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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933602/fish-tales-the-use-of-zebrafish-xenograft-human-cancer-cell-models
#1
REVIEW
Yvette Drabsch, B Ewa Snaar-Jagalska, Peter Ten Dijke
Advances in scientific techniques have provided researchers with exceptional new opportunities to identify and monitor changes between different cancer types, during different stages of progression, between individual tumor cells and in the surrounding stroma. The wealth of information that can be obtained from new scientific techniques places additional requirements on the conventional cancer models. New models that could be used to rapidly access the (potential) functional importance of newly identified (epi)genetic and proteomic changes and test the efficacy on emerging (combinatorial) therapies are desperately required...
December 9, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932867/clustering-algorithms-their-application-to-gene-expression-data
#2
REVIEW
Jelili Oyelade, Itunuoluwa Isewon, Funke Oladipupo, Olufemi Aromolaran, Efosa Uwoghiren, Faridah Ameh, Moses Achas, Ezekiel Adebiyi
Gene expression data hide vital information required to understand the biological process that takes place in a particular organism in relation to its environment. Deciphering the hidden patterns in gene expression data proffers a prodigious preference to strengthen the understanding of functional genomics. The complexity of biological networks and the volume of genes present increase the challenges of comprehending and interpretation of the resulting mass of data, which consists of millions of measurements; these data also inhibit vagueness, imprecision, and noise...
2016: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932850/co-generation-of-hydrogen-and-power-current-pulses-from-supercapacitive-mfcs-using-novel-her-iron-based-catalysts
#3
Carlo Santoro, Francesca Soavi, Catia Arbizzani, Alexey Serov, Sadia Kabir, Kayla Carpenter, Orianna Bretschger, Plamen Atanassov
In this work, four different supercapacitive microbial fuel cells (SC-MFCs) with carbon brush as the anode and an air-breathing cathode with Fe-Aminoantipyrine (Fe-AAPyr) as the catalyst have been investigated using galvanostatic discharges. The maximum power (Pmax) obtained was in the range from 1.7 mW to 1.9 mW for each SC-MFC. This in-series connection of four SC-MFCs almost quadrupled Pmax to an operating voltage of 3025 mV and a Pmax of 8.1 mW, one of the highest power outputs reported in the literature...
December 1, 2016: Electrochimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932573/fine-tuning-of-ulk1-mrna-and-protein-levels-is-required-for-autophagy-oscillation
#4
Francesca Nazio, Marianna Carinci, Cristina Valacca, Pamela Bielli, Flavie Strappazzon, Manuela Antonioli, Fabiola Ciccosanti, Carlo Rodolfo, Silvia Campello, Gian Maria Fimia, Claudio Sette, Paolo Bonaldo, Francesco Cecconi
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway whose levels are tightly controlled to secure cell homeostasis. Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) is a conserved serine-threonine kinase that plays a central role in the initiation of autophagy. Here, we report that upon autophagy progression, ULK1 protein levels are specifically down-regulated by the E3 ligase NEDD4L, which ubiquitylates ULK1 for degradation by the proteasome. However, whereas ULK1 protein is degraded, ULK1 mRNA is actively transcribed. Upon reactivation of mTOR-dependent protein synthesis, basal levels of ULK1 are promptly restored, but the activity of newly synthesized ULK1 is inhibited by mTOR...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932503/computational-modelling-of-epithelial-fluid-and-ion-transport-in-the-parotid-duct-after-transfection-of-human-aquaporin-1
#5
Shelley Fong, John A Chiorini, James Sneyd, Vinod Suresh
Previous studies have shown that localized delivery of the aquaporin-1 (AQP1) gene to the parotid duct can restore saliva flow in minipigs following irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction. The resulting flow rate and electrochemisty of secreted saliva contradicts current understanding of ductal fluid transport. We hypothesized that changes in expression of ion transport proteins have occurred following AQP1 transfection. We use a mathematical model of ion and fluid transport across the parotid duct epithelial cells to predict the expression profile of ion transporters that are consistent with the experimental measurements of saliva composition and secretion rates...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930326/cell-size-and-growth-regulation-in-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-apical-stem-cell-niche
#6
Lisa Willis, Yassin Refahi, Raymond Wightman, Benoit Landrein, José Teles, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Henrik Jönsson
Cell size and growth kinetics are fundamental cellular properties with important physiological implications. Classical studies on yeast, and recently on bacteria, have identified rules for cell size regulation in single cells, but in the more complex environment of multicellular tissues, data have been lacking. In this study, to characterize cell size and growth regulation in a multicellular context, we developed a 4D imaging pipeline and applied it to track and quantify epidermal cells over 3-4 d in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristems...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929596/primary-solitary-intralabyrinthine-schwannoma-a-report-of-7-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
Avi Shupak, Yehuda Holdstein, Margalit Kaminer, Itzhak Braverman
Intralabyrinthine schwannomas (ILSs) are uncommon benign tumors that originate in the Schwann cell sheath of the intralabyrinthine distal branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve. They have no initial involvement in the internal auditory canal, although that might develop later. These lesions can arise inside the cochlea, originate in the vestibule or, in rare cases, develop in the semicircular canals. From these sites, spread might take place via the anatomic connections between the perilymphatic spaces in the scala vestibuli and the anterior vestibule...
