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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314046/analysis-of-traffic-crashes-involving-pedestrians-using-big-data-investigation-of-contributing-factors-and-identification-of-hotspots
#1
Kun Xie, Kaan Ozbay, Abdullah Kurkcu, Hong Yang
This study aims to explore the potential of using big data in advancing the pedestrian risk analysis including the investigation of contributing factors and the hotspot identification. Massive amounts of data of Manhattan from a variety of sources were collected, integrated, and processed, including taxi trips, subway turnstile counts, traffic volumes, road network, land use, sociodemographic, and social media data. The whole study area was uniformly split into grid cells as the basic geographical units of analysis...
March 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302156/mapping-the-spatial-distribution-of-the-japanese-encephalitis-vector-culex-tritaeniorhynchus-giles-1901-diptera-culicidae-within-areas-of-japanese-encephalitis-risk
#2
Joshua Longbottom, Annie J Browne, David M Pigott, Marianne E Sinka, Nick Golding, Simon I Hay, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most significant aetiological agents of viral encephalitis in Asia. This medically important arbovirus is primarily spread from vertebrate hosts to humans by the mosquito vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Knowledge of the contemporary distribution of this vector species is lacking, and efforts to define areas of disease risk greatly depend on a thorough understanding of the variation in this mosquito's geographical distribution. RESULTS: We assembled a contemporary database of Cx...
March 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270783/semi-supervised-learning-of-cartesian-factors-a-top-down-model-of-the-entorhinal-hippocampal-complex
#3
András Lőrincz, András Sárkány
The existence of place cells (PCs), grid cells (GCs), border cells (BCs), and head direction cells (HCs) as well as the dependencies between them have been enigmatic. We make an effort to explain their nature by introducing the concept of Cartesian Factors. These factors have specific properties: (i) they assume and complement each other, like direction and position and (ii) they have localized discrete representations with predictive attractors enabling implicit metric-like computations. In our model, HCs make the distributed and local representation of direction...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268589/place-field-detection-using-grid-based-clustering-in-a-large-scale-computational-model-of-the-rat-dentate-gyrus
#4
Gene J Yu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger
Place cells are neurons in the hippocampus that are sensitive to location within an environment. Simulations of a large-scale, computational model of the rat dentate gyrus using grid cell input have been performed resulting in granule cells that express multiple place fields. The typical method of detecting place fields using a global threshold on this data is unreliable as the characteristics of the place fields from a single neuron can be highly variable. A grid-based implementation of DENCLUE has been developed to calculate local thresholds to identify each place field...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262363/mapping-landslide-susceptibility-using-data-driven-methods
#5
J L Zêzere, S Pereira, R Melo, S C Oliveira, R A C Garcia
Most epistemic uncertainty within data-driven landslide susceptibility assessment results from errors in landslide inventories, difficulty in identifying and mapping landslide causes and decisions related with the modelling procedure. In this work we evaluate and discuss differences observed on landslide susceptibility maps resulting from: (i) the selection of the statistical method; (ii) the selection of the terrain mapping unit; and (iii) the selection of the feature type to represent landslides in the model (polygon versus point)...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253272/risk-mapping-of-clonorchiasis-in-the-people-s-republic-of-china-a-systematic-review-and-bayesian-geostatistical-analysis
#6
Ying-Si Lai, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Zhi-Heng Pan, Jürg Utzinger, Penelope Vounatsou
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis, one of the most important food-borne trematodiases, affects more than 12 million people in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Spatially explicit risk estimates of Clonorchis sinensis infection are needed in order to target control interventions. METHODOLOGY: Georeferenced survey data pertaining to infection prevalence of C. sinensis in P.R. China from 2000 onwards were obtained via a systematic review in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Internet, and Wanfang Data from January 1, 2000 until January 10, 2016, with no restriction of language or study design...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244115/finely-resolved-on-road-pm2-5-and-estimated-premature-mortality-in-central-north-carolina
#7
Shih Ying Chang, William Vizuete, Marc Serre, Lakshmi Pradeepa Vennam, Mohammad Omary, Vlad Isakov, Michael Breen, Saravanan Arunachalam
To quantify the on-road PM2.5 -related premature mortality at a national scale, previous approaches to estimate concentrations at a 12-km × 12-km or larger grid cell resolution may not fully characterize concentration hotspots that occur near roadways and thus the areas of highest risk. Spatially resolved concentration estimates from on-road emissions to capture these hotspots may improve characterization of the associated risk, but are rarely used for estimating premature mortality. In this study, we compared the on-road PM2...
