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Place cells

S Quercia, F Freccero, C Castagnetti, M Soverini, S Turroni, E Biagi, S Rampelli, A Lanci, J Mariella, E Chinellato, P Brigidi, M Candela
BACKGROUND: Even if horses strictly depend on the gut microbiota for energy homeostasis, only a few molecular studies have focused on its characterisation and none on the perinatal gut microbial colonisation process. OBJECTIVES: To explore the perinatal colonisation process of the foal gut microbial ecosystem and the temporal dynamics of the ecosystem assembly during the first days of life. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study. METHODS: Thirteen Standardbred mare-foal pairs were included in the study...
June 21, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
May Sanyoura, Louis H Philipson, Rochelle Naylor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide a review of monogenic diabetes in young children and adolescents with a focus on recognition, management, and pharmacological treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Monogenic forms of diabetes account for approximately 1-2% of diabetes in children and adolescents, and its incidence has increased in recent years due to greater awareness and wider availability of genetic testing. Monogenic diabetes is due to single gene defects that primarily affect beta cell function with more than 30 different genes reported...
June 22, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Gavin Boerboom, Theo van Kempen, Alberto Navarro-Villa, Adriano Pérez-Bonilla
White striping (WS) is a major problem affecting the broiler industry. Fillets affected by this myopathy present pathologies that compromise the quality of the meat, and most importantly, make the fillets more prone to rejection by the consumer. The exact etiology is still unknown, which is why a metabolomics analysis was performed on breast samples of broilers. The overall objective was to identify biological pathways involved in the pathogenesis of WS. The analysis was performed on a total of 51 muscle samples and distinction was made between normal (n = 19), moderately affected (n = 24) and severely affected (n = 8) breast fillets...
June 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Marie-Pierre Lambert, Sophie Terrone, Guillaume Giraud, Clara Benoit-Pilven, David Cluet, Valérie Combaret, Franck Mortreux, Didier Auboeuf, Cyril F Bourgeois
The Repressor Element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST) represses a number of neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells or in undifferentiated neural progenitors. Here, we report that the DEAD box RNA helicase DDX17 controls important REST-related processes that are critical during the early phases of neuronal differentiation. First, DDX17 associates with REST, promotes its binding to the promoter of a subset of REST-targeted genes and co-regulates REST transcriptional repression activity. During neuronal differentiation, we observed a downregulation of DDX17 along with that of the REST complex that contributes to the activation of neuronal genes...
June 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Wanyin Chen, Leonel Nguekeu Zebaze, Jihu Dong, Laëtitia Chézeau, Perrine Inquimbert, Sylvain Hugel, Songlin Niu, Fréderic Bihel, Emmanuel Boutant, Eléonore Réal, Pascal Villa, Marie-Pierre Junier, Hervé Chneiweiss, Marcel Hibert, Jacques Haiech, Marie-Claude Kilhoffer, Maria Zeniou
Glioblastoma is a highly heterogeneous brain tumor. The presence of cancer cells with stem-like and tumor initiation/propagation properties contributes to poor prognosis. Glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells (GSC) reside in hypoxic and acidic niches favoring cell quiescence and drug resistance. A high throughput screening recently identified the laxative Bisacodyl as a cytotoxic compound targeting quiescent GSC placed in acidic microenvironments. Bisacodyl activity requires its hydrolysis into DDPM, its pharmacologically active derivative...
