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acinetobacter baumanii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089718/cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-from-alligator-mississippiensis-has-antibacterial-activity-against-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumanii-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#1
Stephanie M Barksdale, Evelyn J Hrifko, Monique L van Hoek
Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator), a member of order Crocodilia, lives in bacteria-laden environments but is not often known to succumb to bacterial infections. Their serum has been shown to have antibacterial activity beyond that of human serum, and it is believed that this activity is partially due to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). CAMPs are produced by many organisms as part of the innate immune system. CAMPs are attractive possible therapies against multi-drug resistant bacteria, such as those found in biofilm-infected war wounds, because they seldom cause genetic resistance in bacteria and are effective against antibiotic resistant bacteria...
January 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035408/identification-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-strain-mdr-shh02-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#2
Hualiang Wang, Jinghua Wang, Peijuan Yu, Ping Ge, Yanqun Jiang, Rong Xu, Rong Chen, Xuejie Liu
This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance genes in the multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumanii) strain, MDR-SHH02, using whole‑genome sequencing (WGS). The antibiotic resistance of MDR-SHH02 isolated from a patient with breast cancer to 19 types of antibiotics was determined using the Kirby‑Bauer method. WGS of MDR-SHH02 was then performed. Following quality control and transcriptome assembly, functional annotation of genes was conducted, and the phylogenetic tree of MDR-SHH02, along with another 5 A...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960204/community-acquired-pneumonia-a-global-perspective
#3
Grant W Waterer
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a global disease responsible for a large proportion of deaths and having significant economic cost. As diagnostic tools have increased in sensitivity, our understanding of the etiology of CAP has begun to change with a significant increase in confirmed viral infections and the recognition that multiple pathogens are frequently present. Empiric therapy remains the standard of care and guidelines are mostly based on published data from the United States or Europe. Blindly applying guidelines without any consideration of local etiological differences can lead to a risk of under or overtreatment...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902392/microbiological-sentinel-events-at-a-neurological-hospital-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Annalia Asti, Elio Marmondi, Carmine Tinelli, Marta Corbella, Annalisa De Silvestri, Gaetano Bernardi, Franco Andreini, Anna Preti, Monica Bricchi
The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiological surveillance of microbiological sentinel events (SEs) carried out between 2012 and 2014 at the Neurological Hospital Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy. The setting is inpatient care with multidrug-resistant infections. The aim of the procedure is to formalize the management mode, reporting and transmission of SEs. Categorical variables were described by counts and percentages, as mean and sd or median and interquartile range. The incidence rates of SE were calculated per 1000 patient-days and for 100 admissions using Poisson distribution...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766913/patient-specific-risk-stratification-for-antimicrobial-resistance-and-possible-treatment-strategies-in-gram-negative-bacterial-infections
#5
Matteo Bassetti, Alessia Carnelutti, Maddalena Peghin
The isolation of multi-drug-resistant gram-negative (MDRGN) pathogens has progressively increased worldwide and has been associated with important delays in the prescription of an adequate antibiotic treatment, resulting in increased mortality rates. Patient's stratification for MDRGN infections to optimize the prescription of an adequate empiric antimicrobial regimen is crucial. Areas covered: This article covers MDRGN epidemiology, with a specific focus on risk factors for harbouring infections sustained by extended-spectrum-Beta-lactamase (ESBL), carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriacae (CRE), MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MDR Acinetobacter baumanii...
January 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756238/world-wide-variation-in-incidence-of-acinetobacter-associated-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-a-meta-regression
#6
James C Hurley
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter species such as Acinetobacter baumanii are of increasing concern in association with ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). In the ICU, Acinetobacter infections are known to be subject to seasonal variation but the extent of geographic variation is unclear. The objective here is to define the extent and possible reasons for geographic variation for Acinetobacter associated VAP whether or not these isolates are reported as Acinetobacter baumanii. METHODS: A meta-regression model of VAP associated Acinetobacter incidence within the published literature was undertaken using random effects methods...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660018/sample-to-answer-on-molecular-diagnosis-of-bacterial-infection-using-integrated-lab-on-a-disc
#7
J F C Loo, H C Kwok, C C H Leung, S Y Wu, I L G Law, Y K Cheung, Y Y Cheung, M L Chin, P Kwan, M Hui, S K Kong, H P Ho
Sepsis by bacterial infection causes high mortality in patients in intensive care unit (ICU). Rapid identification of bacterial infection is essential to ensure early appropriate administration of antibiotics to save lives of patients, yet the present benchtop molecular diagnosis is time-consuming and labor-intensive, which limits the treatment efficiency especially when the number of samples to be tested is extensive. Therefore, we hereby report a microfluidic platform lab-on-a-disc (LOAD) to provide a sample-to-answer solution...
