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Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
P Rozenberg
Macrosomic fetuses are at increased risk of obstetric complications, and notably shoulder dystocia, responsible for a severe neonatal morbidity. In case of fetal macrosomia, three options are: (i) the elective cesarean delivery, but this is recommended only when the estimated fetal weight is≥4500g for diabetic women and 5000g for non-diabetic women; (ii) the expectative management, but children with birth weight≥4500 had significantly increased risk of perinatal mortality, neonatal asphyxia, trauma, and cesarean delivery; (iii) the induction of labor which, reducing the possibility of fetal growth, reduce the risk of cesarean delivery for cephalopelvic disproportion and shoulder dystocia...
October 19, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Sylvie Chokron, Gordon N Dutton
Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) has become the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in children in industrialized countries. Its prevalence has increased sharply, due to increased survival rates of children who sustain severe neurological conditions during the perinatal period. Improved diagnosis has probably contributed to this increase. As in adults, the nature and severity of CVI in children relate to the cause, location and extent of damage to the brain. In the present paper, we define CVI and how this impacts on visual function...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kathryn J Sharma, Tania F Esakoff, Alyson Guillet, Richard M Burwick, Aaron B Caughey
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adverse outcomes were more common in late preterm pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and growth restriction compared to those affected by preeclampsia alone. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 8,927 singleton pregnancies with preeclampsia. Pregnancies with small for gestational age (SGA) neonates (birthweight <10(th) percentile) were compared to those appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates. Maternal outcomes included cesarean delivery (CD) rate, CD for fetal heart rate (FHR) abnormalities, abruption, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), maternal transfusion, acute renal failure, and peripartum cardiomyopathy...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Dan-Dan Wu, Xing-Heng Wu, Li-Na Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of leptin on the expression of calcium-activated neutral protease 1 (calpain-1) and B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and apoptosis in the myocardial tissue of neonatal rats after asphyxia. METHODS: A total of 48 neonatal rats were randomly and equally divided into normal control group, asphyxia group, leptin treatment groups, and calpain-1 inhibitor (CAI-1) group. The neonatal rat model of asphyxia under normal atmospheric condition was established in all groups except the control group...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Jian-Qiang Tan, Da-Yu Chen, Zhe-Tao Li, Ji-Wei Huang, Ti-Zhen Yan, Ren Cai
Medium- and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is a disorder of fatty acid β-oxidation. Gene mutation prevents medium- and short-chain fatty acids from entry into mitochondria for oxidation, which leads to multiple organ dysfunction. In this study, serum acylcarnitines and the organic acid profile in urea were analyzed in two children whose clinical symptoms were hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. Moreover, gene mutations in the two children and their parents were evaluated. One of the patients was a 3-day-old male who was admitted to the hospital due to neonatal asphyxia, sucking weakness, and sleepiness...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Guang-Fu Chen, Hui-Tao Li, Jin-Jie Huang, Zhang-Xing Wang, Yun Li, Chuan-Zhong Yang, Ben-Qing Wu, Wen-Lan Liu, Li-Hui Liu, Qi Kong, Rong-Tian Liu
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between the levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in serum and brain injury in preterm infants. METHODS: Three hundred and four preterm infants (gestational age: 28-34 weeks) born between October 2014 and September 2015 were enrolled in this study. Brain injury was diagnosed using cerebral ultrasound and MRI. The levels of EPO, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in serum were detected using ELISA...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Zhangmin Tan, Yuzhu Yin, Jin Zhou, Lingling Wu, Chengfang Xu, Hongying Hou
This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anna Coluccia, Mario Gabbrielli, Giacomo Gualtieri, Fabio Ferretti, Andrea Pozza, Andrea Fagiolini
DSM-5 distinguishes between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders. Paraphilias are defined as atypical, yet not necessarily disordered, sexual practices. Paraphilic disorders are instead diseases, which include distress, impairment in functioning, or entail risk of harm one's self or others. Hence, DSM-5 new approach to paraphilias demedicalizes and destigmatizes unusual sexual behaviors, provided they are not distressing or detrimental to self or others. Asphyxiophilia, a dangerous and potentially deadly form of sexual masochism involving sexual arousal by oxygen deprivation, are clearly described as disorders...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Serdar Sadık Duran, Sultan Kavuncuoğlu, Ferhat Sarı, Esin Yıldız Aldemir, Nazlı Kavçık, Ferhat Demir
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the perinatal mortality rate with 37 864 deliveries which occured in two different periods in a single center, to compare the components of perinatal mortality and affecting factors with the results of the study related with perinatal mortality which we conducted in 1999 and to emphasize the precautions directed to reduce mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All live births and stillbirths which occurred in Bakırköy Obstetrics and Pediatrics Training and Research Hospital between January 2007 and December 2007 were evaluated...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Jens Henrichs, Viki Verfaille, Laura Viester, Myrte Westerneng, Bert Molewijk, Arie Franx, Henriette van der Horst, Judith E Bosmans, Ank de Jonge, Petra Jellema
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a major risk factor for perinatal mortality and morbidity. Thus, there is a compelling need to introduce sensitive measures to detect IUGR fetuses. Routine third trimester ultrasonography is increasingly used to detect IUGR. However, we lack evidence for its clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and information on ethical considerations of additional third trimester ultrasonography. This nationwide stepped wedge cluster-randomized trial examines the (cost-)effectiveness of routine third trimester ultrasonography in reducing severe adverse perinatal outcome through subsequent protocolized management...
