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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645781/immunomodulatory-mechanism-of-bushen-huoxue-recipe-alleviates-cyclophosphamide-induced-diminished-ovarian-reserve-in-mouse-model
#1
Cong Huang, Kunkun Song, Wenwen Ma, Jiahui Ding, Zhuo Chen, Mingmin Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bushen Huoxue recipe (BHR) is a Chinese herbal prescription composed of ten herbs and it is widely used for the treatment of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). This study investigates the potentially beneficial effects and underlying mechanism of BHR on a cyclophosphamide (CTX) induced model of DOR in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Granules of BHR were first subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the exact ingredients within the mixture...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636968/t-regulating-hair-follicle-stem-cells
#2
Maria Maryanovich, Paul S Frenette
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are well known to modulate inflammatory responses. In a recent issue of Cell, Ali et al. (2017) reveal a function for Treg cells in stem cell maintenance by showing that skin-resident Foxp3(+) Treg cells preferentially localize to the hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) niche to control HFSC-mediated hair regeneration.
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636882/foxn1-italian-founder-mutation-in-indian-family-implications-in-prenatal-diagnosis
#3
Akella Radha Rama Devi, Nagesh Narayan Panday, Shaik Mohammad Naushad
The Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) is a transcriptional factor regulating the development, differentiation and function of thymic epithelial cells; maintaining T-lineage progenitors in bone marrow; promoting terminal differentiation of epithelial cells of hair follicles. Mutation in FOXN1 was reported to cause a rare disorder characterized by rudimentary thymus gland, T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia and nail dystrophy within an Italian community. This is the first report of FOXN1 p.R255X mutation from India, outside this endogamous Italian community...
June 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633436/membrane-androgen-receptor-zip9-induces-croaker-ovarian-cell-apoptosis-via-stimulatory-g-protein-alpha-subunit-and-mapkinase-signaling
#4
Aubrey Converse, Chenan Zhang, Peter Thomas
Recent studies show that androgen-induced apoptosis in Atlantic croaker primary granulosa/theca (G/T) cells and in human breast and prostate cancer cell lines is mediated by the novel membrane androgen receptor ZIP9 which belongs to the SLC39A zinc transporter family. However, the apoptotic signaling pathways remain unclear because ZIP9 activates an inhibitory G protein in human cancer cells, whereas recombinant croaker ZIP9 activates a stimulatory G protein (Gs) in transfected cancer cells. Here we investigated androgen-dependent apoptotic pathways in order to identify the signaling pathways regulated through wild-type croaker ZIP9 in ovarian follicle cells...
June 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620380/human-immunodeficiency-virus-playing-hide-and-seek-understanding-the-tfh-cell-reservoir-and-proposing-strategies-to-overcome-the-follicle-sanctuary
#5
REVIEW
Yew Ann Leong, Anurag Atnerkar, Di Yu
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects millions of people worldwide, and new cases continue to emerge. Once infected, the virus cannot be cleared by the immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Combination antiretroviral therapeutic regimen effectively suppresses viral replication and halts disease progression. The treatment, however, does not eliminate the virus-infected cells, and interruption of treatment inevitably leads to viral rebound. The rebound virus originates from a group of virus-infected cells referred to as the cellular reservoir of HIV...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615202/follicular-regulatory-t-cells-are-highly-permissive-to-r5-tropic-hiv-1
#6
Shannon M Miller, Brodie Miles, Kejun Guo, Joy Folkvord, Amie L Meditz, Martin D McCarter, David N Levy, Samantha MaWhinney, Mario L Santiago, Elizabeth Connick
Follicular regulatory T cells (TFR) are a subset of CD4+ T cells in secondary lymphoid follicles. TFR were previously included in the follicular helper T cell (TFH) subset, which are highly permissive to HIV-1. The permissivity of TFR to HIV-1 is unknown. We find TFR are more permissive than TFH to R5-tropic HIV-1 ex vivo TFR expressed more CCR5 and CD4, and supported higher frequencies of viral fusion. Differences in Ki67 expression correlated with HIV-1 replication. Inhibiting cellular proliferation reduced Ki67 expression and HIV-1 replication...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602615/pten-mediates-activation-of-core-clock-protein-bmal1-and-accumulation-of-epidermal-stem-cells
#7
Chiara Zagni, Luciana O Almeida, Tarek Balan, Marco T Martins, Luciana K Rosselli-Murai, Petros Papagerakis, Rogerio M Castilho, Cristiane H Squarize
Tissue integrity requires constant maintenance of a quiescent, yet responsive, population of stem cells. In the skin, hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) that reside within the bulge maintain tissue homeostasis in response to activating cues that occur with each new hair cycle or upon injury. We found that PTEN, a major regulator of the PI3K-AKT pathway, controlled HFSC number and size in the bulge and maintained genomically stable pluripotent cells. This regulatory function is central for HFSC quiescence, where PTEN-deficiency phenotype is in part regulated by BMAL1...
