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MRI contrast agent

Sabine Franckenberg, Florian Berger, Sarah Schaerli, Garyfalia Ampanozi, Michael Thali
We present the rare case of a fatal anaphylactic reaction to gadobutrol, a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent, in a 42-year-old man. The patient underwent elective magnetic resonance imaging for diagnostic clarification of a suspicious finding in the abdomen. The patient had undergone contrast-enhanced computed tomography previously without the occurrence of any adverse effects. Adverse drug reactions in gadobutrol have a very low prevalence of 0.32%-3.5%, with serious adverse drug reactions in <0...
February 2018: Radiology case reports
Masato Anno, Nobuhiro Hara, Takashi Yamazaki
OBJECT: Numerous studies have demonstrated the imaging features to differentiate spinal meningioma and schwannoma. However, diagnosis can be controversial among clinicians. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a novel imaging finding of meningioma on CT-myelogram (CTM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Imaging findings of patients who underwent surgeries for spinal cord tumors between April 2005 to May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Our inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) intradural extramedullary tumor, 2) both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CTM were available...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Christopher G Roth, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Flavius F Guglielmo
MRI has transformed from the theoretical, investigative realm to mainstream clinical medicine over the past four decades and has become a core component of the diagnostic toolbox in the practice of gastroenterology (GI). Its success is attributable to exquisite contrast and the ability to isolate specific proton species through the use of different pulse sequences (i.e., T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted) and exploiting extracellular and hepatobiliary contrast agents. Consequently, MRI has gained preeminence in various GI clinical applications: liver and pancreatic lesion evaluation and detection, liver transplantation evaluation, pancreatitis evaluation, Crohn's disease evaluation (using MR enterography) rectal cancer staging and perianal fistula evaluation...
March 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Aubrey L Galusha, Pamela C Kruger, Lyn J Howard, Patrick J Parsons
Patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are exposed to potentially toxic elements, which may accumulate in bone. Bone samples collected from seven PN patients (average = 14 years) and eighteen hip/knee samples were analyzed for Al as part of a previous investigation. Yttrium was serendipitously detected in the PN bone samples, leading to the present investigation of rare earth elements (REEs). A method for quantitating fifteen REEs in digested bone was developed based on tandem ICP-MS (ICP-MS/MS) to resolve spectral interferences...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Alexander Fyrdahl, Roberto Vargas Paris, Sven Nyrén, Karen Holst, Martin Ugander, Peter Lindholm, Andreas Sigfridsson
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of an improved motion and flow robust methodology for imaging the pulmonary vasculature using non-contrast-enhanced, free-breathing, golden-angle radial MRI. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (n = 10, age 46 ± 11 years, 50% female) and patients (n = 2, ages 27 and 84, both female) were imaged at 1.5 T using a Cartesian and golden-angle radial 2D balanced SSFP pulse sequence. The acquisitions were made under free breathing without contrast agent enhancement...
March 14, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Benjamin J Zimmerman, Austin T Mudd, Joanne E Fil, Ryan N Dilger, Bradley P Sutton
Accurate quantitative non-invasive assessments of arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) can greatly benefit the study of cerebral vascular health in both humans and in animal models. In recent years, progress has been made in the techniques available to quantify CBV with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we compared a non-invasive technique, measuring inflowing vascular space occupancy with dynamic subtraction (iVASO-ds) with a contrast-based vascular space occupancy measurement in piglets. In addition, we measured how the iVASO-ds derived aCBV changed with piglet development from 4 weeks to 8 weeks...
