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Optical nerve contrast agent

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768755/in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-visual-pathway-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-by-diffusion-tensor-mri-and-contrast-enhanced-mri
#1
Swarupa Kancherla, William J Kohler, Yolandi van der Merwe, Kevin C Chan
Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544758/glaucoma-the-retina-and-beyond
#2
REVIEW
Benjamin Michael Davis, Laura Crawley, Milena Pahlitzsch, Fatimah Javaid, Maria Francesca Cordeiro
Over 60 million people worldwide are diagnosed with glaucomatous optic neuropathy, which is estimated to be responsible for 8.4 million cases of irreversible blindness globally. Glaucoma is associated with characteristic damage to the optic nerve and patterns of visual field loss which principally involves the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). At present, intraocular pressure (IOP) presents the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma, although RGC and vision loss can continue in patients despite well-controlled IOP...
December 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409511/appearance-of-the-retina-with-full-field-optical-coherence-tomography
#3
Kate Grieve, Olivier Thouvenin, Abhishek Sengupta, Vincent M Borderie, Michel Paques
PURPOSE: To interpret full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) images of ex vivo retina. METHODS: Flatmounted retinas of human, primate, pig, sheep, rat, and mouse were imaged using FFOCT. To identify retinal ganglion and amacrine cells, fixed samples immunolabeled against Tuj1 and Brn3a or live samples labeled in vitro with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were analyzed by combining FFOCT, fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM), and fluorescence-FFOCT. To investigate postmortem tissue changes, time series were acquired over 48 hours and on fresh versus fixed tissue...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26553836/amiloride-clinical-trial-in-optic-neuritis-action-protocol-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Justin B McKee, John Elston, Nikos Evangelou, Stephen Gerry, Lars Fugger, Christopher Kennard, Yazhuo Kong, Jacqueline Palace, Matthew Craner
INTRODUCTION: Neurodegeneration is a widely accepted contributor to the development of long-term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). While current therapies in MS predominantly target inflammation and reduce relapse rate they have been less effective at preventing long-term disability. The identification and evaluation of effective neuroprotective therapies within a trial paradigm are key unmet needs. Emerging evidence supports amiloride, a licenced diuretic, as a neuroprotective agent in MS through acid sensing ion channel blockade...
November 9, 2015: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26493623/a-pilot-study-of-photoacoustic-imaging-system-for-improved-real-time-visualization-of-neurovascular-bundle-during-radical-prostatectomy
#5
Akio Horiguchi, Kazuhiro Tsujita, Kaku Irisawa, Tadashi Kasamatsu, Kazuhiro Hirota, Makoto Kawaguchi, Masayuki Shinchi, Keiichi Ito, Tomohiko Asano, Hiroshi Shinmoto, Hitoshi Tsuda, Miya Ishihara
BACKGROUND: Photoacoustic imaging, a noninvasive imaging based on optical excitation and ultrasonic detection, enables one to visualize the distribution of hemoglobin and acquire a map of microvessels without using contrast agents. We examined whether it helps visualize periprostatic microvessels and improves visualization of the neurovascular bundle. METHODS: We developed a photoacoustic imaging (PAI) system with a hand-held probe combining optical illumination and a conventional linear array ultrasound probe...
February 15, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25213269/transorbital-target-localization-with-augmented-ophthalmologic-surgical-endoscopy
#6
Michael P DeLisi, Louise A Mawn, Robert L Galloway
PURPOSE: Access to the space behind the eyeball is limited by the position of the globe anteriorly, the neurovascular structures embedded in fat posteriorly, and the tight bony confine of the orbit. These anatomical relationships have impeded application of minimally invasive procedures to the region, such as foreign body removal, tumor biopsy, or the administration of medical therapy directly to the optic nerve. An image-guided system was developed using a magnetically tracked flexible endoscope to navigate behind the eye, with the aim of enabling accurate transorbital surgery to user-specified target locations...
July 2015: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25133966/clinical-trials-to-clinical-use-using-vision-as-a-model-for-multiple-sclerosis-and-beyond
#7
REVIEW
Laura J Balcer
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has made possible the structure-function correlations that uniquely characterize the afferent visual pathway as a model for understanding multiple sclerosis (MS) and for developing new treatments. During the past decade, OCT measures of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (GCL + IPL) thickness have evolved from being a means to validate visual function tests, such as low-contrast letter acuity, to provide a window on the axonal and neuronal loss that are now widely recognized as contributors to permanent visual dysfunction in MS...
