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Gird cells

Andrey L Shilnikov, Andrew Porter Maurer
The discovery of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex has both elucidated our understanding of spatial representations in the brain, and germinated a large number of theoretical models regarding the mechanisms of these cells' striking spatial firing characteristics. These models cross multiple neurobiological levels that include intrinsic membrane resonance, dendritic integration, after hyperpolarization characteristics and attractor dynamics. Despite the breadth of the models, to our knowledge, parallels can be drawn between grid fields and other temporal dynamics observed in nature, much of which was described by Art Winfree and colleagues long before the initial description of grid fields...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Zegabriel Tedla, Minh-Ly Nguyen, Thabisa Sibanda, Samba Nyirenda, Tefera B Agizew, Sonali Girde, Charles E Rose, Taraz Samandari
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends 36 months of isoniazid preventive therapy (36IPT) for adults infected with HIV living in TB-endemic countries. We determined the rates and risk factors for isoniazid-associated hepatitis with the use of 36IPT. METHODS: One thousand six adults infected with HIV received 36IPT during a pragmatic randomized trial set in Botswana public health clinics providing HIV care. Enrollment exclusion criteria included jaundice or elevations of serum transaminases (ESTs) > 2...
May 2015: Chest
Timothy D Minniear, Sonali Girde, Frank Angira, Lisa A Mills, Clement Zeh, Philip J Peters, Rose Masaba, Richard Lando, Timothy K Thomas, Allan W Taylor
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) amended their 2010 guidelines for women receiving limited duration, triple-antiretroviral drug regimens during pregnancy and breastfeeding for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (tARV-PMTCT) (Option B) to include the option to continue lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (Option B+). We evaluated clinical and CD4 outcomes in women who had received antiretrovirals for prevention of mother-to-child transmission and then discontinued antiretrovirals 6-months postpartum...
2014: PloS One
A Danielle Iuliano, Paul J Weidle, John T Brooks, Rose Masaba, Sonali Girde, Richard Ndivo, Paul Ogindo, Paul Omolo, Clement Zeh, Timothy K Thomas
BACKGROUND: Absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) are lower in East African adults. To assess the impact of lower ANCs, we reviewed data from HIV-infected Kenyan women receiving antiretroviral therapy antepartum and postpartum. METHODS: The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS) participants received an antiretroviral regimen from 34 weeks' gestation through 6 months postpartum. Measured ANCs and subsequent illnesses were reviewed. Adverse events (AEs) potentially attributable to neutropenia were identified, and ANCs were graded using the 2004 Division of AIDS table for Grading the Severity of AEs...
May 2015: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
J Richard McIntosh, Eileen O'Toole, Kirill Zhudenkov, Mary Morphew, Cindi Schwartz, Fazly I Ataullakhanov, Ekaterina L Grishchuk
Interfaces between spindle microtubules and kinetochores were examined in diverse species by electron tomography and image analysis. Overall structures were conserved in a mammal, an alga, a nematode, and two kinds of yeasts; all lacked dense outer plates, and most kinetochore microtubule ends flared into curved protofilaments that were connected to chromatin by slender fibrils. Analyses of curvature on >8,500 protofilaments showed that all classes of spindle microtubules displayed some flaring protofilaments, including those growing in the anaphase interzone...
February 18, 2013: Journal of Cell Biology
Chang Ho Seo, Heonuk Jeong, Katsuko S Furukawa, Yuji Suzuki, Takashi Ushida
Securing robust cell adhesion between cells and biomaterials is one of key considerations for tissue engineering. However, the cell adhesion investigation by the biophysical effects such as topography or rigidity of substrates has only been recently reported. In this study, we examined the spatial property of focal adhesions by changing the height of micropatterns in two kinds of microtopography (grid and post) and the stiffness of the substrates. We found that the focal adhesion localization is highly regulated by topographical variation (height) of gird micropattens but not the rigidity of substrates or the function of actin cytoskeleton, although the latters strongly influence the focal adhesion size or area...
