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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913981/the-challenges-of-anaesthesia-and-pain-relief-in-hip-fracture-care
#1
Rachel Cowan, Jun Hao Lim, Terence Ong, Ashok Kumar, Opinder Sahota
The care of the older person with hip fracture is complicated by their comorbid condition, limited physiological reserve, cognitive impairment and frailty. Two aspects of hip fracture management that have received considerable attention are how best to manage the pain associated with it and the ideal mode of anaesthesia. Existing literature has reported on the suboptimal treatment of pain in this orthogeriatric cohort. With recent advancements in medical care, a number of options have emerged as alternatives to conservative systemic analgesia...
December 3, 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911744/dysregulation-of-mrna-localization-and-translation-in-genetic-disease
#2
Eric T Wang, J Matthew Taliaferro, Ji-Ann Lee, Indulekha P Sudhakaran, Wilfried Rossoll, Christina Gross, Kathryn R Moss, Gary J Bassell
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) acting at various steps in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression play crucial roles in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Genetic mutations affecting several RBPs and associated factors lead to diverse neurological symptoms, as characterized by neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases, and can often be multisystemic diseases. We will highlight the physiological roles of a few specific proteins in molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic mRNA regulation, and how these processes are dysregulated in genetic disease...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911401/an-optimized-protocol-to-analyze-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-respiration-in-lymphocytes
#3
Javier Traba, Pietro Miozzo, Billur Akkaya, Susan K Pierce, Munir Akkaya
Lymphocytes respond to a variety of stimuli by activating intracellular signaling pathways, which in turn leads to rapid cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation, and cytokine production. All of these events are tightly linked to the energy status of the cell, and therefore studying the energy-producing pathways may give clues about the overall functionality of these cells. The extracellular flux analyzer is a commonly used device for evaluating the performance of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in many cell types...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909987/orexin-ox2-receptor-antagonists-as-sleep-aids
#4
Laura H Jacobson, Sui Chen, Sanjida Mir, Daniel Hoyer
The discovery of the orexin system represents the single major progress in the sleep field of the last three to four decades. The two orexin peptides and their two receptors play a major role in arousal and sleep/wake cycles. Defects in the orexin system lead to narcolepsy with cataplexy in humans and dogs and can be experimentally reproduced in rodents. At least six orexin receptor antagonists have reached Phase II or Phase III clinical trials in insomnia, five of which are dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) that target both OX1 and OX2 receptors (OX2Rs)...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908492/fragility-fractures-of-the-ankle-in-the-elderly-open-reduction-and-internal-fixation-versus-tibio-talo-calcaneal-nailing-short-term-results-of-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#5
D Georgiannos, V Lampridis, I Bisbinas
INTRODUCTION: The management of ankle fractures in the elderly remains unpredictable, secondary to their various co-morbidities. Although tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) nailing has been an effective option for ankle arthrodesis due to ankle arthritis or Charcot arthropathy there are few reports regarding the use of TTC nail for the treatment of ankle fractures. PURPOSE: Aim of this study was to compare the results of ORIF versus TTC nailing for the treatment of unstable ankle fractures in the elderly...
November 17, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908253/assessment-of-bone-quality-in-osteoporosis-treatment-with-bone-anabolic-agents-really-something-new
#6
Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Renata Caudarella, Marzia Camisasca, Daniela Maria Cabrini, Ilaria Merli, Carmelo Messina, Luca Petruccio Piodi
Osteoporosis is a chronic pathologic condition, particularly of the elderly, in which a reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) weakens bone, leading to the so-called fragility fractures, most often of spine and femur. The gold standard exam for the quantitative measurement of BMD is the dual X-ray photon absorptiometry (DXA), a radiological method. However, a relevant number of fragility fractures occurs in the range of normal BMD values, meaning that also qualitative aspects of bone play a role, namely bone architecture and bone geometry...