September 2014: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24806299/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-blockade-is-neuroprotective-in-experimental-autoimmune-optic-neuritis
#8
Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Richard Fairless, Sarah K Williams, Katrin Heine, Adolfo Cavalié, Ricarda Diem
Optic neuritis is a common clinical manifestation of the chronic inflammatory CNS disease multiple sclerosis that can result in persistent visual impairment caused by degeneration of optic nerve axons and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Using a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with optic neuritis (Brown Norway rats), we show that administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists memantine or MK801 results in RGC protection, axon protection, and reduced demyelination of optic nerves...
June 2014: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24343537/-encephalopathy-and-neuromyelitis-optica-the-importance-of-recognising-atypical-symptoms
#9
José V Hervás-García, Laia Grau-López, Sira Doménech-Puigcerver, Cristina Ramo-Tello
INTRODUCTION: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), or Devic's disease, is an autoimmune, inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which mainly and characteristically involves the optic nerve and the spinal cord. Anti-aquaporin-4 (AQ-4) antibodies are a specific biomarker of the entity and, since their discovery, both the number of symptoms and the radiological data about the disease have progressively increased, and the concept of clinical spectrum of NMO has been defined...
January 1, 2014: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24322797/second-harmonic-reflection-imaging-of-normal-and-accelerated-corneal-crosslinking-using-porcine-corneas-and-the-role-of-intraocular-pressure
#10
Rebecca McQuaid, Jiajun Li, Arthur Cummings, Michael Mrochen, Brian Vohnsen
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate morphological changes, using second-harmonic (SH) optical imaging, in the corneal stroma after normal- and high-intensity collagen crosslinking in postmortem enucleated porcine eyes at controlled intraocular pressures (IOPs). METHODS: Reflection-mode SH optical imaging of the stroma was realized after standard collagen cross-linking (CXL) and accelerated crosslinking (AXL) of porcine corneas, and the results were compared with the results for untreated controls...
February 2014: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24129676/regeneration-of-optic-nerve-fibers-with-unoprostone-a-prostaglandin-related-antiglaucoma-drug-in-adult-cats
#11
Hiroe Sagawa, Hiroko Terasaki, Keiko Nakanishi, Yoshihito Tokita, Masami Watanabe
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of unoprostone on neurite extension of cultured retinal pieces and axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells in the crushed optic nerve of adult cats. METHODS: The retinal pieces were cultured with unoprostone or its primary metabolite, M1, dissolved in DMSO or polysorbate for 14 days, and the number and length of Tau-1-positive neurites and glial processes labeled with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies were examined...
January 2014: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24039960/structure-activity-relationship-of-nerve-highlighting-fluorophores
#12
Summer L Gibbs, Yang Xie, Haley L Goodwill, Khaled A Nasr, Yoshitomo Ashitate, Victoria J Madigan, Tiberiu M Siclovan, Maria Zavodszky, Cristina A Tan Hehir, John V Frangioni
Nerve damage is a major morbidity associated with numerous surgical interventions. Yet, nerve visualization continues to challenge even the most experienced surgeons. A nerve-specific fluorescent contrast agent, especially one with near-infrared (NIR) absorption and emission, would be of immediate benefit to patients and surgeons. Currently, there are only three classes of small molecule organic fluorophores that penetrate the blood nerve barrier and bind to nerve tissue when administered systemically. Of these three classes, the distyrylbenzenes (DSBs) are particularly attractive for further study...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24010975/nonthermal-ablation-with-microbubble-enhanced-focused-ultrasound-close-to-the-optic-tract-without-affecting-nerve-function
#13
Nathan McDannold, Yong-Zhi Zhang, Chanikarn Power, Ferenc Jolesz, Natalia Vykhodtseva
OBJECT: Tumors at the skull base are challenging for both resection and radiosurgery given the presence of critical adjacent structures, such as cranial nerves, blood vessels, and brainstem. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided thermal ablation via laser or other methods has been evaluated as a minimally invasive alternative to these techniques in the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS) offers a noninvasive method of thermal ablation; however, skull heating limits currently available technology to ablation at regions distant from the skull bone...
November 2013: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23970029/functional-changes-after-treatment-of-optic-pathway-paediatric-low-grade-gliomas
#14
A Magli, R Forte, G Cinalli, F Esposito, S Parisi, M Capasso, A Papparella
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional changes after treatment of paediatric optic pathway gliomas (OPGs). METHODS: All patients with monofocal OPG seen from January 2004 to January 2011 were included. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, LogMAR), contrast sensitivity (Hiding-Heidi low-contrast 'face' test (HH) and Pelli-Robson (PR) contrast sensitivity test), and the Color Test (Ishihara plate) were obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (10 boys and 11 girls with a mean age of 5...
