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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067005/phosphorus-in-agricultural-soils-drivers-of-its-distribution-at-the-global-scale
#1
Bruno Ringeval, Laurent Augusto, Hervé Monod, Dirk van Apeldoorn, Lex Bouwman, Xiaojuan Yang, David L Achat, Louise P Chini, Kristof Van Oost, Bertrand Guenet, Rong Wang, Bertrand Decharme, Thomas Nesme, Sylvain Pellerin
Phosphorus (P) availability in soils limits crop yields in many regions of the world, while excess of soil P triggers aquatic eutrophication in other regions. Numerous processes drive the global spatial distribution of P in agricultural soils, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here, we combined several global datasets describing these drivers with a soil P dynamics model to simulate the distribution of P in agricultural soils and to assess the contributions of the different drivers at the global scale...
January 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034697/the-representation-of-space-in-the-brain
#2
REVIEW
Roddy M Grieves, Kate J Jeffery
Animals can navigate vast distances and often display behaviours or activities that indicate a detailed, internal spatial representation of their surrounding environment or a 'cognitive map'. Over a century of behavioural research on spatial navigation in humans and animals has greatly increased our understanding of how this highly complex feat is achieved. In turn this has inspired half a century of electrophysiological spatial navigation and memory research which has further advanced our understanding of the brain...
December 26, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025983/grid-cells-need-for-speed
#3
Alfredo Gonzalez-Sulser, Matthew F Nolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024751/assessing-the-environmental-impacts-of-freshwater-thermal-pollution-from-global-power-generation-in-lca
#4
Catherine E Raptis, Justin M Boucher, Stephan Pfister
Freshwater heat emissions from power plants with once-through cooling systems constitute one of many environmental pressures related to the thermoelectric power industry. The objective of this work was to obtain high resolution, operational characterization factors (CF) for the impact of heat emissions on ecosystem quality, and carry out a comprehensive, spatially, temporally and technologically differentiated damage-based environmental assessment of global freshwater thermal pollution. The aggregation of CFs on a watershed level results in 12...
December 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001122/spatial-and-temporal-variability-in-desert-dust-and-anthropogenic-pollution-in-iraq-1997-2010
#5
A Alexandra Chudnovsky, Petros Koutrakis, Alex Kostinski, Susan P Proctor, Eric Garshick
: Satellite imaging has emerged as a method for monitoring regional air pollution and detecting areas of high dust concentrations. Unlike ground observations, continuous data monitoring is available with global coverage of terrestrial and atmospheric components. In this study we test the utility of different sources of satellite data to assess air pollution concentrations in Iraq. SeaWiFS and MODIS Deep Blue (DB) aerosol optical depth (AOD) products were evaluated and used to characterize the spatial and temporal pollution levels from the late 1990s through 2010...
January 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996891/mapping-air-quality-zones-for-coastal-urban-centers
#6
Brian Freeman, Bahram Gharabaghi, Jesse Thé, Mohammad Munshed, Shah Faisal, Meshal Abdullah, Athari Al Aseed
This study presents a new method that incorporates modern air dispersion models allowing local terrain and land-sea breeze effects to be considered along with political and natural boundaries for more accurate mapping of air quality zones for coastal urban centers. This method uses local coastal wind patterns and key urban air pollution sources in each zone to more accurately calculate air pollutant concentration statistics. The new approach distributes virtual air pollution sources within each small grid cells of an area of interest and analyzes a puff dispersion model for a full year's worth of one-hour prognostic weather data...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943643/the-development-of-spatial-and-memory-circuits-in-the-rat
#7
REVIEW
Hui Min Tan, Thomas Joseph Wills, Francesca Cacucci
We provide a concise review of recent studies related to the development of neural circuits supporting spatial navigation and memory in the rat. We chart the relative timeline of the emergence of the four main classes of spatially tuned neurons within the hippocampus and related limbic areas: head direction cells emerge earliest (postnatal day 12, P12), before the eyes of the rats are even open, followed by place cells and boundary responsive cells; grid cells emerge last, around the age of weaning (P21). The rate of maturation is unique to each type of neuron, with the head direction and grid cells showing rapid developmental spurts, in contrast to place cells, which show a more gradual trend of maturation...