October 13, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Edward Araujo Júnior, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Ana Cristina Perez Zamarian, Júlio Elito Júnior, Gabriele Tonni
Fetal macrosomia is defined as birth weight >4000 g and is associated with several maternal and fetal complications such as maternal birth canal trauma, shoulder dystocia, and perinatal asphyxia. Early identification of risk factors could allow preventive measures to be taken to avoid adverse perinatal outcomes. Prenatal diagnosis is based on two-dimensional ultrasound formulae, but accuracy is low, particularly at advanced gestation. Three-dimensional ultrasound could be an alternative to soft tissue monitoring, allowing better prediction of birth weight than two-dimensional ultrasound...
September 15, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Torben Esser, Gerburg Keilhoff, Uwe Ebmeyer
OBJECTIVE: Our asphyxia cardiac arrest (ACA) rat model is well established. The original model was designed in the 1990(th) using halothane and nitrous oxide for pre-insult anesthesia. Because of its hepato-toxicity and its potential to induce severe liver failures, halothane is no longer used in clinical anesthesia for several years. In order to minimize the health risk for our laboratory staff as well as to keep the experimental settings of our model on a clinically oriented basis we decided to replace halothane by sevoflurane...
October 7, 2016: Brain Research
Leah Potts, Peter Buzzacott, Petar Denoble
INTRODUCTION: Cave divers enter an inherently dangerous environment that often includes little visibility, maze-like passageways and a ceiling of rock that prevents a direct ascent to the surface in the event of a problem. METHODS: Reports of cave diving fatality cases occurring between 01 July 1985 and 30 June 2015 collected by Divers Alert Network were reviewed. Training status, safety rules violated, relevancy of the violations, and root causes leading to death were determined...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Patrick C Donnelly, Rebecca M Sutich, Ryan Easton, Oluwatunmise A Adejumo, Todd A Lee, Latania K Logan
BACKGROUND: Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin with broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Despite its effectiveness, its use for the treatment of infections in neonatal patients has been limited because of concern about its potential toxicity. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to review the literature for an association between ceftriaxone and cardiopulmonary events, hyperbilirubinemia, and pseudolithiasis among neonates...
October 7, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Louise T Day, Daniel Hruschka, Felicity Mussell, Eva Jeffers, Stacy L Saha, Shafiul Alam
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that using uterotonics to augment or induce labor before arrival at comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CEmONC) settings (henceforth, "outside uterotonics") may contribute to perinatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We estimate its effect on perinatal mortality in rural Bangladesh. METHODS: Using hospital records (23986 singleton term births, Jan 1, 2009-Dec 31, 2015) from rural Bangladesh, we use a logistic regression model to estimate the increased risk of perinatal death from uterotonics administered outside a CEmONC facility...
October 6, 2016: Reproductive Health
Shailender Mehta, Anjali Joshi, Barbara Bajuk, Nadia Badawi, Sarah McIntyre, Kei Lui
AIM: Whole body therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy was introduced into clinical practice in New South Wales (NSW) and Australian Capital Territory in 2007. State-wide policy adopting the eligibility criteria and practice based on trial-designs was published in 2009. METHODS: The study was conducted by retrospectively reviewing medical records of all TH infants born between 2007 and 2011 in NSW and Australian Capital Territory to examine if eligibility criteria (assessed against evidence-based policy directives) were met...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Zhiyong Cai, Jindi Liu, Hongliang Bian, Jinlan Cai
Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is a flavonoid from the plant Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge that has a wide range of therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AS-IV on rats with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) under oxidative stress and inflammation. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with NEC by asphyxia and hypothermia applied on 3 consecutive days. The rats were orally administered AS-IV at 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg for 4 days. The results revealed that AS-IV administration prevented NEC-induced decrease in the concentration of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase, and increase in the activity of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase in murine models...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Sudhir Adhikari, Kalipatnam Seshagiri Rao
BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) causes significant mortality and morbidity in developing countries. There is limited information about long term neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with neonatal encephalopathy. METHODS: Term infants with the diagnosis of perinatal asphyxia were followed up in neurodevelopmental clinics of Manipal Teaching hospital, Nepal. Study design was prospective mixed longitudinal study. Prematurity, major congenital malformations, other intracranial pathology, birth weight <2500g and chromosomal abnormalities were excluded...
September 30, 2016: Brain & Development
Li-Xia Zhou, Su-Zhen Dong, Ming-Feng Zhang
PURPOSE: To present three fetal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), which were diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and highlight these cardiovascular findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed three fetuses with VGAM at 31, 32, and 33 weeks of gestation. Feeding arteries and draining veins were observed by MRI. Secondary changes in the brain and high-output heart failure caused by high blood flow in the lesion were evaluated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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