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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227911/an-implementation-for-the-simulation-of-cells-on-micro-post-arrays
#1
Duy T Truong, Christian Bahls, Barbara Nebe, Ursula van Rienen, Duy T Truong, Christian Bahls, Barbara Nebe, Ursula van Rienen, Duy T Truong, Christian Bahls, Ursula van Rienen, Barbara Nebe
The mechanical interaction between cells and their underlying substrates is important in understanding the processes that take place at an interface between biological tissue and the surface of implants. There have been numerous studies that examine these interactions both by experimental and numerical modeling. The bio-chemo-mechanical model for cell contractility by Deshpande et al. [1] has numerous applications and advantages. This work shows a way to implement this model in COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS® so it can be easily modified or extended...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227795/simplified-realistic-human-head-model-for-simulating-tumor-treating-fields-ttfields
#2
Cornelia Wenger, Ze'ev Bomzon, Ricardo Salvador, Peter J Basser, Pedro C Miranda, Cornelia Wenger, Ze'ev Bomzon, Ricardo Salvador, Peter J Basser, Pedro C Miranda, Peter J Basser, Pedro C Miranda, Cornelia Wenger, Ricardo Salvador, Ze'ev Bomzon
Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) are alternating electric fields in the intermediate frequency range (100-300 kHz) of low-intensity (1-3 V/cm). TTFields are an anti-mitotic treatment against solid tumors, which are approved for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) patients. These electric fields are induced non-invasively by transducer arrays placed directly on the patient's scalp. Cell culture experiments showed that treatment efficacy is dependent on the induced field intensity. In clinical practice, a software called NovoTal(TM) uses head measurements to estimate the optimal array placement to maximize the electric field delivery to the tumor...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226767/place-field-detection-using-grid-based-clustering-in-a-large-scale-computational-model-of-the-rat-dentate-gyrus
#3
Gene J Yu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Gene J Yu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Gene J Yu, Theodore W Berger
Place cells are neurons in the hippocampus that are sensitive to location within an environment. Simulations of a large-scale, computational model of the rat dentate gyrus using grid cell input have been performed resulting in granule cells that express multiple place fields. The typical method of detecting place fields using a global threshold on this data is unreliable as the characteristics of the place fields from a single neuron can be highly variable. A grid-based implementation of DENCLUE has been developed to calculate local thresholds to identify each place field...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226294/extruded-dielectric-sample-tubes-of-complex-cross-section-for-epr-signal-enhancement-of-aqueous-samples
#4
Jason W Sidabras, Richard R Mett, James S Hyde
This paper builds on the work of Mett and Hyde (2003) and Sidabras et al. (2005) where multiple flat aqueous sample cells placed perpendicular to electric fields in microwave cavities were used to reduce the RF losses and increase the EPR signal. In this work, we present three novel sample holders for loop-gap resonators (LGRs) and cylindrical cavity geometries. Two sample holders have been commissioned and built by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) extrusion techniques: a 1mm O.D. capillary with a septum down the middle, named DoubleDee, and a 3...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226231/cell-biology-of-the-plant-nucleus
#5
Iris Meier, Eric J Richards, David E Evans
The eukaryotic nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear envelope, which is perforated by the nuclear pores, the gateways of macromolecular exchange between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The nucleoplasm is organized in a complex three-dimensional fashion that changes over time and in response to stimuli. Within the cell, the nucleus must be viewed as an organelle (albeit a gigantic one) that is a recipient of cytoplasmic forces and capable of morphological and positional dynamics. The most dramatic reorganization of this organelle occurs during mitosis and meiosis...
February 22, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225182/double-sequential-encrypted-targeting-sequence-a-new-concept-for-bone-cancer-treatment
#6
Gonzalo Villaverde, Valentina Nairi, Alejandro Baeza, Maria Vallet-Regi
The selective transportation of therapeutic agents to tumoral cells is usually achieved by their conjugation with targeting moieties able to recognize these cells. Unfortunately, simple and static targeting systems usually show selectivity lacks. Herein, double sequential encrypted targeting system is proposed as stimuli-responsive targeting analogue for selectivity enhancement. The system is able to recognize diseased bone tissue in first place, and once there, a hidden secondary targeting group is activated by the presence of an enzyme overproduced in the malignant tissue (cathepsin K), triggering the recognition of diseased cells...