September 2, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645387/emergence-of-a-competence-reducing-filamentous-phage-from-the-genome-of-acinetobacter-baylyi-adp1
#8
Brian A Renda, Cindy Chan, Kristin N Parent, Jeffrey E Barrick
: Bacterial genomes commonly contain prophage sequences as a result of past infections with lysogenic phages. Many of these integrated viral sequences are believed to be cryptic, but prophage genes are sometimes coopted by the host, and some prophages may be reactivated to form infectious particles when cells are stressed or mutate. We found that a previously uncharacterized filamentous phage emerged from the genome of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 during a laboratory evolution experiment...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598688/isolation-of-coralmycins-a-and-b-potent-anti-gram-negative-compounds-from-the-myxobacteria-corallococcus-coralloides-m23
#9
Yu Jin Kim, Hyun-Ju Kim, Geon-Woo Kim, Kyungyun Cho, Shunya Takahashi, Hiroyuki Koshino, Won-Gon Kim
Two new potent anti-Gram negative compounds, coralmycins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from cultures of the myxobacteria Corallococcus coralloides M23, together with another derivative (3) that was identified as the very recently reported cystobactamid 919-2. Their structures including the relative stereochemistry were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic, optical rotation, and CD data. The relative stereochemistry of 3 was revised to "S*R*" by NMR analysis. The antibacterial activity of 1 was most potent against Gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, with MICs of 0...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538580/total-biosynthesis-of-legionaminic-acid-a-bacterial-sialic-acid-analogue
#10
Mohamed I Hassan, Benjamin R Lundgren, Michael Chaumun, Dennis M Whitfield, Brady Clark, Ian C Schoenhofen, Christopher N Boddy
Legionaminic acid, Leg5,7Ac2 , a nonulosonic acid like 5-acetamido neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, sialic acid), is found in cell surface glycoconjugates of bacteria including the pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Acinetobacter baumanii and Legionella pneumophila. The presence of Leg5,7Ac2 has been correlated with virulence in humans by mechanisms that likely involve subversion of the host's immune system or interactions with host cell surfaces due to its similarity to Neu5Ac. Investigation into its role in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity is limited as there are no effective sources of it...
September 19, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478029/risk-of-infection-transmission-in-curvilinear-array-echoendoscopes-results-of-a-prospective-reprocessing-and%C3%A2-culture-registry
#11
Christopher G Chapman, Uzma D Siddiqui, Maricarmen Manzano, Vani J Konda, Cynthia Murillo, Emily M Landon, Irving Waxman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The complex design of the elevator mechanism in duodenoscopes has been recognized as a challenge for disinfection and recently implicated as a potential source of persistent bacterial contamination. Curvilinear array (CLA) echoendoscopes also have an elevator mechanism; however, there are no recommendations or data regarding the risk of persistent bacterial contamination of echoendoscopes. Here we hoped to determine the yield of microbial growth with routine bacterial surveillance cultures of reprocessed CLA echoendoscopes...
February 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368987/boronic-acid-disk-diffusion-for-the-phenotypic-detection-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-confirmed-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-isolates
#12
Rasha Elsherif, Dalia Ismail, Sanaa Elawady, Samyah Jastaniah, Saad Al-Masaudi, Steve Harakeh, Gamal Karrouf
BACKGROUND: The Middle East is regarded as a secondary reservoir for OXA-48 and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) carbapenemases. One of the main challenges in clinical microbiology diagnostics is the detection of carbapenemases. For this reason simple screening methods have been sought to detect carbapenemase producers to determine appropriate therapeutic measures and implement infection control interventions. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the modified Hodge test (MHT) and a boronic acid-based combined disk test using carbapenems as substrates for the phenotypic determination of OXA-48 and NDM type carbapenemases in 45 epidemiologically unrelated carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (13 isolates), Acinetobacter baumanii (20 isolates), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12 isolates)...
