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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224013/response-of-renal-podocytes-to-excessive-hydrostatic-pressure-a-pathophysiologic-cascade-in-a-malignant-hypertension-model
#1
Ramzia Abu Hamad, Sylvia Berman, Yafit Hachmo, Moshe Stark, Fadia Hasan, Keren Doenyas-Barak, Shai Efrati
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Renal injuries induced by increased intra-glomerular pressure coincide with podocyte detachment from the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In previous studies, it was demonstrated that mesangial cells have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of malignant hypertension. However, the exact pathophysiological cascade responsible for podocyte detachment and its relationship with mesangial cells has not been fully elucidated yet and this was the aim of the current study. METHODS: Rat renal mesangial or podocytes were exposed to high hydrostatic pressure in an in-vitro model of malignant hypertension...
December 7, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223704/decellularized-heart-ecm-hydrogel-using-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-for-improved-angiogenesis
#2
Yoojin Seo, Youngmee Jung, Soo Hyun Kim
Initial angiogenesis within the first 3 days is critical for healing ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction. Recently, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has been reported to provide tissue-derived ECM components and can be used as a scaffold for cell delivery for angiogenesis in tissue engineering. Decellularization by various detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and triton X-100 can remove the cell nuclei in tissue organs. However, this leads to ECM structure denaturation, decreased presence of various ECM proteins and cytokines, and loss of mechanical properties...
December 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223211/perinatal-and-neonatal-implications-of-sickle-cell-disease
#3
Cathi Phillips, Margaret Peggy Boyd
Sickle cell disease is the genetic disorder most commonly detected with state-mandated newborn screening. Women with sickle cell disease struggle with psychosocial, emotional, and physical challenges throughout their lives. Pregnancy for women with sickle cell disease brings greater risk for maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and increased likelihood of hospitalization for complications, including sickle cell pain crisis. Chronic maternal opioid use for pain can place newborns at risk for neonatal abstinence syndrome...
December 2017: Nursing for Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222981/fabrication-of-biocompatible-and-efficient-antimicrobial-porous-polymer-surfaces-by-the-breath-figures-approach
#4
Nelson Vargas-Alfredo, Enrique Martínez-Campos, Ana Santos-Coquillat, Ane Dorronsoro, Aitziber L Cortajarena, Adolfo Del Campo, Juan Rodríguez-Hernández
We designed and fabricated highly efficient and selective antibacterial substrates, i.e. surface non-cytotoxic against mammalian cells but exhibiting strong antibacterial activity. For that purpose, microporous substrates (pore sizes in the range of 3-5 μm) were fabricated using the Breath Figures approach (BFs). These substrates have additionally a defined chemical composition in the pore cavity (herein either a poly(acrylic acid) or the antimicrobial peptide Nisin) while the composition of the rest of the surface is identical to the polymer matrix...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222871/myelin-extracellular-leaflet-compaction-requires-apolipoprotein-d-membrane-management-to-optimize-lysosomal-dependent-recycling-and-glycocalyx-removal
#5
Nadia García-Mateo, Raquel Pascua-Maestro, Alberto Pérez-Castellanos, Concepción Lillo, Diego Sanchez, Maria D Ganfornina
To compact the extracellular sides of myelin, an important transition must take place: from membrane sliding, while building the wraps, to membrane adhesion and water exclusion. Removal of the negatively charged glycocalyx becomes the limiting factor in such transition. What is required to initiate this membrane-zipping process? Knocking-out the Lipocalin Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), essential for lysosomal functional integrity in glial cells, results in a specific defect in myelin extracellular leaflet compaction in peripheral and central nervous system, which results in reduced conduction velocity and suboptimal behavioral outputs: motor learning is compromised...
December 9, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221437/evolutionary-characterization-and-transcript-profiling-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-genes-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-during-plant-development
#6
Floriana Gavazzi, Gaia Pigna, Luca Braglia, Silvia Gianì, Diego Breviario, Laura Morello
BACKGROUND: Microtubules, polymerized from alpha and beta-tubulin monomers, play a fundamental role in plant morphogenesis, determining the cell division plane, the direction of cell expansion and the deposition of cell wall material. During polarized pollen tube elongation, microtubules serve as tracks for vesicular transport and deposition of proteins/lipids at the tip membrane. Such functions are controlled by cortical microtubule arrays. Aim of this study was to first characterize the flax β-tubulin family by sequence and phylogenetic analysis and to investigate differential expression of β-tubulin genes possibly related to fibre elongation and to flower development...