December 1, 2016: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907023/field-trials-reveal-ecotype-specific-responses-to-mycorrhizal-inoculation-in-rice
#7
Abdala Gamby Diedhiou, Fatou Kine Mbaye, Daouda Mbodj, Mathieu Ndigue Faye, Sarah Pignoly, Ibrahima Ndoye, Koffi Djaman, Souleymane Gaye, Aboubacry Kane, Laurent Laplaze, Baboucarr Manneh, Antony Champion
The overuse of agricultural chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticides aimed at increasing crop yield results in environmental damage, particularly in the Sahelian zone where soils are fragile. Crop inoculation with beneficial soil microbes appears as a good alternative for reducing agricultural chemical needs, especially for small farmers. This, however, requires selecting optimal combinations of crop varieties and beneficial microbes tested in field conditions. In this study, we investigated the response of rice plants to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) under screenhouse and field conditions in two consecutive seasons in Senegal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906113/dystrophin-restoration-therapy-improves-both-the-reduced-excitability-and-the-force-drop-induced-by-lengthening-contractions-in-dystrophic-mdx-skeletal-muscle
#8
Pauline Roy, Fredérique Rau, Julien Ochala, Julien Messéant, Bodvael Fraysse, Jeanne Lainé, Onnik Agbulut, Gillian Butler-Browne, Denis Furling, Arnaud Ferry
BACKGROUND: The greater susceptibility to contraction-induced skeletal muscle injury (fragility) is an important dystrophic feature and tool for testing preclinic dystrophin-based therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, how these therapies reduce the muscle fragility is not clear. METHODS: To address this question, we first determined the event(s) of the excitation-contraction cycle which is/are altered following lengthening (eccentric) contractions in the mdx muscle...
July 20, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906029/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904820/the-neurobiology-of-the-prader-willi-phenotype-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Zukhrofi Muzar, Reymundo Lozano, Alexander Kolevzon, Randi J Hagerman
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism, caused by a CGG expansion to greater than 200 repeats in the promoter region of FMR1 on the bottom of the X chromosome. A subgroup of individuals with FXS experience hyperphagia, lack of satiation after meals and severe obesity, this subgroup is referred to have the Prader-Willi phenotype of FXS. Prader-Willi syndrome is one of the most common genetic severe obesity disorders known and it is caused by the lack of the paternal 15q11-13 region...
November 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904753/skin-flap-complications-after-decompressive-craniectomy-and-cranioplasty-proposal-of-classification-and-treatment-options
#11
Alessandro Di Rienzo, Pier Paol Pangrazi, Michele Riccio, Roberto Colasanti, Ilaria Ghetti, Maurizio Iacoangeli
BACKGROUND: The list of complications reported after decompressive craniectomy (DC) and cranioplasty is progressively increasing. Nonetheless, the exact incidence of these events is still ill-defined. Problems affecting skin flaps after DC and cranioplasty have never been accurately analyzed in papers and their impact on patients' prognosis is largely underestimated. METHODS: In a 10-year time, we treated by DC 450 patients, 344 of whom underwent cranioplasty, either with autologous bone or artificial implants (hydroxyapatite, polyetheretherketone, titanium, polymethylmethacrylate)...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904025/early-raas-blockade-exerts-renoprotective-effects-in-autosomal-recessive-alport-syndrome
#12
Nao Uchida, Naonori Kumagai, Kandai Nozu, Xue Jun Fu, Kazumoto Iijima, Yoshiaki Kondo, Shigeo Kure
Alport syndrome is a progressive renal disease caused by mutations in COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 genes that encode collagen type IV alpha 3, alpha 4, and alpha 5 chains, respectively. Because of abnormal collagen chain, glomerular basement membrane becomes fragile and most of the patients progress to end-stage renal disease in early adulthood. COL4A5 mutation causes X-linked form of Alport syndrome, and two mutations in either COL4A3 or COL4A4 causes an autosomal recessive Alport syndrome. Recently, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade has been shown to attenuate effectively disease progression in Alport syndrome...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903656/yeast-hmo1-linker-histone-reinvented
#13
REVIEW
Arvind Panday, Anne Grove
Eukaryotic genomes are packaged in chromatin. The higher-order organization of nucleosome core particles is controlled by the association of the intervening linker DNA with either the linker histone H1 or high mobility group box (HMGB) proteins. While H1 is thought to stabilize the nucleosome by preventing DNA unwrapping, the DNA bending imposed by HMGB may propagate to the nucleosome to destabilize chromatin. For metazoan H1, chromatin compaction requires its lysine-rich C-terminal domain, a domain that is buried between globular domains in the previously characterized yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae linker histone Hho1p...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903339/-effect-of-goal-directed-haemodynamic-management-on-the-postoperative-outcome-in-elderly-patients-with-fragile-cardiac-function-undergoing-abdominal-surgery