February 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224211/mechanisms-overseeing-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-production-in-neoplastic-disease
#7
REVIEW
Colleen S Netherby, Scott I Abrams
Perturbations in myeloid cell differentiation are common in neoplasia, culminating in immature populations known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs favor tumor progression due to their ability to suppress host immunity or promote invasion and metastasis. They are thought to originate from the bone marrow as a result of exposure to stromal- or circulating tumor-derived factors (TDFs). Although great interest has been placed on understanding how MDSCs function, less is known regarding how MDSCs develop at a transcriptional level...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223987/dendritic-cell-targeting-effectively-boosts-t-cell-responses-elicited-by-an-hiv-multiepitope-dna-vaccine
#8
Juliana de Souza Apostólico, Victória Alves Santos Lunardelli, Marcio Massao Yamamoto, Higo Fernando Santos Souza, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Silvia Beatriz Boscardin, Daniela Santoro Rosa
Despite several efforts in the last decades, an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine is still not available. Different approaches have been evaluated, such as recombinant proteins, viral vectors, DNA vaccines, and, most recently, dendritic cell (DC) targeting. This strategy is based on DC features that place them as central for induction of immunity. Targeting is accomplished by the use of chimeric monoclonal antibodies directed to DC surface receptors fused to the antigen of interest. In this work, we targeted eight promiscuous HIV-derived CD4(+) T cell epitopes (HIVBr8) to the DEC205(+) DCs by fusing the multiepitope immunogen to the heavy chain of αDEC205 (αDECHIVBr8), in the presence of the TLR3 agonist poly (I:C)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223673/-a-case-of-meningeal-carcinomatosis-and-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-effectively-treated-using-a-multidisciplinary-approach
#9
Kota Hikima, Mikie Nagayama, Takashi Sato, Takashi Inoue, Mutsumi Nagai
A 65-year-old man visited our hospital with dyspnea and cough. He was diagnosed with small cell lung carcinoma (cT4N2M1b, Stage IV). The disease partially responded to systemic chemotherapy. However, it was progressive and metastasized to the brain 3 months after 6 courses of chemotherapy. Therefore, whole brain irradiation was performed. Subsequently, weakness of the lower extremities and vesicorectal disturbances appeared. Meningeal carcinomatosis was diagnosed by enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and liquid examination...
February 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222718/abnormal-epigenetic-changes-during-differentiation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-from-obese-subjects
#10
Cajsa Davegårdh, Christa Broholm, Alexander Perfilyev, Tora Henriksen, Sonia García-Calzón, Lone Peijs, Ninna Schiøler Hansen, Petr Volkov, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Maria Pedersen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Dov B Ballak, Charles A Dinarello, Bas Heinhuis, Leo A B Joosten, Emma Nilsson, Allan Vaag, Camilla Scheele, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals...
February 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220485/epidemiology-of-basal-cell-carcinoma-scholarly-review
#11
REVIEW
J A C Verkouteren, K H R Ramdas, M Wakkee, T Nijsten
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with increasing incidence rates worldwide. Patients with BCC place a large burden on healthcare systems, because of the high incidence and the increased risk of synchronous and metachronous BCCs and other ultraviolet radiation (UVR) related skin cancers (i.e. field cancerization). As a result, the disability-adjusted life years and healthcare costs have risen significantly in recent decades. BCC is a complex disease, in which the interplay between UVR, phenotype (UVR-sensitive) and genotype (somatic mutations and germline mutations/polymorphisms) fulfils a key role in the aetiopathogenesis...