March 11, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Julian A Rees, Gauthier J-P Deblonde, Dahlia D An, Camille Ansoborlo, Stacey S Gauny, Rebecca J Abergel
Several MRI contrast agent clinical formulations are now known to leave deposits of the heavy metal gadolinium in the brain, bones, and other organs of patients. This persistent biological accumulation of gadolinium has been recently recognized as a deleterious outcome in patients administered Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) for MRI, prompting the European Medicines Agency to recommend discontinuing the use of over half of the GBCAs currently approved for clinical applications. To address this problem, we find that the orally-available metal decorporation agent 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) demonstrates superior efficacy at chelating and removing Gd from the body compared to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, a ligand commonly used in the United States in the GBCA Gadopentetate (Magnevist)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Okihiro Onishi, Kazuya Ikoma, Masamitsu Kido, Yukichi Kabuto, Keiichiro Ueshima, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Masaki Tanaka, Toshikazu Kubo
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage degeneration has been evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, this method has several problems, including its time-consuming nature and the requirement of a high magnetic field or specialized hardware. The purpose of this study was to sequentially assess early degenerative changes in rabbit knee articular cartilage using MRI with a new double-contrast agent. METHODS: We induced osteoarthritis (OA) in the right knee of rabbits by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy...
March 13, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Trisha L Roy, Thomas L Forbes, Andrew D Dueck, Graham A Wright
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advanced significantly in the past decade and provides a safe and non-invasive method of evaluating peripheral artery disease (PAD), with and without using exogenous contrast agents. MRI offers a promising alternative for imaging patients but the complexity of MRI can make it less accessible for physicians to understand or use. This article provides a brief introduction to the technical principles of MRI for physicians who manage PAD patients. We discuss the basic principles of how MRI works and tailor the discussion to how MRI can evaluate anatomic characteristics of peripheral arterial lesions...
March 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Rita Sofia Garcia Ribeiro, Ashwini Ketkar-Atre, Ting Yin, Karim Louchami, Tom Struys, Ivo Lambrichts, Abdullah Sener, Willy Jean Malaisse, Marcel De Cuyper, Uwe Himmelreich
Pancreatic islets (PIs) transplantation is an alternative approach for the treatment of severe forms of type 1 diabetes (T1D). To monitor the success of transplantation, it is desirable to follow the location of engrafted PIs non-invasively. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of transplanted PIs is a feasible cell tracking method; however, this requires labeling with a suitable contrast agent prior to transplantation. We have tested the feasibility of cationic magnetoliposomes (MLs), compared to commercial contrast agents (Endorem and Resovist), by labeling insulinoma cells and freshly isolated rat PIs...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
Ryan T Fitzgerald, Vikas Agarwal, Jenny K Hoang, Frank Gaillard, Andrew Dixon, Emanuel Kanal
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Brain deposition of gadolinium following the administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) was initially reported in 2014. Gadolinium deposition is now recognized as a dose-dependent consequence of exposure. The potential clinical implications are not yet understood. The purpose of this study was to determine radiologists' reporting practices in response to gadolinium deposition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic survey querying radiologists' practices regarding gadolinium deposition was distributed by Radiopaedia...
February 7, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
F H Wang, K Bae, Z W Huang, J M Xue
For obtaining high-resolution macroscopical anatomical information and high sensitivity microscopical optical signals, it is highly desirable to develop dual-modality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescent probes in medical imaging simultaneously. In this study, Gd2 O3 nanoparticles were modified with two-photon graphene quantum dots (GQD), integrating a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent with two-photon imaging functionality into one nanoprobe. A photoluminescence study indicated that the GQD modification process integrated MRI properties with both one-photon and two-photon imaging properties...
March 12, 2018: Nanoscale
Zhao Xiaoxiong, Wang Junmei, Song Yujun, Xinhua Chen
A new methodology has been developed with conjugating nanoparticles (NPs) with an active ingredient of Chinese herbs for nanomedicines with auto-targeting and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for liver cancer therapy. Fe@Fe3 O4 NPs are first synthesized via the programmed microfluidic process, whose surfaces are first modified with -NH2 groups using a silane coupling technique that uses (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS) as the coupling reagent and are subsequently activated by the bifunctional amine-active cross-linker (e...