December 2016: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929374/flexible-theta-sequence-compression-mediated-via-phase-precessing-interneurons
#8
Angus Chadwick, Mark Cw van Rossum, Matthew F Nolan
Encoding of behavioral episodes as spike sequences during hippocampal theta oscillations provides a neural substrate for computations on events extended across time and space. However, the mechanisms underlying the numerous and diverse experimentally observed properties of theta sequences remain poorly understood. Here we account for theta sequences using a novel model constrained by the septo-hippocampal circuitry. We show that when spontaneously active interneurons integrate spatial signals and theta frequency pacemaker inputs, they generate phase precessing action potentials that can coordinate theta sequences in place cell populations...
December 8, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928077/prevention-of-early-mortality-by-presumptive-tuberculosis-therapy-study-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Yukari C Manabe, William Worodria, Frank van Leth, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Afsatou Ndama Traore, Josefo Ferro, Nadine Pakker, Matthias Frank, Martin P Grobusch, Robert Colebunders, Frank Cobelens
Early mortality after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) occurs in 9-39% of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. A significant proportion of deaths are attributable to tuberculosis (TB). Low baseline CD4 T-cell count and low body mass index (BMI) are strongly associated with early mortality. We hypothesized that initiation of ART concurrent with presumptive anti-TB chemotherapy in high-risk patients would reduce mortality within the first 6 months by treating unrecognized TB. From October 2011 to December 2012, ART-naive, smear-negative participants with a CD4 T-cell count < 50 cells/μL and BMI < 18 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to undergo either empiric four-drug anti-TB treatment followed 2 weeks later by efavirenz-based ART (N = 23) (ART + TB) or ART only (N = 20)...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928033/mitral-valve-leaflet-remodelling-during-pregnancy-insights-into-cell-mediated-recovery-of-tissue-homeostasis
#10
Bruno V Rego, Sarah M Wells, Chung-Hao Lee, Michael S Sacks
Little is known about how valvular tissues grow and remodel in response to altered loading. In this work, we used the pregnancy state to represent a non-pathological cardiac volume overload that distends the mitral valve (MV), using both extant and new experimental data and a modified form of our MV structural constitutive model. We determined that there was an initial period of permanent set-like deformation where no remodelling occurs, followed by a remodelling phase that resulted in near-complete restoration of homeostatic tissue-level behaviour...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927958/coding-of-event-nodes-and-narrative-context-in-the-hippocampus
#11
Branka Milivojevic, Meryl Varadinov, Alejandro Vicente Grabovetsky, Silvy H P Collin, Christian F Doeller
: Narratives may provide a general context, unrestricted by space and time, which can be used to organize episodic memories into networks of related events. However, it is not clear how narrative contexts are represented in the brain. Here we test the novel hypothesis that the formation of narrative-based contextual representations in humans relies on the same hippocampal mechanisms that enable formation of spatiotemporal contexts in rodents. Participants watched a movie consisting of two interleaved narratives while we monitored their brain activity using fMRI...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927953/phase-dependent-interactions-in-visual-cortex-to-combinations-of-first-and-second-order-stimuli
#12
Claire V Hutchinson, Timothy Ledgeway, Curtis L Baker
: A fundamental task of the visual system is to extract figure-ground boundaries between objects, which are often defined, not only by differences in luminance, but also by "second-order" contrast or texture differences. Responses of cortical neurons to both first- and second-order patterns have been studied extensively, but only for responses to either type of stimulus in isolation. Here, we examined responses of visual cortex neurons to the spatial relationship between superimposed periodic luminance modulation (LM) and contrast modulation (CM) stimuli, the contrasts of which were adjusted to give equated responses when presented alone...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927890/massively-increased-caries-susceptibility-in-an-irf6-cleft-lip-palate-model
#13
B Tamasas, T C Cox
Patients with cleft lip/palate (CLP) have been reported, in some studies, to exhibit an increased prevalence of caries, although the underlying cause for this increase is unknown. In genetically defined mouse models, studies of postnatal sequelae associated with CLP have been hampered by neonatal lethality. Using a conditional targeting approach, we ablated the major CLP gene Irf6 only in the late embryonic oral epithelium (Irf6 cKO), bypassing the role of the gene in lip and palate morphogenesis and thus ensuring survival to adulthood...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927847/preserved-seminiferous-tubule-integrity-with-spermatogonial-survival-and-induction-of-sertoli-and-leydig-cell-maturation-after-long-term-organotypic-culture-of-prepubertal-human-testicular-tissue
#14
F de Michele, J Poels, L Weerens, C Petit, Z Evrard, J Ambroise, D Gruson, C Wyns
STUDY QUESTION: Is an organotypic culture system able to provide the appropriate testicular microenvironment for in-vitro maturation of human immature testicular tissue (ITT)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our organotypic culture system provided a microenvironment capable of preserving seminiferous tubule (ST) integrity and Leydig cell (LC) functionality and inducing Sertoli cell (SC) maturation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cryopreservation of human ITT is a well-established strategy to preserve fertility in prepubertal boys affected by cancer, with a view for obtaining sperm...