December 8, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218785/increased-affinity-of-endothelial-cells-to-niti-using-ultraviolet-irradiation-an-in-vitro-study
#7
Satoshi Tateshima, Naoki Kaneko, Masahiro Yamada, Gary Duckwiler, Fernando Vinuela, Takahiro Ogawa
Nickel - Titanium alloy (NiTi) is one of the most popular materials used endovascularly because of its shape memory and superelasticity. The NiTi device needs to be covered by endothelial cells after being placed in the blood vessel to reduce ischemic complications. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the biocompatibility of NiTi surfaces with endothelial cells. NiTi sheets were treated with UV irradiation for 48 hours and human aorta derived endothelial cells were used in this study...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218455/the-primary-cilium-once-a-rudimentary-organelle-that-is-now-a-ubiquitous-sensory-cellular-structure-involved-in-many-pathological-disorders
#8
Denys N Wheatley
This article looks mostly at the steps that have led to the primary cilium finding its place in our understanding of cell biology, developmental biology, and medical syndromes due to its aberrations. It is a personal account that stresses, if nothing else, the value of the adage "stick to your guns". My obsession with this organelle, following on from fascination with the centriole, has led to a whole career devoted to determining the nature and role of primary cilia in basic cell biology, which has proved much more important than had been appreciated for almost a century...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218403/the-storage-and-recall-of-memories-in-the-hippocampo-cortical-system
#9
REVIEW
Edmund T Rolls
A quantitative computational theory of the operation of the hippocampus as an episodic memory system is described. The CA3 system operates as a single attractor or autoassociation network (1) to enable rapid one-trial associations between any spatial location (place in rodents or spatial view in primates) and an object or reward and (2) to provide for completion of the whole memory during recall from any part. The theory is extended to associations between time and object or reward to implement temporal order memory, which is also important in episodic memory...
December 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217518/enhancement-of-mammary-tumor-growth-by-igfbp-3-involves-impaired-t-cell-accumulation
#10
Tiffany Scully, Carolyn Scott, Sue Mei Firth, Lisa M Sedger, John E Pintar, Stephen Twigg, Robert C Baxter
Epidemiological studies show an association between obesity and poor breast cancer prognosis. We previously demonstrated that global IGFBP-3 deficiency, in IGFBP-3-null mice, resulted in a 50% reduction in mammary tumor growth over 3 weeks relative to tumors in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. This growth reduction was ameliorated by high-fat feeding-induced obesity. This study aimed to examine how IGFBP-3 promotes tumor growth by influencing the immune tumor microenvironment in healthy and obese mice. Syngeneic EO771 cells, which lack detectable IGFBP-3 expression, were grown as orthotopic tumors in wild-type and IGFBP-3-null C57BL/6 mice placed on either a control chow or high-fat diet, and examined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry...
December 7, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215686/are-desensitizing-toothpastes-equally-biocompatible-and-effective-against-microorganisms
#11
Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo, Noala Vicensoto Moreira Milhan, Fernanda de Oliveira Saraiva, Jonatas Rafael de Oliveira, Luciane Dias de Oliveira, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro Camargo
The aims of this study were evaluate cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, antimicrobial activity of desensitizing toothpastes compared to a common one and the surface roughness of tooth enamel submitted to brushing with these toothpastes. Samples of three desensitizing toothpastes (Colgate Sensitive, Sensodyne and Oral B Sensitive) and common toothpaste (Colgate) were placed in contact with gingival human fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity and genotoxocity were measured by MTT assay and micronucleus test. Antimicrobial activity of the toothpastes extracts against C...
September 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214654/role-of-the-innate-immune-system-in-the-neuropathological-consequences-induced-by-adolescent-binge-drinking
#12
REVIEW
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a critical stage of brain maturation in which important plastic and dynamic processes take place in different brain regions, leading to development of the adult brain. Ethanol drinking in adolescence disrupts brain plasticity and causes structural and functional changes in immature brain areas (prefrontal cortex, limbic system) that result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. These changes, along with secretion of sexual and stress-related hormones in adolescence, may impact self-control, decision making, and risk-taking behaviors that contribute to anxiety and initiation of alcohol consumption...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214644/acute-oxygen-sensing-by-the-carotid-body-a-rattlebag-of-molecular-mechanisms
#13
Ryan J Rakoczy, Christopher N Wyatt
The molecular underpinnings of the oxygen-sensitivity of the carotid body Type I cells are becoming better defined as research begins to identify potential interactions between previously separate theories. Nevertheless, the field of oxygen-chemoreception still presents the general observer with a bewildering array of potential signalling pathways by which a fall in oxygen levels might initiate Type I cell activation. The purpose of this brief review is to address five of the current oxygen-sensing hypotheses...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214157/towards-a-global-initiative-for-fibrosis-treatment-gift
#14
Maria Molina-Molina, Alvar Agusti, Bruno Crestani, David A Schwartz, Melanie Königshoff, Rachel C Chambers, Toby M Maher, Rosa Faner, Ana Lucia Mora, Mauricio Rojas, Katerina M Antoniou, Jacobo Sellares
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease characterised by increased scarring of lung tissue. Despite the recent introduction of novel drugs that slow disease progression, IPF remains a deadly disease, and the benefits of these new drugs differ markedly between patients. Human diseases arise due to alterations in an almost limitless network of interconnected genes, proteins, metabolites, cells and tissues, in direct relationship with a continuously changing macro- or microenvironment...