#14
L S Zheng, E W Gu, X H Peng, L Zhang, Y Y Cao
Objective: To investigate the effect of goal-directed haemodynamic management based on stroke volume variation (SVV), cardiac index (CI) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) on the postoperative outcome in elderly patients with fragile cardiac function undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. Methods: Ninety patients with fragile cardiac function, aged 65-90 years old, ASAⅡ or Ⅲ, NYHA Ⅱor Ⅲ, scheduled for abdominal surgery were enrolled in this study.The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: Experience anesthesia group (group E, n=45) and goal-directed hemodynamic management group (G group, n=45)...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902989/plasma-levels-of-leptin-and-adiponectin-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#15
Małgorzata Zofia Lisik, Ewa Gutmajster, Aleksander L Sieroń
: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of familial mental retardation and one of the leading known causes of autism. The mutation responsible for FXS is a large expansion of the CGG repeats in the promoter region of the FMR1 gene, resulting in the transcriptional silencing of the gene. Leptin may be considered a cytokine-like hormone with pleiotropic actions since it may be involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and the immune system response, in addition to playing a role in development...
December 1, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900934/gender-relations-and-women-s-reproductive-health-in-south-sudan
#16
Sumit Kane, Matilda Rial, Anthony Matere, Marjolein Dieleman, Jacqueline E W Broerse, Maryse Kok
BACKGROUND: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. DESIGN: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900874/human-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-modeling-human-disorders-the-case-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#17
Dan Vershkov, Nissim Benvenisty
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) generated from affected blastocysts or from patient-derived somatic cells are an emerging platform for disease modeling and drug discovery. Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, was one of the first disorders modeled in both embryonic stem cells and induced PCSs and can serve as an exemplary case for the utilization of human PSCs in the study of human diseases. Over the past decade, FXS-PSCs have been used to address the fundamental questions regarding the pathophysiology of FXS...
November 30, 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900609/dry-age-related-macular-degeneration-pharmacology
#18
Charles B Wright, Jayakrishna Ambati
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common form of irreversible blindness in the industrially developed world, can present years before a patient begins to lose vision. For most of these patients, AMD never progresses past its early stages to the advanced forms that are principally responsible for the vast majority of vision loss. Advanced AMD can manifest as either an advanced avascular form known as geographic atrophy (GA) marked by regional retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell death or as an advanced form known as neovascular AMD marked by the intrusion of fragile new blood vessels into the normally avascular retina...
November 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900532/mir-148a-the-epigenetic-regulator-of-bone-homeostasis-is-increased-in-plasma-of-osteoporotic-postmenopausal-women
#19
Ajda Bedene, Simona Mencej Bedrač, Lea Ješe, Janja Marc, Peter Vrtačnik, Janez Preželj, Tomaž Kocjan, Tilen Kranjc, Barbara Ostanek
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a prevalent skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mineral density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in bone fragility and low-trauma fractures. Imaging techniques are routinely used to detect low bone mass; however, they are unable to identify deterioration of bone quality. Recently, microRNAs have emerged as regulators of bone remodelling and potentially also as a new class of sensitive biomarkers of bone health to aid in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of osteoporosis...
November 29, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898837/global-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-differences-in-gene-expression-patterns-between-nonhyperhydric-and-hyperhydric-peach-leaves
#20
Yakup Bakir, Vahap Eldem, Gokmen Zararsiz, Turgay Unver
Hyperhydricity is a morphophysiological disorder of plants in tissue culture characterized morphologically by the presence of translucent, thick, curled, and fragile leaves as a result of excessive water intake. Since clonal propagation is a major in vitro technique for multiplying plants vegetatively, the emergence of hyperhydricity-related symptoms causes significant economic losses to agriculture and horticulture. Although numerous efforts have been hitherto devoted to the morphological and anatomical responses of plants to hyperhydricity, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown...
July 2016: Plant Genome
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