen-Song Yang, Gui-Xin Sun
Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (cOPLL) is one of the major causes of myelopathy. However, the mechanism underlying remains elusive. In the present study, using MILLIPLEX magnetic bead panel, we investigated four serum hormones and six serum cytokines in cOPLL patients and healthy subjects. The results showed that tumor necrosis factore-α (TNF-α) were significantly increased, and DDK-1 was significantly decreased in the serum from male and female cOPLL patients compared with those from healthy controls, respectively...
October 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227579/obesity-type-2-diabetes-increases-inflammation-periosteal-reactive-bone-formation-and-osteolysis-during-staphylococcus-aureus-implant-associated-bone-infection
#17
Christopher W Farnsworth, Eric M Schott, Abigail M Benvie, Jacob Zukoski, Stephen L Kates, Edward M Schwarz, Steven R Gill, Michael J Zuscik, Robert A Mooney
Obese and type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients have a 5-fold increased rate of infection following placement of an indwelling orthopaedic device. Though implant infections are associated with inflammation, periosteal reactive bone formation and osteolysis, the effect of obesity/T2D on these complicating factors has not been studied. To address this question, C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat diet (60% Kcal from fat) to induce obesity/T2D, or a control diet (10% Kcal from fat) for three months, and challenged with a transtibial pin coated with a bioluminescent USA300 strain of S...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227562/crosstalk-between-substance-p-and-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-during-heterotopic-ossification-in-murine-achilles-tendon
#18
Ceren Tuzmen, Kostas Verdelis, Lee Weiss, Phil Campbell
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is abnormal bone formation within soft tissue, usually predisposed by neurogenic or musculoskeletal trauma. Inflammation resulting from trauma is considered to be the main trigger for HO by eliciting changes within the injury site, including elevation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Recent research, however, has also associated changes in sensory neuropeptide expression with HO. Substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are two of those neuropeptides that have been implicated with various aspects of HO, including regulation of inflammation and BMP signaling...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225392/a-computational-analysis-of-bone-formation-in-the-cranial-vault-using-a-coupled-reaction-diffusion-strain-model
#19
Chanyoung Lee, Joan T Richtsmeier, Reuben H Kraft
Bones of the murine cranial vault are formed by differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts, a process that is primarily understood to be controlled by a cascade of reactions between extracellular molecules and cells. We assume that the process can be modeled using Turing's reaction-diffusion equations, a mathematical model describing the pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In addition to the processes modeled by reaction-diffusion equations, we hypothesize that mechanical stimuli of the cells due to growth of the underlying brain contribute significantly to the process of cell differentiation in cranial vault development...
June 2017: Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225159/histopathology-of-periarticular-non-hereditary-heterotopic-ossification
#20
REVIEW
Kristin L Foley, Nader Hebela, Mary Ann Keenan, Robert J Pignolo
In the mature adult skeleton, new bone formation is normally restricted to regeneration of osseous tissue at sites of fracture. However, heterotopic ossification, or the formation of bone outside the normal skeleton, can occur within muscle, adipose, or fibrous connective tissue. Periarticular non-hereditary heterotopic ossification (NHHO) may occur after musculoskeletal trauma, following CNS injury, with certain arthropathies, or following injury or surgery that is often sustained in the context of age-related pathology...
December 7, 2017: Bone
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