March 12, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Richard Pullicino, Mark Radon, Shubhabrata Biswas, Maneesh Bhojak, Kumar Das
Over the past 3 years, gadolinium-based contrast agents have been linked to MRI signal changes in the brain, which have been found to be secondary to gadolinium deposition in the brain, particularly in the dentate nuclei and globus pallidus even in patients having an intact blood-brain barrier and a normal renal function. This tends to occur more in linear agents than with macrocyclic agents. Nonetheless, there has been no significant evidence that this has any clinical consequence. We reviewed the current evidence related to this new phenomenon and the precautionary approach taken by regulatory agencies...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
Shuang-Lin Deng, Yun-Qian Li, Gang Zhao
Objective: Gliomas are the most common neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS); however, traditional imaging techniques do not show the boundaries of tumors well. Some researchers have found a new therapeutic mode to combine nanoparticles, which are nanosized particles with various properties for specific therapeutic purposes, and stem cells for tracing gliomas. This review provides an introduction of the basic understanding and clinical applications of the combination of stem cells and nanoparticles as a contrast agent for glioma imaging...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Tamas Kiss, Eva A Enyedy, Tamas Jakusch, Orsolya Domotor
Biospeciation of essential and toxic metal ions, metal complexes with biological or medicinal activity are discussed in the paper in order to emphasize the importance of the distribution of metal ions in biological milieu. The exact knowledge of the chemical species present in the different organs/compartments/fluids/cells may provide essential information about the pharmacokinetic properties and the biological effect of the metal ion or the drug candidate metal complex. The transport of essential and toxic metal ions in the blood serum is discussed first, which is followed by the description of biodistribution of several important metal complexes with medicinal interest such as (i) anticancer, (ii) insulin-enhancing and (iii) MRI contrast agents in biological fluids...
March 6, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Saumya S Gurbani, Eduard Schreibmann, Andrew A Maudsley, James Scott Cordova, Brian J Soher, Harish Poptani, Gaurav Verma, Peter B Barker, Hyunsuk Shim, Lee A D Cooper
PURPOSE: Proton MRSI is a noninvasive modality capable of generating volumetric maps of in vivo tissue metabolism without the need for ionizing radiation or injected contrast agent. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging has been shown to be a viable imaging modality for studying several neuropathologies. However, a key hurdle in the routine clinical adoption of MRSI is the presence of spectral artifacts that can arise from a number of sources, possibly leading to false information...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Giuseppe Ferrauto, Enza Di Gregorio, Daniela Delli Castelli, Silvio Aime
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging has been used extensively to track in vivo implanted cells that have been previously labeled with relaxation enhancers. However, this approach is not suitable to track multiple cell populations, as it may lead to confounding results in case the contrast agent is released from the labeled cells. This paper demonstrates how the use of CEST agents can overcome these issues. After encapsulating paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, we may shift the absorption frequency of the intracellular water resonance (δIn ), thus generating frequency-encoding CEST responsive cells that can be visualized in the MR image by applying the proper RF irradiation...
March 7, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Sarah Keller, Annette Aigner, Roman Zenouzi, Anne C Kim, Arnoud Meijer, Sören A Weidemann, Till Krech, Ansgar W Lohse, Gerhard Adam, Christoph Schramm, Jin Yamamura
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters T2 signal, contrast enhancement (CE), and relative liver enhancement (RLE) of extracellular gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA)-enhanced MRI as a marker for hepatic fibrosis and inflammation in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). METHODS: 3.0-Tesla MRI scans and liver biopsies of 40 patients (41.2 ± 17.1 years) were retrospectively reviewed. Biopsies were obtained within a mean time of 54 ± 55 days to MRI scans and specimens were categorized according to Ishak modified hepatic activity index (mHAI) and Scheuer staging of fibrosis...
2018: PloS One
Masood Banaie, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid-Reza Saligheh-Rad, Masoumeh Gity
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality among women if not treated in early stages. Previous works developed non-invasive diagnosis methods using imaging data, focusing on specific sets of features that can be called spatial features or temporal features. However, limited set of features carry limited information, requiring complex classification methods to diagnose the disease. For non-invasive diagnosis, different imaging modalities can be used. DCE-MRI is one of the best imaging techniques that provides temporal information about the kinetics of the contrast agent in suspicious lesions along with acceptable spatial resolution...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
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