February 28, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242682/co-occurrence-of-extremes-in-surface-ozone-particulate-matter-and-temperature-over-eastern-north-america
#8
Jordan L Schnell, Michael J Prather
Heat waves and air pollution episodes pose a serious threat to human health and may worsen under future climate change. In this paper, we use 15 years (1999-2013) of commensurately gridded (1° x 1°) surface observations of extended summer (April-September) surface ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and maximum temperature (TX) over the eastern United States and Canada to construct a climatology of the coincidence, overlap, and lag in space and time of their extremes. Extremes of each quantity are defined climatologically at each grid cell as the 50 d with the highest values in three 5-y windows (∼95th percentile)...
February 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226767/place-field-detection-using-grid-based-clustering-in-a-large-scale-computational-model-of-the-rat-dentate-gyrus
#9
Gene J Yu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Gene J Yu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Gene J Yu, Theodore W Berger
Place cells are neurons in the hippocampus that are sensitive to location within an environment. Simulations of a large-scale, computational model of the rat dentate gyrus using grid cell input have been performed resulting in granule cells that express multiple place fields. The typical method of detecting place fields using a global threshold on this data is unreliable as the characteristics of the place fields from a single neuron can be highly variable. A grid-based implementation of DENCLUE has been developed to calculate local thresholds to identify each place field...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199875/examining-the-impacts-of-increased-corn-production-on-groundwater-quality-using-a-coupled-modeling-system
#10
Valerie Garcia, Ellen Cooter, James Crooks, Brian Hinckley, Mark Murphy, Xiangnan Xing
This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirectional and Environmental Policy Integrated Climate modeling system incorporates agricultural management practices and N exchange processes between the soil and atmosphere to estimate levels of N that may volatilize into the atmosphere, re-deposit, and seep or flow into surface and groundwater...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178279/snow-leopard-and-himalayan-wolf-food-habits-and-prey-selection-in-the-central-himalayas-nepal
#11
Madhu Chetri, Morten Odden, Per Wegge
Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173628/designing-ecological-climate-change-impact-assessments-to-reflect-key-climatic-drivers
#12
Helen R Sofaer, Joseph J Barsugli, Catherine S Jarnevich, John T Abatzoglou, Marian K Talbert, Brian W Miller, Jeffrey T Morisette
Identifying the climatic drivers of an ecological system is a key step in assessing its vulnerability to climate change. The climatic dimensions to which a species or system is most sensitive - such as means or extremes - can guide methodological decisions for projections of ecological impacts and vulnerabilities. However, scientific workflows for combining climate projections with ecological models have received little explicit attention. We review Global Climate Model (GCM) performance along different dimensions of change and compare frameworks for integrating GCM output into ecological models...
February 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161726/medial-entorhinal-cortex-and-medial-septum-contribute-to-self-motion-based-linear-distance-estimation
#13
Pierre-Yves Jacob, Marta Gordillo-Salas, Justine Facchini, Bruno Poucet, Etienne Save, Francesca Sargolini
Path integration is a navigation strategy that requires animals to integrate self-movements during exploration to determine their position in space. The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) has been suggested to play a pivotal role in this process. Grid cells, head-direction cells, border cells as well as speed cells within the MEC collectively provide a dynamic representation of the animal position in space based on the integration of self-movements. All these cells are strongly modulated by theta oscillations, thus suggesting that theta rhythmicity in the MEC may be essential for integrating and coordinating self-movement information during navigation...