October 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213097/multiplexed-computations-in-retinal-ganglion-cells-of-a-single-type
#15
Stéphane Deny, Ulisse Ferrari, Emilie Macé, Pierre Yger, Romain Caplette, Serge Picaud, Gašper Tkačik, Olivier Marre
In the early visual system, cells of the same type perform the same computation in different places of the visual field. How these cells code together a complex visual scene is unclear. A common assumption is that cells of a single-type extract a single-stimulus feature to form a feature map, but this has rarely been observed directly. Using large-scale recordings in the rat retina, we show that a homogeneous population of fast OFF ganglion cells simultaneously encodes two radically different features of a visual scene...
December 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212924/robust-mixture-modeling-reveals-category-free-selectivity-in-reward-region-neuronal-ensembles
#16
Tommy C Blanchard, Steve Piantadosi, Benjamin Y Hayden
Classification of neurons into clusters based on their response properties is an important tool for gaining insight into neural computations. However, it remains unclear to what extent neurons fall naturally into discrete functional categories. We developed a Bayesian method that models the tuning properties of neural populations as a mixture of multiple types of task-relevant response patterns. We applied this method to data from several cortical and striatal regions in economic choice tasks. In all cases, neurons fell into only two clusters: one multiple selectivity cluster containing all cells driven by task variables of interest and another of no selectivity for those variables...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212875/imiq-a-novel-protein-quality-control-compartment-protecting-mitochondrial-functional-integrity
#17
Michael Bruderek, Witold Jaworek, Anne Wilkening, Cornelia Rüb, Giovanna Cenini, Arion Förtsch, Marc Sylvester, Wolfgang Voos
Aggregation processes can cause severe perturbations of cellular homeostasis and are frequently associated with diseases. We performed a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial quality and function in presence of aggregation-prone polypeptides. Despite a significant aggregate formation inside mitochondria, we observed only a minor impairment of mitochondrial function. Detoxification of aggregated reporter polypeptides as well as endogenous proteins inside mitochondria takes place via their sequestration into a specific organellar deposit site we termed intra-mitochondrial protein quality control compartment (IMiQ)...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212790/the-arp2-3-regulatory-system-and-its-deregulation-in-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Nicolas Molinie, Alexis Gautreau
The Arp2/3 complex is an evolutionary conserved molecular machine that generates branched actin networks. When activated, the Arp2/3 complex contributes the actin branched junction and thus cross-links the polymerizing actin filaments in a network that exerts a pushing force. The different activators initiate branched actin networks at the cytosolic surface of different cellular membranes to promote their protrusion, movement, or scission in cell migration and membrane traffic. Here we review the structure, function, and regulation of all the direct regulators of the Arp2/3 complex that induce or inhibit the initiation of a branched actin network and that controls the stability of its branched junctions...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211717/force-loading-explains-spatial-sensing-of-ligands-by-cells
#19
Roger Oria, Tina Wiegand, Jorge Escribano, Alberto Elosegui-Artola, Juan Jose Uriarte, Cristian Moreno-Pulido, Ilia Platzman, Pietro Delcanale, Lorenzo Albertazzi, Daniel Navajas, Xavier Trepat, José Manuel García-Aznar, Elisabetta Ada Cavalcanti-Adam, Pere Roca-Cusachs
Cells can sense the density and distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules by means of individual integrin proteins and larger, integrin-containing adhesion complexes within the cell membrane. This spatial sensing drives cellular activity in a variety of normal and pathological contexts. Previous studies of cells on rigid glass surfaces have shown that spatial sensing of ECM ligands takes place at the nanometre scale, with integrin clustering and subsequent formation of focal adhesions impaired when single integrin-ligand bonds are separated by more than a few tens of nanometres...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211454/latent-warheads-for-targeted-cancer-therapy-design-and-synthesis-of-pro-pyrrolobenzodiazepines-and-conjugates
#20
Iontcho R Vlahov, Longwu Qi, Paul J Kleindl, Hari K Santhapuram, Albert Felten, Garth L Parham, Kevin Wang, Fei You, Jeremy F Vaughn, Spencer J Hahn, Hanna F Klein, Marilynn Vetzel, Joseph A Reddy, Melissa Nelson, Jeff Nicoson, Christopher P Leamon
Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) and their dimers (bis-PBDs) have emerged as some of the most potent chemotherapeutic compounds, and are currently under development as novel payloads in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). However, when used as stand-alone therapeutics or as warheads for small molecule drug conjugates (SMDCs), dose-limiting toxicities are often observed. As an elegant solution to this inherent problem, we designed diazepine-ring-opened conjugated prodrugs lacking the imine moiety. Once the prodrug (pro-PBD) conjugate enters a targeted cell, cleavage of the linker system triggers the generation of a reactive intermediate possessing an aldehyde and aromatic amine...
December 6, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
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