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Autism, developmental disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923933/longitudinal-identification-of-clinically-distinct-neurophenotypes-in-young-children-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#1
Jennifer L Bruno, David Romano, Paul Mazaika, Amy A Lightbody, Heather Cody Hazlett, Joseph Piven, Allan L Reiss
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), due to mutations of the FMR1 gene, is the most common known inherited cause of developmental disability. The cognitive, behavioral, and neurological phenotypes observed in affected individuals can vary considerably, making it difficult to predict outcomes and determine the need for interventions. We sought to examine early structural brain growth as a potential marker for identification of clinically meaningful subgroups. Participants included 42 very young boys with FXS who completed a T1-weighted anatomical MRI and cognitive/behavioral assessment at two longitudinal time points, with mean ages of 2...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923889/author-response-the-autism-epidemic-ethical-legal-and-social-issues-in-a-developmental-spectrum-disorder
#2
William D Graf, Geoffrey Miller, Leon G Epstein, Isabelle Rapin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923888/letter-re-the-autism-epidemic-ethical-legal-and-social-issues-in-a-developmental-spectrum-disorder
#3
Calixto Machado, Mario Estevez, Rafael Rodriguez, Gerry Leisman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923376/visuo-spatial-construction-trajectories-in-fragile-x-syndrome-fxs-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-asd-evidence-of-cognitive-heterogeneity-within-neurodevelopmental-conditions
#4
Carrie J Ballantyne, María Núñez, Kallia Manoussaki
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There have been discrepancies reported in visuo-spatial construction ability in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and those with a comorbid diagnosis of FXS and ASD (AFXS). This study aimed to provide a better understanding of the visuo-spatial processing styles in these heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS AND PROCEDURE: Navon-type tasks were used to assess visuo-spatial construction ability across 5 groups of children: typically developing, FXS, AFXS, ASD children who scored low-moderate (HFA) and ASD children that scored severe (LFA) on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)...
September 15, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923356/subcutaneous-injections-of-aluminum-at-vaccine-adjuvant-levels-activate-innate-immune-genes-in-mouse-brain-that-are-homologous-with-biomarkers-of-autism
#5
Dan Li, Lucija Tomljenovic, Yongling Li, Christopher A Shaw
Autism is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by immune dysfunction. It is manifested in early childhood, during a window of early developmental vulnerability where the normal developmental trajectory is most susceptible to xenobiotic insults. Aluminum (Al) vaccine adjuvants are xenobiotics with immunostimulating and neurotoxic properties to which infants worldwide are routinely exposed. To investigate Al's immune and neurotoxic impact in vivo, we tested the expression of 17 genes which are implicated in both autism and innate immune response in brain samples of Al-injected mice in comparison to control mice...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922953/high-technology-augmentative-and-alternative-communication-for-individuals-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities-and-complex-communication-needs-a-meta-analysis
#6
Jennifer B Ganz, Kristi L Morin, Margaret J Foster, Kimberly J Vannest, Derya Genç Tosun, Emily V Gregori, Stephanie L Gerow
The use of mobile technology is ubiquitous in modern society and is rapidly increasing in novel use. The use of mobile devices and software applications ("apps") as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is rapidly expanding in the community, and this is also reflected in the research literature. This article reports the social-communication outcome results of a meta-analysis of single-case experimental research on the use of high-tech AAC, including mobile devices, by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder...
September 19, 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919924/comparison-of-parent-report-and-direct-assessment-of-child-skills-in-toddlers
#7
Lauren E Miller, Kayla A Perkins, Yael G Dai, Deborah A Fein
BACKGROUND: There are unique challenges associated with measuring development in early childhood. Two primary sources of information are used: parent report and direct assessment. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses, particularly when used to identify and diagnose developmental delays. The present study aimed to evaluate consistency between parent report and direct assessment of child skills in toddlers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) across receptive language, expressive language, and fine motor domains...