December 6, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927722/age-dependent-control-of-energy-homeostasis-by-brown-adipose-tissue-in-progeny-subjected-to-maternal-diet-induced-fetal-programming
#15
Olivier Dumortier, Estelle Roger, Didier F Pisani, Virginie Casamento, Nadine Gautier, Patricia Lebrun, Hereroa Johnston, Pascal Lopez, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Céline Jousse, Pierre Fafournoux, Marc Prentki, Charlotte Hinault, Emmanuel Van Obberghen
Epidemiological and animal studies show that deleterious maternal environments predispose aging offspring to metabolic disorders and type 2 diabetes. Young progeny in a rat model of maternal low protein diet (LP) is normoglycemic despite collapsed insulin secretion. However, without further worsening of the insulin secretion defect glucose homeostasis deteriorates in aging LP descendants. Here we report that normoglycemic and insulinopenic 3-month-old LP progeny shows increased body temperature and energy dissipation in association with enhanced brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity...
December 7, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925305/extracellular-matrix-in-epitheliochorial-endotheliochorial-and-haemochorial-placentation-and-its-potential-application-for-regenerative-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Ara da Anunciação, A M Mess, D Orechio, B A Aguiar, P O Favaron, M A Miglino
A placenta is defined as structural approximation of maternal and foetal tissues to perform physiological exchange. Associated processes of differentiation and the establishment of its cells take place within the extracellular matrix (ECM) that provides a rich environment of collagens, fibronectins, cytokines and other components. Placental ECM is promising for tissue regeneration purposes, because it has immune tolerance capacities that may cause only minimal rejections of transplants with immunological differences between donor and recipient...
December 7, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925238/danshen-enhanced-cardioprotective-effect-of-cardioplegia-on-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-model
#17
Wei Wei, Yiwei Liu, Qiang Zhang, Yangming Wang, Xiaoling Zhang, Hao Zhang
Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is unavoidable during cardioplegic arrest and open-heart surgery. Danshen is one of the most popular traditional herbal medicines in China, which has entered the Food and Drug Administration-approved phase III clinical trial. This study was aimed to develop a human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) model to mimic I/R injury and evaluate the cardioprotective effect of regular cardioplegic solution with Danshen. hiPSC-CMs were cultured with the crystalloid cardioplegic solution (Thomas group) and Thomas solution with 2 or 10 µg/mL Danshen (Thomas plus Danshen groups)...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924920/online-flow-cytometry-reveals-microbial-dynamics-influenced-by-concurrent-natural-and-operational-events-in-groundwater-used-for-drinking-water-treatment
#18
Michael D Besmer, Jannis Epting, Rebecca M Page, Jürg A Sigrist, Peter Huggenberger, Frederik Hammes
Detailed measurements of physical, chemical and biological dynamics in groundwater are key to understanding the important processes in place and their influence on water quality - particularly when used for drinking water. Measuring temporal bacterial dynamics at high frequency is challenging due to the limitations in automation of sampling and detection of the conventional, cultivation-based microbial methods. In this study, fully automated online flow cytometry was applied in a groundwater system for the first time in order to monitor microbial dynamics in a groundwater extraction well...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924070/modified-methods-for-isolation-of-pancreatic-stellate-cells-from-human-and-rodent-pancreas
#19
Liangtao Zhao, Baobao Cai, Zipeng Lu, Lei Tian, Song Guo, Pengfei Wu, Dong Qian, Qingcheng Xu, Kuirong Jiang, Yi Miao
Primary cultures of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) remain an important basis for in vitro study. However, effective methods for isolating abundant PSCs are currently lacking. We report on a novel approach to isolating PSCs from normal rat pancreases and human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissue. After anaesthesia and laparotomy of the rat, a blunt cannula was inserted into the pancreatic duct through the anti-mesentery side of the duodenum, and the pancreas was slowly infused with an enzyme solution until all lobules were fully dispersed...
November 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922724/antenatal-breastfeeding-education-for-increasing-breastfeeding-duration
#20
REVIEW
Pisake Lumbiganon, Ruth Martis, Malinee Laopaiboon, Mario R Festin, Jacqueline J Ho, Mohammad Hakimi
BACKGROUND: Breast milk is well recognised as the best food source for infants. The impact of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education for increasing BF initiation and duration. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register on 1 March 2016, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to 1 March 2016) and Scopus (January 1985 to 1 March 2016)...
December 6, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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