February 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122050/research-on-grid-size-suitability-of-gridded-population-distribution-in-urban-area-a-case-study-in-urban-area-of-xuanzhou-district-china
#14
Nan Dong, Xiaohuan Yang, Hongyan Cai, Fengjiao Xu
The research on the grid size suitability is important to provide improvement in accuracies of gridded population distribution. It contributes to reveal the actual spatial distribution of population. However, currently little research has been done in this area. Many well-modeled gridded population dataset are basically built at a single grid scale. If the grid cell size is not appropriate, it will result in spatial information loss or data redundancy. Therefore, in order to capture the desired spatial variation of population within the area of interest, it is necessary to conduct research on grid size suitability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111080/tau-pathology-induces-excitatory-neuron-loss-grid-cell-dysfunction-and-spatial-memory-deficits-reminiscent-of-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Hongjun Fu, Gustavo A Rodriguez, Mathieu Herman, Sheina Emrani, Eden Nahmani, Geoffrey Barrett, Helen Y Figueroa, Eliana Goldberg, S Abid Hussaini, Karen E Duff
The earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by the formation of mature tangles in the entorhinal cortex and disorientation and confusion when navigating familiar places. The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) contains specialized neurons called grid cells that form part of the spatial navigation system. Here we show in a transgenic mouse model expressing mutant human tau predominantly in the EC that the formation of mature tangles in old mice was associated with excitatory cell loss and deficits in grid cell function, including destabilized grid fields and reduced firing rates, as well as altered network activity...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067005/phosphorus-in-agricultural-soils-drivers-of-its-distribution-at-the-global-scale
#16
Bruno Ringeval, Laurent Augusto, Hervé Monod, Dirk van Apeldoorn, Lex Bouwman, Xiaojuan Yang, David L Achat, Louise P Chini, Kristof Van Oost, Bertrand Guenet, Rong Wang, Bertrand Decharme, Thomas Nesme, Sylvain Pellerin
Phosphorus (P) availability in soils limits crop yields in many regions of the world, while excess of soil P triggers aquatic eutrophication in other regions. Numerous processes drive the global spatial distribution of P in agricultural soils, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here, we combined several global datasets describing these drivers with a soil P dynamics model to simulate the distribution of P in agricultural soils and to assess the contributions of the different drivers at the global scale...
January 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034697/the-representation-of-space-in-the-brain
#17
REVIEW
Roddy M Grieves, Kate J Jeffery
Animals can navigate vast distances and often display behaviours or activities that indicate a detailed, internal spatial representation of their surrounding environment or a 'cognitive map'. Over a century of behavioural research on spatial navigation in humans and animals has greatly increased our understanding of how this highly complex feat is achieved. In turn this has inspired half a century of electrophysiological spatial navigation and memory research which has further advanced our understanding of the brain...
February 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025983/grid-cells-need-for-speed
#18
Alfredo Gonzalez-Sulser, Matthew F Nolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024751/assessing-the-environmental-impacts-of-freshwater-thermal-pollution-from-global-power-generation-in-lca
#19
Catherine E Raptis, Justin M Boucher, Stephan Pfister
Freshwater heat emissions from power plants with once-through cooling systems constitute one of many environmental pressures related to the thermoelectric power industry. The objective of this work was to obtain high resolution, operational characterization factors (CF) for the impact of heat emissions on ecosystem quality, and carry out a comprehensive, spatially, temporally and technologically differentiated damage-based environmental assessment of global freshwater thermal pollution. The aggregation of CFs on a watershed level results in 12...
February 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001122/spatial-and-temporal-variability-in-desert-dust-and-anthropogenic-pollution-in-iraq-1997-2010
#20
A Alexandra Chudnovsky, Petros Koutrakis, Alex Kostinski, Susan P Proctor, Eric Garshick
Satellite imaging has emerged as a method for monitoring regional air pollution and detecting areas of high dust concentrations. Unlike ground observations, continuous data monitoring is available with global coverage of terrestrial and atmospheric components. In this study we test the utility of different sources of satellite data to assess air pollution concentrations in Iraq. SeaWiFS and MODIS Deep Blue (DB) aerosol optical depth (AOD) products were evaluated and used to characterize the spatial and temporal pollution levels from the late 1990s through 2010...
2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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