November 2013: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23821187/imaging-the-intact-mouse-cornea-using-coherent-anti-stokes-raman-scattering-cars
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
David A Ammar, Tim C Lei, Malik Y Kahook, Omid Masihzadeh
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to image the cellular and noncellular structures of the cornea and limbus in an intact mouse eye using the vibrational oscillation of the carbon-hydrogen bond in lipid membranes and autofluorescence as label-free contrast agents. METHODS: Freshly enucleated mouse eyes were imaged using two nonlinear optical techniques: coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and two-photon autofluorescence (TPAF). Sequential images were collected through the full thickness of the cornea and limbal regions...
August 2013: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23805828/brimonidine-protects-against-loss-of-thy-1-promoter-activation-following-optic-nerve-crush
#16
Yi Dai, James D Lindsey, Karen X Duong-Polk, Panida Chindasub, Christopher Kai-Shun Leung, Robert N Weinreb
BACKGROUND: The loss of RGCs expressing Thy-1 after optic nerve injury has an initial phase of rapid decline followed by a longer phase with slower reduction rate. This study used longitudinal retinal imaging of mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein under control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-CFP mice) to determine how the α2-adrenergic agonist brimonidine influences loss of Thy1 promoter activation. METHODS: Baseline images of the fluorescent retinal neurons in 30 Thy1-CFP mice were obtained using a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope...
2013: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23489699/mechanisms-of-ocular-neuroprotection-by-antioxidant-molecules-in-animal-models
#17
M Nebbioso, G Scarsella, M Tafani, N Pescosolido
This work was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment on retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and on astrocytes of the optic nerve of glaucomatous eyes, using a combination of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with a diet supplemented with ALA, SOD, ALA and SOD or with no product for 8 weeks. Ocular hypertension was induced with 2% methylcellulose (MTC) and then rats were sacrificed. TUNEL assay showed a marked fluorescence in the ganglion cells and astrocytes of MTC-treated rats evidencing induction of apoptosis...
January 2013: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23439596/role-of-nitric-oxide-in-optic-nerve-head-blood-flow-regulation-during-isometric-exercise-in-healthy-humans
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Doreen Schmidl, Agnes Boltz, Semira Kaya, Michael Lasta, Berthold Pemp, Gabriele Fuchsjager-Mayrl, Anton Hommer, Gerhard Garhofer, Leopold Schmetterer
PURPOSE: We determined whether administration of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor alters optic nerve head blood flow (ONHBF) regulation during isometric exercise in healthy subjects. METHODS: Our study was done in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, three-way crossover design. A total of 18 healthy subjects was randomized to receive either placebo, phenylephrine, or an inhibitor of NOS (L-NMMA) on three different study days. ONHBF was measured with laser Doppler flowmetry while the study participants performed isometric exercise (squatting)...
March 2013: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23404122/delta-opioid-agonist-snc-121-protects-retinal-ganglion-cell-function-in-a-chronic-ocular-hypertensive-rat-model
#19
Yasir Abdul, Naseem Akhter, Shahid Husain
PURPOSE: This study examined if the delta-opioid (δ-opioid) receptor agonist, SNC-121, can improve retinal function and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival during glaucomatous injury in a chronic ocular hypertensive rat model. METHODS: IOP was raised in brown Norway rats by injecting hypertonic saline into the limbal venous system. Rats were treated with 1 mg/kg SNC-121 (intraperitoneally [IP]) once daily for 7 days. Pattern-electroretinograms (PERGs) were obtained in response to contrast reversal of patterned visual stimuli...
March 2013: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23354018/functions-and-imaging-of-mast-cell-and-neural-axis-of-the-gut
#20
REVIEW
Michael Schemann, Michael Camilleri
Close association between nerves and mast cells in the gut wall provides the microanatomic basis for functional interactions between these elements, supporting the hypothesis that a mast cell-nerve axis influences gut functions in health and disease. Advanced morphology and imaging techniques are now available to assess structural and functional relationships of the mast cell-nerve axis in human gut tissues. Morphologic techniques including co-labeling of mast cells and nerves serve to evaluate changes in their densities and anatomic proximity...
April 2013: Gastroenterology
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