September 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914731/academic-developmental-behavioral-pediatric-faculty-at-developmental-behavioral-pediatric-research-network-sites-changing-composition-and-interests
#8
Nancy Roizen, Ruth E K Stein, Ellen J Silver, Pamela High, Marilyn C Augustyn, Nathan J Blum
OBJECTIVE: To obtain and review workforce data, given the critical demand for developmental pediatricians (DPs). METHODS: Survey of demographics and professional activities of DP physician faculty at Developmental-Behavioral Pediatric (DBP) Research Network fellowship training sites. RESULTS: Of the eligible providers at 12 centers, 76% (n = 50) completed surveys. They were on average 50 years old and mostly female (86%), white (82%), and working full time (74%)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913349/brain-computer-interface-for-clinical-purposes-cognitive-assessment-and-rehabilitation
#9
REVIEW
Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Paolo Meriggi, Davide Sangalli, Pietro Cipresso, Giuseppe Riva, Nicola Ticozzi, Andrea Ciammola, Vincenzo Silani, Barbara Poletti
Alongside the best-known applications of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for restoring communication abilities and controlling external devices, we present the state of the art of BCI use for cognitive assessment and training purposes. We first describe some preliminary attempts to develop verbal-motor free BCI-based tests for evaluating specific or multiple cognitive domains in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, disorders of consciousness, and other neurological diseases. Then we present the more heterogeneous and advanced field of BCI-based cognitive training, which has its roots in the context of neurofeedback therapy and addresses patients with neurological developmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), stroke patients, and elderly subjects...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912273/neuroligin-4-regulates-synaptic-growth-via-the-bone-morphogenetic-protein-bmp-signaling-pathway-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#10
Xinwang Zhang, Menglong Rui, Guangmin Gan, Cong Huang, Jukang Yi, Huihui Lv, Wei Xie
The neuroligin (Nlg) family of neural cell adhesion molecules is thought to be required for synapse formation and development, and has been linked to the development of autism spectrum disorders in humans. In Drosophila melanogaster, mutations in the neuroligin 1-3 genes have been reported to induce synapse developmental defects at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), but the role of neuroligin 4 (dnlg4) in synapse development has not been determined. Here, we report that the Drosophila neuroligin 4 (DNlg4) is different from DNlg1-3 that it presynaptically regulates NMJ synapse development...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903722/eeg-power-at-3%C3%A2-months-in-infants-at-high-familial-risk-for-autism
#11
April R Levin, Kandice J Varcin, Heather M O'Leary, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: Alterations in brain development during infancy may precede the behavioral manifestation of developmental disorders. Infants at increased risk for autism are also at increased risk for other developmental disorders, including, quite commonly, language disorders. Here we assess the extent to which electroencephalographic (EEG) differences in infants at high versus low familial risk for autism are present by 3 months of age, and elucidate the functional significance of EEG power at 3 months in predicting later development...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901431/isolated-chromosome-8p23-2%C3%A2-pter-deletion-novel-evidence-for-developmental-delay-intellectual-disability-microcephaly-and-neurobehavioral-disorders
#12
Shanshan Shi, Shaobin Lin, Baojiang Chen, Yi Zhou
The current study presents a patient carrying a de novo ~6 Mb deletion of the isolated chromosome 8p23.2‑pter that was identified with a single‑nucleotide polymorphism array. The patient was characterized by developmental delay (DD)/intellectual disability (ID), microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder, attention‑deficit/hyperactivity disorders and mildly dysmorphic features. The location, size and gene content of the deletion observed in this patient were compared with those in 7 patients with isolated 8p23...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900771/health-concerns-and-health-service-utilization-in-a-population-cohort-of-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Jonathan A Weiss, Barry Isaacs, Heidi Diepstra, Andrew S Wilton, Hilary K Brown, Caitlin McGarry, Yona Lunsky
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have many health needs that place demands on the health service sector. This study used administrative data to compare health profiles in young adults 18-24 years of age with ASD to peers with and without other developmental disability. Young adults with ASD were more likely to have almost all the examined clinical health issues and health service use indicators compared to peers without developmental disability. They were more likely to have at least one psychiatric diagnosis, and visit the family physician, pediatrician, psychiatrist, and emergency department for psychiatric reasons, compared to peers with other developmental disability...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900155/inflexible-neurobiological-signatures-precede-atypical-development-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism
#14
Kristina Denisova, Guihu Zhao
Variability in neurobiological signatures is ubiquitous in early life but the link to adverse developmental milestones in humans is unknown. We examined how levels of signal and noise in movement signatures during the 1st year of life constrain early development in 71 healthy typically developing infants, either at High or Low familial Risk (HR or LR, respectively) for developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Delays in early learning developmental trajectories in HR infants (validated in an analysis of 1,445 infants from representative infant-sibling studies) were predicted by worse stochastic patterns in their spontaneous head movements as early as 1-2 months after birth, relative to HR infants who showed more rapid developmental progress, as well as relative to all LR infants...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895873/prenatal-serum-concentrations-of-brominated-flame-retardants-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intellectual-disability-in-the-early-markers-of-autism-study-a-population-based-case-control-study-in-california