June 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Emrah Ilker Ozay, Heather L Sherman, Victoria Mello, Grace Trombley, Adam Lerman, Gregory N Tew, Nagendra Yadava, Lisa M Minter
Recent advances in our understanding of tumor cell mitochondrial metabolism suggest it may be an attractive therapeutic target. Mitochondria are central hubs of metabolism that provide energy during the differentiation and maintenance of immune cell phenotypes. Mitochondrial membranes harbor several enzyme complexes that are involved in the process of oxidative phosphorylation, which takes place during energy production. Data suggest that, among these enzyme complexes, deficiencies in electron transport complex I may differentially affect immune responses and may contribute to the pathophysiology of several immunological conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mar Soto, Iraia García-Santisteban, Lenno Krenning, René H Medema, Jonne A Raaijmakers
DNA in micronuclei is prone to get damaged. When shattered DNA from micronuclei gets reincorporated into the primary nucleus, aberrant rearrangements can take place, a phenomenon referred to as chromothripsis. Here, we investigated how chromatids from micronuclei act in subsequent divisions and how this affects their fate. We observed that the majority of chromatids derived from micronuclei fail to establish a proper kinetochore in mitosis associated with problems in chromosome alignment, segregation and spindle assembly checkpoint activation...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Marsel Lino, Mark H Wan, Antonio S Rocca, David Ngai, Navid Shobeiri, Guangpei Hou, Chunxi Ge, Renny T Franceschi, Michelle P Bendeck
OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification is a common and severe complication in patients with atherosclerosis which is exacerbated by type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our laboratory recently reported that the collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) mediates vascular calcification in atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. During calcification, vascular smooth muscle cells transdifferentiate into osteoblast-like cells, in a process driven by the transcription factor RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2)...
June 21, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Peng Ao, Wenzhou Huang, Jian Li, Tianlong Wu, Libiao Xu, Zhongbo Deng, Wenjie Chen, Changchang Yin, Xigao Cheng
Serum deprivation is a likely contributor to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IVDD).17β-estradiol (E2) have been noted to protect nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) against apoptosis. Autophagy and apoptosis play a paramount role in maintaining the homeostasis of IVD. So far, little research has been published on whether autophagy could take place at this very moment when E2 provides protection for NPCs. The aim of this study is to understand whether autophagy is involved in the protective effect of E2 against serum deprivation-induced cell apoptosis and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and MMP-13...
June 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Irina Zurina, Anastasia Shpichka, Irina Saburina, Nastasia V Kosheleva, Anastasiya Gorkun, Ekaterina A Grebenik, Daria Kuznetsova, Deying Zhang, Yury Rochev, Denis Butnaru, Tatyana Zharikova, Elena Victorovna Istranova, Yuanyuan Zhang, Leonid Prokofievich Istranov, Peter S Timashev
Maintaining the epithelial status of cells in vitro and fabrication of a multilayered epithelial lining is one of the key problems in the therapy using cell technologies. When cultured in a monolayer, epithelial cells change their phenotype from epithelial to epithelial-mesenchymal or mesenchymal that makes it difficult to obtain a sufficient number of cells in a 2D culture and to use them in tissue engineering. Here, using buccal epithelial cells from the oral mucosa, we developed a novel approach to recover and maintain the stable cell phenotype and form a multilayered epithelial lining in vitro via the 2D/3D cell self-assembling...
June 21, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Yasser H Zaki, Marwa S Al-Gendey, Abdou O Abdelhamid
BACKGROUND: Chalcones have a place with the flavonoid family and show a few very important pharmacological activities. They can used as initial compounds for synthesis of several heterocyclic compounds. The compounds with the backbone of chalcones have been reported to possess various biological activities. RESULTS: Pyridine and thioamide derivatives were obtained from the reaction of 3-(furan-2-yl)-1-(p-tolyl)prop-2-en-1-one with the appropriate amount of malononitrile, benzoylacetonitrile, ethyl cyanoacetate and thiosemicarbazide in the presence of ammonium acetate...
June 20, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Masahiko Takahashi, Maiko Hashimoto, Masumi Uehara
The present study aimed to prepare a small acute-phase cerebral infarction phantom made of gelatin and sucrose to simulate brain parenchymal cells, and a phantom made of collagen peptides and sucrose to simulate cerebral infarction for diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). During the preparation of gelatin and sucrose mixture (17.0 wt% gelatin, 20.0 wt% sucrose), a cylindrical wooden bar was placed in the center of the phantom and covered with a heat-shrinkable film to ensure space remained after gelling. A mixed solution composed of collagen peptide and sucrose (16...
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Yves F Widmer, Adem Bilican, Rémy Bruggmann, Simon G Sprecher
Memory formation is achieved by genetically tightly controlled molecular pathways that result in a change of synaptic strength and synapse organization. While for short-term memory traces rapidly acting biochemical pathways are in place, the formation of long-lasting memories requires changes in the transcriptional program of a cell. Although many genes involved in learning and memory formation have been identified, little is known about the genetic mechanisms required for changing the transcriptional program during different phases of long-term memory formation...