2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367004/vitamin-d-level-is-associated-with-mortality-predictors-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-acinetobacter-baumannii
#13
Murat Haliloglu, Beliz Bilgili, Ozlem Haliloglu, Dilek Gogas Yavuz, Ismail Cinel
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D plays a role in host defense and is known to be associated with mortality in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to evaluate the relationships between vitamin D levels and predictors of mortality in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii (XDR A. baumanii). METHODOLOGY: A retrospective single-center study was conducted in an 18-bed adult ICU of a teaching hospital, including all patients with VAP due to XDR A...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312390/the-role-of-endoscopic-lavage-in-recalcitrant-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-ventriculitis-among-neurosurgical-patients
#14
Amandeep Kumar, Deepak Agrawal, Bhawani S Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Ventriculitis is a serious infection associated with high mortality even when both intravenous (IV) and intrathecal (IT) antibiotics are administered. Poor outcome in patients with ventriculitis indicates the need to be more aggressive in our attempts to expeditiously eradicate the infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of endoscopic lavage (EL) in patients with severe purulent ventriculitis, unresponsive to IV and IT antibiotics. METHODS: All consecutive patients with severe ventriculitis caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, undergoing EL after failure of prolonged courses of IV and IT antibiotics, were included in the study...
September 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289955/use-of-daptomycin-and-vancomycin-in-blood-stream-infections-with-pdr-acinetobacter-baumanii
#15
P Alexandropoulos, S Georgiou, V Chantziara, A Tsimogianni, A Vassi, F Lagiou, G Miha, E Chinou, K Skotadi, G Michaloudis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160593/diversity-evolution-and-medical-applications-of-insect-antimicrobial-peptides
#16
REVIEW
Eleftherios Mylonakis, Lars Podsiadlowski, Maged Muhammed, Andreas Vilcinskas
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short proteins with antimicrobial activity. A large portion of known AMPs originate from insects, and the number and diversity of these molecules in different species varies considerably. Insect AMPs represent a potential source of alternative antibiotics to address the limitation of current antibiotics, which has been caused by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. To get more insight into AMPs, we investigated the diversity and evolution of insect AMPs by mapping their phylogenetic distribution, allowing us to predict the evolutionary origins of selected AMP families and to identify evolutionarily conserved and taxon-specific families...
May 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057517/association-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-toll-like-receptors-with-acinetobacter-baumanii-infectionin-a-chinese-population
#17
Lei He, Maohu Lin, Wensheng Fan, Yunxi Liu, Jijiang Suo, Yubin Xing, Ning Jia
BACKGROUND: During recent years, infection of Acinetobacter baumanii showed a rapid growth in hospitals and community. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the most important pattern recognition receptors, which play a critical role during recognizing invading pathogens by the natural immune system. Our objective was to determine the associations of TLRs polymorphisms with the susceptibility to A. baumanii infection in a Chinese population. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study, genotyping 13 polymorphisms of TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-5 and TLR-9 genes on 423 A...
January 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27046931/-prompt-control-of-an-imported-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumanii-outbreak-in-a-french-intensive-care-unit
#18
C Guth, Z Cavalli, C Pernod, C Lhopital, Pf Wey, P Gerome, J Turc
OBJECTIVE: to describe the management and control of a limited outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii (CRAB) outbreak in a French intensive care unit. METHODS: Careful review of the contact's and carrier's files and outbreak management procedures. RESULTS: An undiagnosed CRAB carrier was admitted to our intensive care unit after medical evacuation from Turkey. Despite preventive isolation and contact precautions, a secondary case was diagnosed 5 days after admission of the index case and resulted in the creation of a crisis unit...
January 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27031457/healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-newly-opened-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-in-turkey-results-of-four-year-surveillance
#19
Serkan Atici, Ahmet Soysal, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Ayşe Karaaslan, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Öcal Demir, Feyza İnceköy Girgin, Gülcan Çulha, Gülşen Altınkanat, Nilüfer Öztürk, Güner Söyletir, Mustafa Bakır
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in critically ill patients in intensive care units. The aim of this study was to assess the rate and distribution of HAIs, pathogens, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in a newly opened pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODOLOGY: The infection control team detected and recorded HAI cases according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's criteria in the PICU of Marmara University Pendik Training and Research Hospital over a four-year period following its opening...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26987119/the-effect-of-probiotic-treatment-on-patients-infected-with-the-h7n9-influenza-virus
#20
Xinjun Hu, Hua Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Guirong Qian, Longxian Lv, Chunxia Zhang, Jing Guo, Haiyin Jiang, Beiwen Zheng, Fengling Yang, Silan Gu, Yuanting Chen, Qiongling Bao, Liang Yu, Xiawei Jiang, Qian Hu, Haiyan Shi, Hainv Gao, Lanjuan Li
BACKGROUND: A novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged and spread among humans in Eastern China in 2013. Prophylactic treatment with antibiotics and probiotics for secondary infection is as important as antiviral treatment. This study aims to assess the ability of probiotic treatment to restore internal homeostasis under antibiotic pressure and to reduce/ameliorate the risk of secondary infections resulting from infection with the H7N9 virus. METHODS: This is a retrospective study in archival samples...
2016: PloS One
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