#15
Kristen Lyall, Lisa A Croen, Lauren A Weiss, Martin Kharrazi, Michela Traglia, Gerald N Delorenze, Gayle C Windham
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest neurodevelopmental impacts of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but few have examined diagnosed developmental disorders. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine whether prenatal exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability without autism (ID). METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study including children with ASD (n=545) and ID (n=181) identified from the California Department of Developmental Services and general population (GP) controls (n=418) from state birth certificates...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894610/maturation-refinement-and-serotonergic-modulation-of-cerebellar-cortical-circuits-in-normal-development-and-in-murine-models-of-autism
#16
REVIEW
Eriola Hoxha, Pellegrino Lippiello, Bibiana Scelfo, Filippo Tempia, Mirella Ghirardi, Maria Concetta Miniaci
The formation of the complex cerebellar cortical circuits follows different phases, with initial synaptogenesis and subsequent processes of refinement guided by a variety of mechanisms. The regularity of the cellular and synaptic organization of the cerebellar cortex allowed detailed studies of the structural plasticity mechanisms underlying the formation of new synapses and retraction of redundant ones. For the attainment of the monoinnervation of the Purkinje cell by a single climbing fiber, several signals are involved, including electrical activity, contact signals, homosynaptic and heterosynaptic interaction, calcium transients, postsynaptic receptors, and transduction pathways...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890936/object-play-in-infants-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-longitudinal-retrospective-video-analysis
#17
Kaitlyn P Wilson, Mary W Carter, Heather L Wiener, Margaret L DeRamus, John C Bulluck, Linda R Watson, Elizabeth R Crais, Grace T Baranek
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Early play behaviors may provide important information regarding later-diagnosed developmental delays. Play behaviors of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are restricted in diversity, frequency, and complexity. Most ASD research focuses on play in children over 18 months of age. This study examined three groups of infants (later diagnosed with ASD, later diagnosed with other developmental disorders, and typically developing) with the aims of: (1) describing the play behaviors of the three groups of infants at two time points (9-12 months and 15-18 months); (2) examining group differences in four hierarchical levels of play at both time points; (3) comparing groups with respect to the highest level of play achieved; and (4) determining if the highest level of play achieved by infants with developmental delays, including ASD, correlated with later developmental outcomes...
January 2017: Autism Dev Lang Impair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889988/developmental-sequelae-and-neurophysiologic-substrates-of-sensory-seeking-in-infant-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Cara R Damiano-Goodwin, Tiffany G Woynaroski, David M Simon, Lisa V Ibañez, Michael Murias, Anne Kirby, Cassandra R Newsom, Mark T Wallace, Wendy L Stone, Carissa J Cascio
It has been proposed that early differences in sensory responsiveness arise from atypical neural function and produce cascading effects on development across domains. This longitudinal study prospectively followed infants at heightened risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and infants at relatively lower risk for ASD (siblings of typically developing children; Sibs-TD) to examine the developmental sequelae and possible neurophysiological substrates of a specific sensory response pattern: unusually intense interest in nonsocial sensory stimuli or "sensory seeking...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886147/detection-of-atypical-network-development-patterns-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-magnetoencephalography
#19
Fang Duan, Katsumi Watanabe, Yuko Yoshimura, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Yoshio Minabe, Kazuyuki Aihara
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that involves developmental delays. It has been hypothesized that aberrant neural connectivity in ASD may cause atypical brain network development. Brain graphs not only describe the differences in brain networks between clinical and control groups, but also provide information about network development within each group. In the present study, graph indices of brain networks were estimated in children with ASD and in typically developing (TD) children using magnetoencephalography performed while the children viewed a cartoon video...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884888/foxp1-haploinsufficiency-phenotypes-beyond-behavior-and-intellectual-disability
#20
Angela Myers, Christèle du Souich, Connie L Yang, Lior Borovik, Jill Mwenifumbo, Rosemarie Rupps, Causes Study, Anna Lehman, Cornelius F Boerkoel
The forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors have roles in development, carcinogenesis, metabolism, and immunity. In humans FOXP1 mutations have been associated with language and speech defects, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, facial dysmorphisms, and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. In mice, Foxp1 plays critical roles in development of the spinal motor neurons, lymphocytes, cardiomyocytes, foregut, and skeleton. We hypothesized therefore that mutations of FOXP1 affect additional tissues in some humans...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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