December 12, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941523/3-d-spatial-memory-and-navigation-functions-and-disorders
#8
Thomas Brandt, Andreas Zwergal, Stefan Glasauer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to report on the specialized neuronal systems mediating spatial orientation and navigation discovered in animal experiments. These findings have important implications for the clinical management of patients with vestibular disorders or dementia and for translational research in these fields. RECENT FINDINGS: The following anatomically and functionally separate, but nevertheless cooperative cell types have been characterized: angular head velocity cells and head direction cells, which depend on vestibular input and interact with place cells and grid cells, which represent position and distance...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936209/occurrence-and-spread-of-the-invasive-asian-bush-mosquito-aedes-japonicus-japonicus-diptera-culicidae-in-west-and-north-germany-since-detection-in-2012-and-2013-respectively
#9
Helge Kampen, Cornelius Kuhlisch, Andreas Fröhlich, Dorothee E Scheuch, Doreen Walther
The invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus was first recognised as established in Germany in 2008. In addition to the first known and quickly expanding population in the southwestern part of the country, three separate populations were discovered in West, North and southeastern Germany in 2012, 2013 and 2015, respectively, by means of the 'Mueckenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. Since the first findings of mosquito specimens in West and North Germany, these regions were checked annually for continuing colonisation and spread of the species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932929/a-systematic-florula-of-a-disturbed-urban-habitat-pavements-of-sheffield-england
#10
Oliver L Pescott
BACKGROUND: Human settlements are of increasing interest to ecologists, a fact demonstrated by the recent cluster of book-length treatments of the topic (Forman 2008, McDonnell et al. 2009, Gaston 2010, Niemelä et al. 2011, Wilson 2011, Forman 2014). The natural world as a fascinating feature of towns and cities has a much longer history (e.g. Fitter 1945), and has also played a strong part in local biological conservation in some countries over the late 20th Century (Goode 2014​)...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919235/geographical-distribution-of-typhoid-risk-factors-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#11
Jung-Seok Lee, Vijayalaxmi V Mogasale, Vittal Mogasale, Kangsung Lee
BACKGROUND: While the global burden of typhoid fever has been often brought up for attention, the detailed surveillance information has only been available for the limited number of countries. As more efficacious vaccines will be available in the near future, it is essential to understand the geographically diverse patterns of typhoid risk levels and to prioritize the right populations for vaccination to effectively control the disease. METHODS: A composite index called the typhoid risk factor (TRF) index was created based on data with the Global Positioning System (GPS)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870120/continuous-attractor-network-models-of-grid-cell-firing-based-on-excitatory-inhibitory-interactions
#12
Oliver Shipston-Sharman, Lukas Solanka, Matthew F Nolan
Neurons in the medial entorhinal cortex encode location through spatial firing fields that have a grid-like organisation. The challenge of identifying mechanisms for grid firing has been addressed through experimental and theoretical investigations of medial entorhinal circuits. Here, we discuss evidence for continuous attractor network models that account for grid firing by synaptic interactions between excitatory and inhibitory cells. These models assume that grid-like firing patterns are the result of computation of location from velocity inputs, with additional spatial input required to oppose drift in the attractor state...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829799/diversity-and-biogeographical-patterns-of-legumes-leguminosae-indigenous-to-southern-africa
#13
Marike Trytsman, Robert H Westfall, Philippus J J Breytenbach, Frikkie J Calitz, Abraham E van Wyk
The principal aim of this study was to establish biogeographical patterns in the legume flora of southern Africa so as to facilitate the selection of species with agricultural potential. Plant collection data from the National Herbarium, South Africa, were analysed to establish the diversity and areas covered by legumes (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) indigenous to South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. A total of 27,322 records from 1,619 quarter degree grid cells, representing 1,580 species, 122 genera and 24 tribes were included in the analyses...