June 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601151/effect-of-season-and-age-on-scrotal-circumference-testicular-parameters-and-endocrinological-profiles-in-mithun-bulls
#8
P Perumal, N Savino, C T R Sangma, S Chang, T Z T Sangtam, M H Khan, G Singh, Brijesh Kumar, D Yadav, N Srivastava
Mithun is a domesticated free-range bovine species primarily used as a meat animal and is a pride of North Eastern Hilly regions of India. The present study was conducted to measure the effect of seasons on scrotal & testicular biometrics and endocrinological profiles for different age groups at different seasons in mithun bulls. A total of 30 mithun males were selected from the mithun breeding farm, ICAR-NRC on Mithun, Medziphema, Nagaland, India and were equally distributed into five groups based on their age...
August 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597017/folliculotropic-mycosis-fungoides-with-skewed-t-cell-receptor-cdr3-motif-suggestive-of-lipid-antigen-selection
#9
Panagiota Mantaka, Agnieszka Malecka, Gunhild Trøen, Per Helsing, Petter Gjersvik, Klaus Beiske, Jan Delabie
Folliculotropic mycosis fungoides (FMF), a variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) with distinct clinical features, is characterized by infiltration of malignant T cells in hair follicles. This raises the hypothesis that antigens in the hair follicle may contribute to the pathogenesis of FMF. T-cell receptor β gene (TRB) sequences as well as dendritic cell subsets in patients with FMF (n = 21) and control patients with MF (n = 20) were studied to explore this hypothesis. A recurrent usage of the TRB junctional genes TRBJ2-1 and TRBJ2-7 was found in patients with FMF compared with those with MF...
June 9, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589954/wnt10a-mutation-causes-ectodermal-dysplasia-by-impairing-progenitor-cell-proliferation-and-klf4-mediated-differentiation
#10
Mingang Xu, Jeremy Horrell, Melinda Snitow, Jiawei Cui, Heather Gochnauer, Camille M Syrett, Staci Kallish, John T Seykora, Fei Liu, Dany Gaillard, Jonathan P Katz, Klaus H Kaestner, Brooke Levin, Corinne Mansfield, Jennifer E Douglas, Beverly J Cowart, Michael Tordoff, Fang Liu, Xuming Zhu, Linda A Barlow, Adam I Rubin, John A McGrath, Edward E Morrisey, Emily Y Chu, Sarah E Millar
Human WNT10A mutations are associated with developmental tooth abnormalities and adolescent onset of a broad range of ectodermal defects. Here we show that β-catenin pathway activity and adult epithelial progenitor proliferation are reduced in the absence of WNT10A, and identify Wnt-active self-renewing stem cells in affected tissues including hair follicles, sebaceous glands, taste buds, nails and sweat ducts. Human and mouse WNT10A mutant palmoplantar and tongue epithelia also display specific differentiation defects that are mimicked by loss of the transcription factor KLF4...
June 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589350/cytokine-expression-by-t-follicular-helper-cells
#11
Christoph Jandl, Claudia Loetsch, Cecile King
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a specialized subset of CD4(+) T cells located within temporary structures known as germinal centers (GC) formed within B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs. In the GC, Tfh cells facilitate the production of high-affinity antibodies through secretion of effector cytokines, such as IL-21 and IL-4, and through cell-to-cell interactions. The flow cytometric-based method described here allows the detection of intracellular cytokines within the Tfh population of secondary lymphoid organs (e...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589349/identifying-follicular-regulatory-t-cells-by-confocal-microscopy
#12
Ine Vanderleyden, Michelle A Linterman
Follicular regulatory T cells are a subset of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells that migrate into the B cell follicle after infection or immunization and modulate the germinal center response. The anatomical positioning of follicular regulatory T cells within the germinal center is a defining characteristic of this subset of regulatory T cells; because of this, it is critical that studies of follicular regulatory T cells are able to identify them in situ. In this chapter we describe an immunofluorescence staining method to visualize follicular regulatory T cells in frozen secondary lymphoid tissue sections by confocal imaging...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588087/papers-of-note-in-nature546-7656
#13
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles highlight the role of follicle-stimulating hormone in postmenopausal adipose tissue accumulation, the importance of a sphingolipid for T cell survival, and the cryo-EM structure of a G protein-coupled receptor complex.
June 6, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586641/tregs-expand-the-skin-stem-cell-niche
#14
Valerie Horsley, Shruti Naik
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are emerging as an essential stem cell niche component that promotes wound repair in adipose, muscle, and lung tissues. Recently in Cell, Ali et al. (2017) report that skin resident Tregs facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle stem cells through Notch signaling.