February 2013: Biomaterials
Zifeng Yang, Yutao Wang, Shan Zhong, Suishan Zhao, Xiangteng Zeng, Ziyao Mo, Sheng Qin, Wenda Guan, Chuyuan Li, Nanshan Zhong
Isatis indigotica root (IIR) has been widely used as a Chinese medicinal herb to treat regular seasonal influenza over the long history of traditional Chinese medicinal practice. However, its inhibitory activities against influenza virus infections along with the associated mechanisms have not been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the chemical nature, mode of action and in vitro anti-influenza activities of a crude extract (G2) of IIR were characterized. The extract was found to inhibit different subtypes of human or avian influenza viruses at various magnitudes of activity (IC50 0...
March 2012: Molecular Medicine Reports
Theoharis C Theoharides, Nikolaos Sismanopoulos, Danae-Anastasia Delivanis, Bodi Zhang, Erifili E Hatziagelaki, Dimitrios Kalogeromitros
Mast cells are crucial for the development of allergic and anaphylactic reactions, but they are also involved in acquired and innate immunity. Increasing evidence now implicates mast cells in inflammatory diseases through activation by non-allergic triggers such as neuropeptides and cytokines. This review discusses how mast cells contribute to the inflammatory processes associated with coronary artery disease and obesity. Animal models indicate that mast cells, through the secretion of various vasoactive mediators, cytokines and proteinases, contribute to coronary plaque progression and destabilization, as well as to diet-induced obesity and diabetes...
September 2011: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Hongyan Zhang, Xiyu Liu
DNA computing has been applied in broad fields such as graph theory, finite state problems, and combinatorial problem. DNA computing approaches are more suitable used to solve many combinatorial problems because of the vast parallelism and high-density storage. The CLIQUE algorithm is one of the gird-based clustering techniques for spatial data. It is the combinatorial problem of the density cells. Therefore we utilize DNA computing using the closed-circle DNA sequences to execute the CLIQUE algorithm for the two-dimensional data...
July 2011: Bio Systems
Liang Weng, Atsushi Enomoto, Maki Ishida-Takagishi, Naoya Asai, Masahide Takahashi
Cell migration is a fundamental aspect of a multitude of physiological and pathological processes, including embryonic development, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer progression. A variety of proteins are essential for cell migration, but context-specific signaling pathways and promigratory proteins must now be identified for our understanding of cancer biology to continue to advance. In this review, we focus on the emerging roles of Girdin (also designated KIAA1212, APE, GIV, and HkRP1), a novel component of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling pathway that is a core-signaling transduction pathway in cancer progression...
April 2010: Cancer Science
David M Glover, Luisa Capalbo, Pier Paolo D'Avino, Melanie K Gatt, Matthew S Savoian, Tetsuya Takeda
Microtubules maintain an intimate relationship with the rings of anillin, septins and actomyosin filaments throughout cytokinesis. In Drosophila, peripheral microtubules emanating from the spindle poles contact the equatorial cell cortex to deliver the signal that initiates formation of the cytokinetic furrow. Mutations that affect microtubule stability lead to ectopic furrowing because peripheral microtubules contact inappropriate cortical sites. The PAV-KLP (Pavarotti-kinesin-like protein)/RacGAP50C (where GAP is GTPase-activating protein) centralspindlin complex moves towards the plus ends of microtubules to reach the cell equator...
June 2008: Biochemical Society Transactions
Daniel P Sulmasy
Every ethos implies a mythos. That is, every ethical system depends upon some fundamental story disclosing its assumptions about human nature, freedom, good and evil, and the workings of the universe. A romanticized version of the myth of Prometheus, who stole fire from the gods and was punished by being chained to a rock and having his liver plucked out by vultures, seems to under-gird much of contemporary healthcare. Christianity offers a different view--one in which the universe is not a zero sum game and human beings do not need to steal fire because God has already freely given them all the fire they need in Christ and in his spirit...
December 2006: Southern Medical Journal
Pengwei Xu, Duo Zhao
In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph...
June 2006: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Y Ogura, K Sato, T Kato, K Saito, K Enomoto
PURPOSE: We evaluated expression of angiogenic factors, tumor vessel density and recurrence in superficial bladder cancer by immunohistochemistry. METHODS: Fourty tumor specimens from bladder preserving operation and 11 normal epithelia were stained for factor VIII-related antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF). Maximum vessel density (MVD) was counted in a 200x field in the highest vascularized area stained for factor VIII...
May 1998: Nihon Hinyƍkika Gakkai Zasshi. the Japanese Journal of Urology
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