2016: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792892/preserving-privacy-whilst-maintaining-robust-epidemiological-predictions
#14
Marleen Werkman, Michael J Tildesley, Ellen Brooks-Pollock, Matt J Keeling
Mathematical models are invaluable tools for quantifying potential epidemics and devising optimal control strategies in case of an outbreak. State-of-the-art models increasingly require detailed individual farm-based and sensitive data, which may not be available due to either lack of capacity for data collection or privacy concerns. However, in many situations, aggregated data are available for use. In this study, we systematically investigate the accuracy of predictions made by mathematical models initialised with varying data aggregations, using the UK 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemic as a case study...
December 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792723/probabilistic-learning-by-rodent-grid-cells
#15
Allen Cheung
Mounting evidence shows mammalian brains are probabilistic computers, but the specific cells involved remain elusive. Parallel research suggests that grid cells of the mammalian hippocampal formation are fundamental to spatial cognition but their diverse response properties still defy explanation. No plausible model exists which explains stable grids in darkness for twenty minutes or longer, despite being one of the first results ever published on grid cells. Similarly, no current explanation can tie together grid fragmentation and grid rescaling, which show very different forms of flexibility in grid responses when the environment is varied...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770476/familiarity-expands-space-and-contracts-time
#16
Anna Jafarpour, Hugo Spiers
When humans draw maps, or make judgments about travel-time, their responses are rarely accurate and are often systematically distorted. Distortion effects on estimating time to arrival and the scale of sketch-maps reveal the nature of mental representation of time and space. Inspired by data from rodent entorhinal grid cells, we predicted that familiarity to an environment would distort representations of the space by expanding the size of it. We also hypothesized that travel-time estimation would be distorted in the same direction as space-size, if time and space rely on the same cognitive map...
January 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765433/residential-soil-and-water-radon-surveys-in-north-western-part-of-romania
#17
Alexandra Cucoş Dinu, Botond Papp, Tiberius Dicu, Mircea Moldovan, Denissa Bety Burghele, Ionuţ Tudor Moraru, Ancuţa Tenţer, Constantin Cosma
The exposure to radon and radon decay products in homes and at workplaces represents the greatest risk from natural ionizing radiation. The present study brings forward the residential, soil and water radon surveys in 5 counties of Romania. Indoor radon measurements were performed by using CR-39 track detectors exposed for 3 months on ground-floor level of dwellings, according to the NRPB Measurements Protocol. Radon concentrations in soil and water were measured using the LUK3C device. The indoor radon concentrations ranged from 5 to 2592 Bq⋅m(-3) with an updated preliminary arithmetic mean of 133 Bq⋅m(-3), and a geometric mean of 90 Bq⋅m(-3)...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764662/grid-cells-for-conceptual-spaces
#18
Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Katherine R Storrs
"Grid cells" encode an animal's location and direction of movement in 2D physical environments via regularly repeating receptive fields. Constantinescu et al. (2016) report the first evidence of grid cells for 2D conceptual spaces. The work has exciting implications for mental representation and shows how detailed neural-coding hypotheses can be tested with bulk population-activity measures.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764597/on-decoding-grid-cell-population-codes-using-approximate-belief-propagation
#19
Yongseok Yoo, Woori Kim
Neural systems are inherently noisy. One well-studied example of a noise reduction mechanism in the brain is the population code, where representing a variable with multiple neurons allows the encoded variable to be recovered with fewer errors. Studies have assumed ideal observer models for decoding population codes, and the manner in which information in the neural population can be retrieved remains elusive. This letter addresses a mechanism by which realistic neural circuits can recover encoded variables...
October 20, 2016: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764589/a-combinatorial-model-for-dentate-gyrus-sparse-coding
#20
William Severa, Ojas Parekh, Conrad D James, James B Aimone
The dentate gyrus forms a critical link between the entorhinal cortex and CA3 by providing a sparse version of the signal. Concurrent with this increase in sparsity, a widely accepted theory suggests the dentate gyrus performs pattern separation-similar inputs yield decorrelated outputs. Although an active region of study and theory, few logically rigorous arguments detail the dentate gyrus's (DG) coding. We suggest a theoretically tractable, combinatorial model for this action. The model provides formal methods for a highly redundant, arbitrarily sparse, and decorrelated output signal...
January 2017: Neural Computation
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