June 5, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585775/the-roles-of-the-pd-1-pd-l1-pathway-at-immunologically-privileged-sites
#15
Li-Ling Wang, Zhi-Hui Li, Xiao-Hui Hu, Kahinho P Muyayalo, Yong-Hong Zhang, Ai-Hua Liao
The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway plays a vital role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, promoting the development and function of regulatory T cells, and maintaining the quiescence of autoreactive T cells. Abnormalities in this inhibitory pathway are involved in the pathogenesis of some disorders such as tumours, autoimmune diseases, pregnancy complications, and transplantation rejection. Immune privilege represents a special immunological condition, where foreign antigens can be tolerated and do not elicit an immune response...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566018/autoimmune-abnormality-affects-ovulation-and-oocyte-pick-up-in-mrl-mpj-fas-lpr-lpr-mice
#16
M Hosotani, O Ichii, T Nakamura, S Otsuka-Kanazawa, Y Hosny Ali Elewa, Y Kon
Ovulation and oocyte-pick-up are essential processes in fertilization. Herein, we found associations between autoimmune disease and the aforementioned processes in mice. At three and six months, along with the evaluation of autoimmune disease indices, the ovary, mesosalpinx, and oviducts were histologically examined in C57BL/6, MRL/MpJ, and MRL/MpJ-Fas (lpr/lpr) mice as healthy control, mild and severe models of autoimmune disease, respectively. In superovulated mice, the number of "oocyte cumulus complexes" found in the ampulla was macroscopically counted, and that of "ovulated oocytes" was histologically evaluated, as indicated by ruptured follicles or corpora hemorrhagica in ovaries...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555441/alopecia-areata-of-the-beard-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Jessica Cervantes, Raymond M Fertig, Austin Maddy, Antonella Tosti
Alopecia areata (AA) is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disorder in which inflammatory cells attack the hair follicle, resulting in round, well-circumscribed patches of noncicatricial hair loss in normal appearing skin. AA affecting the beard area is well known and is referred to as AA of the beard (BAA) or AA barbae when involvement is limited exclusively to the beard. BAA has been documented in a select number of studies. We review the literature and discuss the clinical features, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of BAA...
May 29, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552347/regulatory-t-cells-in-skin-facilitate-epithelial-stem-cell-differentiation
#18
Niwa Ali, Bahar Zirak, Robert Sanchez Rodriguez, Mariela L Pauli, Hong-An Truong, Kevin Lai, Richard Ahn, Kaitlin Corbin, Margaret M Lowe, Tiffany C Scharschmidt, Keyon Taravati, Madeleine R Tan, Roberto R Ricardo-Gonzalez, Audrey Nosbaum, Marta Bertolini, Wilson Liao, Frank O Nestle, Ralf Paus, George Cotsarelis, Abul K Abbas, Michael D Rosenblum
The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is critically dependent on the function of tissue-resident immune cells and the differentiation capacity of tissue-resident stem cells (SCs). How immune cells influence the function of SCs is largely unknown. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in skin preferentially localize to hair follicles (HFs), which house a major subset of skin SCs (HFSCs). Here, we mechanistically dissect the role of Tregs in HF and HFSC biology. Lineage-specific cell depletion revealed that Tregs promote HF regeneration by augmenting HFSC proliferation and differentiation...
June 1, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546083/mechanisms-of-tolerance-and-potential-therapeutic-interventions-in-alopecia-areata
#19
REVIEW
Gabriel Skogberg, Sonya Jackson, Annika Åstrand
This review aims to address the mechanisms of compromised immune tolerance contributing to the development and maintenance of Alopecia Areata (AA). Our goal is to also highlight future treatment opportunities and therapeutics that will safely and efficiently restore hair growth and maintain patients in remission. AA is a presumptive autoimmune disorder that coincides and genetically clusters to several other autoimmune diseases. In this review, we pay attention to the learnings from the mechanistic research and drug development in these other autoimmune conditions...
May 22, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541773/induction-of-salivary-gland-like-cells-from-dental-follicle-epithelial-cells
#20
Q L Xu, A Furuhashi, Q Z Zhang, C M Jiang, T-H Chang, A D Le
The dental follicle (DF), most often associated with unerupted teeth, is a condensation of ectomesenchymal cells that surrounds the tooth germ in early stages of tooth development. In the present study, we aim to isolate epithelial stem-like cells from the human DF and explore their potential differentiation into salivary gland (SG) cells. We demonstrated the expression of stem cell-related genes in the epithelial components of human DF tissues, and these epithelial progenitor cells could be isolated and ex vivo expanded in a reproducible manner...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
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