June 20, 2018: Genetics
Molly M Henschel, Billie-Jo Grant
While the media continue to report incidents of school employee sexual misconduct, few empirical studies focus on this issue. To address this gap in the literature, expand knowledge and awareness around the problem, and inform future research and programs, this research intends to document and analyze the characteristics of school employee sexual misconduct cases reported in the media. The authors conducted a landscape analysis of 361 published school employee sexual misconduct cases in the United States from 2014, documenting factors such as offender and victim characteristics, type of incident, technology use, location of offense, and resulting disciplinary actions by schools and law enforcement...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
James P Moley, Mary S McGrath, Jeffrey F Granger, Paul Stoodley, Devendra H Dusane
Antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads (CS-B) are used to treat biofilm-related periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). A previous study has shown that such beads are effective in reducing lawns biofilms grown on agar plates; however, the ability of CS-B to eradicate biofilms grown on solid orthopaedic material surfaces has not been investigated. We grew biofilms of bioluminescent strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen41 and a USA300 MRSA Staphylococcus aureus SAP231 on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE), hydroxyapatite (HA), and 316L stainless steel (SS) coupons for three days under static growth conditions, with daily nutrient exchange...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Tian-Yuan Zhang, Ying Yu, Meng-Yue Zhang, Juan Cheng, Zhong-Jian Chen, Jin-Yu Zhang, Yi-Xuan Zhang
An endophytic strain (designated as strain SYPF 8337T ) was isolated from the root of 3-year-old Panax notoginseng in Yunnan province of China. Strain SYPF 8337T grew slowly and formed pale brown to brown colonies. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain SYPF 8337T was placed in the Verruconis clade. Different from other Verruconis species, strain SYPF 8337T produced four-cell conidia. Furthermore, strain SYPF 8337T is the first fungus isolated as an endophyte of P. notoginseng in the genus Verruconis. Combined with the morphology and molecular analyses, a new species named Verruconis panacis sp...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yichi Zhang, Simon G English, Kenneth B Storey
Xenopus laevis, otherwise known as the African clawed frog, undergoes natural dehydration of up to 30% of its total body water during the dry season in sub-Saharan Africa. To survive under these conditions, a variety of physiological and biochemical changes take place in X. laevis. We were interested in understanding the role that the calcineurin-NFAT pathway plays during dehydration stress response in the skeletal muscles of X. laevis. Immunoblotting was performed to characterize the protein levels of NFATc1-4, calcium signalling proteins, in addition to myogenic proteins (MyoD, MyoG, myomaker)...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Shira Michaeli, Vivian Dakwar, Keren Weidenfeld, Ortal Granski, Odelya Gilon, Sagie Schif-Zuck, Anatolii Mamchur, Imad Shams, Dalit Barkan
Different subtypes of macrophages have been shown to participate in different stages of inflammation and tissue repair. In the late stage of tissue repair, the macrophages, following their engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils, acquire a new phenotype termed alternatively activated macrophages. These macrophages produce growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), that facilitate the angiogenic response as part of tissue restoration. Then, in the later stages of tissue healing, capillary regression takes place...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mikhail A Lebedev, Alexey Pimashkin, Alexei Ossadtchi
According to the currently prevailing theory, hippocampal formation constructs and maintains cognitive spatial maps. Most of the experimental evidence for this theory comes from the studies on navigation in laboratory rats and mice, typically male animals. While these animals exhibit a rich repertoire of behaviors associated with navigation, including locomotion, head movements, whisking, sniffing, raring and scent marking, the contribution of these behavioral patterns to the hippocampal spatially-selective activity has not been sufficiently studied...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yihong Wang, Xuying Xu, Rubin Wang
Place cells are important elements in the spatial representation system of the brain. A considerable amount of experimental data and classical models are achieved in this area. However, an important question has not been addressed, which is how the three dimensional space is represented by the place cells. This question is preliminarily surveyed by energy coding method in this research. Energy coding method argues that neural information can be expressed by neural energy and it is convenient to model and compute for neural systems due to the global and linearly addable properties of neural energy...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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