February 20, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220105/acth-receptor-mc2r-specificity-what-do-we-know-about-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Davids Fridmanis, Ance Roga, Janis Klovins
Coincidentally, the release of this Research Topic in Frontiers in Endocrinology takes place 25 years after the discovery of the adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR) by Mountjoy and colleagues. In subsequent years, following the discovery of other types of mammalian melanocortin receptors (MCRs), ACTHR also became known as melanocortin type 2 receptor (MC2R). At present, five types of MCRs have been reported, all of which share significant sequence similarity at the amino acid level, and all of which specifically bind melanocortins (MCs)-a group of biologically active peptides generated by proteolysis of the proopiomelanocortin precursor...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219393/molecular-and-genetic-alterations-associated-with-therapy-resistance-and-relapse-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#13
REVIEW
Hubert Hackl, Ksenia Astanina, Rotraud Wieser
BACKGROUND: The majority of individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) respond to initial chemotherapy and achieve a complete remission, yet only a minority experience long-term survival because a large proportion of patients eventually relapse with therapy-resistant disease. Relapse therefore represents a central problem in the treatment of AML. Despite this, and in contrast to the extensive knowledge about the molecular events underlying the process of leukemogenesis, information about the mechanisms leading to therapy resistance and relapse is still limited...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219375/state-of-the-art-in-anti-cancer-mabs
#14
REVIEW
S M Chiavenna, J P Jaworski, A Vendrell
Following Milstein's discovery, the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) became a basic tool for biomedical science. In cancer field, since the first mAb was approved by the FDA a great improvement took place making of them a therapeutic option for many cancer types in the current clinical practice. Today, mAbs are being developed to target different molecules with different mechanisms of action and its target potential is unlimited. However, this huge and fast growing new field needs to be organized to better understand the treatment options we have to confront different cancer diseases...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218916/hippocampal-awake-replay-in-fear-memory-retrieval
#15
Chun-Ting Wu, Daniel Haggerty, Caleb Kemere, Daoyun Ji
Hippocampal place cells are key to episodic memories. How these cells participate in memory retrieval remains unclear. After rats acquired a fear memory by receiving mild footshocks in a shock zone on a track, we analyzed place cells when the animals were placed on the track again and displayed an apparent memory retrieval behavior: avoidance of the shock zone. We found that place cells representing the shock zone were reactivated, despite the fact that the animals did not enter the shock zone. This reactivation occurred in ripple-associated awake replay of place cell sequences encoding the paths from the animal's current positions to the shock zone but not in place cell sequences within individual cycles of theta oscillation...
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218709/pet-imaging-for-initial-staging-and-therapy-assessment-in-multiple-myeloma-patients
#16
REVIEW
Clément Bailly, Rodolphe Leforestier, Bastien Jamet, Thomas Carlier, Mickael Bourgeois, François Guérard, Cyrille Touzeau, Philippe Moreau, Michel Chérel, Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré, Caroline Bodet-Milin
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological neoplasm characterized by the clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. MM results in diffuse or focal bone infiltration and extramedullary lesions. Over the past two decades, advances have been made with regard to the diagnosis, staging, treatment, and imaging of MM. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently recommended as the most effective imaging modalities at diagnostic. Yet, recent data from the literature suggest that positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) using (18)F-deoxyglucose (FDG) is a promising technique for initial staging and therapeutic monitoring in this pathology...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218283/place-cells-are-more-strongly-tied-to-landmarks-in-deep-than-in-superficial-ca1
#17
Tristan Geiller, Mohammad Fattahi, June-Seek Choi, Sébastien Royer
Environmental cues affect place cells responses, but whether this information is integrated versus segregated in distinct hippocampal cell populations is unclear. Here, we show that, in mice running on a treadmill enriched with visual-tactile landmarks, place cells are more strongly controlled by landmark-associated sensory inputs in deeper regions of CA1 pyramidal layer (CA1d). Many cells in CA1d display several firing fields correlated with landmarks, mapping positions slightly before or within the landmarks...
February 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217822/how-to-diagnose-early-5-azacytidine-induced-pneumonitis-a-case-report
#18
Srimanta Chandra Misra, Laurence Gabriel, Eric Nacoulma, Gérard Dine, Valentina Guarino
Interstitial pneumonitis is a classical complication of many drugs. Pulmonary toxicity due to 5-azacytidine, a deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase inhibitor and cytotoxic drug, has rarely been reported. We report a 67-year-old female myelodysplastic syndrome patient treated with 5-azacytidine at the conventional dosage of 75 mg/m(2) for 7 days. One week after starting she developed moderate fever along with dry cough and subsequently her temperature rose to 39.5 °C. She was placed under broad-spectrum antibiotics based on the protocol for febrile neutropenia, including ciprofloxacin 750 mg twice daily, ceftazidime 1 g three times daily (tid), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 400 mg/80 mg tid...
December 2017: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216727/high-altitude-dermatology
#19
Lt Col G K Singh
Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs) and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA) every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216584/effects-of-postnatal-enriched-environment-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-adult-rats
#20
Adel Jungling, Dora Reglodi, Zsofia Nozomi Karadi, Gabor Horvath, Jozsef Farkas, Balazs Gaszner, Andrea Tamas
Environmental enrichment is a widespread neuroprotective strategy during development and also in the mature nervous system. Several research groups have described that enriched environment in adult rats has an impact on the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of our present study was to examine the effects of early, postnatal environmental enrichment after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) lesion of the substantia nigra in adulthood. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into control and enriched groups according to their environmental conditions...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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