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Autism, developmental disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095057/age-of-parental-concern-diagnosis-and-service-initiation-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Benjamin Zablotsky, Lisa J Colpe, Beverly A Pringle, Michael D Kogan, Catherine Rice, Stephen J Blumberg
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require substantial support to address the core symptoms of ASD and co-occurring behavioral/developmental conditions. This study explores the early diagnostic experiences of school-aged children with ASD using survey data from a large probability-based national sample. Multivariate linear regressions were used to examine age when parent reported developmental concern to doctor, received ASD diagnosis, and first obtained services. Children whose parents had concerns about their child's verbal communication reported earlier ages for all outcomes when compared to children of parents who did not have verbal communication concerns...
January 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094463/network-over-connectivity-differentiates-autism-spectrum-disorder-from-other-developmental-disorders-in-toddlers-a-diffusion-mri-study
#2
E Conti, J Mitra, S Calderoni, K Pannek, K K Shen, A Pagnozzi, S Rose, S Mazzotti, D Scelfo, M Tosetti, F Muratori, G Cioni, A Guzzetta
Advanced connectivity studies in toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are increasing and consistently reporting a disruption of brain connectivity. However, most of these studies compare ASD and typically developing subjects, thus providing little information on the specificity of the abnormalities detected in comparison with other developmental disorders (other-DD). We recruited subjects aged below 36 months who received a clinical diagnosis of Neurodevelopmental Disorder (32 ASD and 16 other-DD including intellectual disability and language disorder) according to DSM-IV TR...
January 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089432/daily-living-pain-assessment-in-children-with-autism-exploratory-study
#3
A Dubois, C Michelon, C Rattaz, M Zabalia, A Baghdadli
This study aims to broaden knowledge about pain expression and assessment in daily life situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The goals are to provide a description of the responses of the GED-DI, the French version of the NCCPC, and to test the internal structure validity of this scale. Thirty five children with ASD were included in this study (mean age=58months; mean developmental age=32months). The French version of the NCCPC was filled in by parents. Descriptive analysis of responses shows that children with ASD express pain through varied and common behaviours, related to different expressive markers (vocal, facial, activity, etc...
January 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087836/neuropathological-consequences-of-gestational-exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-fine-and-ultrafine-particles-in-the-mouse
#4
Carolyn Klocke, Joshua L Allen, Marissa Sobolewski, Margot Mayer-Pröschel, Jason L Blum, Dana Lauterstein, Judith T Zelikoff, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Increasing evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) is a target of air pollution. We previously reported that postnatal exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (UFP; ≤100nm) via the University of Rochester HUCAPS system during a critical developmental window of CNS development, equivalent to human 3(rd) trimester, produced male-predominant neuropathological and behavioral characteristics common to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in humans...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081516/autism-does-not-limit-strategic-thinking-in-the-beauty-contest-game
#5
Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
A popular hypothesis in developmental psychology is that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a specific impairment or developmental delay in their ability to reason about other people's mental processes, especially when this reasoning process is of a higher-order, recursive, or nested variety. One type of interpersonal interaction that involves this sort of complex reasoning about others' minds is an economic game, and because economic games have been extensively modeled in behavioral economics, they provide a unique testbed for a quantitative and precise analysis of cognitive functioning in ASD...
January 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075089/autism-spectrum-disorder-primary-care-principles
#6
Kristian E Sanchack, Craig A Thomas
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074354/parent-reported-developmental-regression-in-autism-epilepsy-iq-schizophrenia-spectrum-symptoms-and-special-education
#7
Kenneth D Gadow, Greg Perlman, Rebecca J Weber
Examined the psychiatric and clinical correlates of loss of previously acquired skills (regression) as reported by parents of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Study sample comprised 6- to 18-year old (N = 213) children and adolescents with ASD. Parents reported regression in 77 (36%) youth. A more homogeneous subgroup with regression between 18 and 36 months (n = 48) had higher rates of intellectual disability, epilepsy, and special education, more socially restrictive educational settings, and more severe ASD communication deficits and schizophrenia spectrum symptoms than non-regressed youth (n = 136)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074353/language-skills-of-males-with-fragile-x-syndrome-or-nonsyndromic-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Angela John Thurman, Andrea McDuffie, Randi J Hagerman, Cynde K Josol, Leonard Abbeduto
Despite the similarities observed between the fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes, few studies have compared their behavioral profiles outside of ASD symptomatology. In the present study, we sought to compare lexical and grammatical abilities in these two conditions. Comparisons of language abilities in both of these conditions are particularly interesting because both conditions are characterized by difficulties navigating social interactions. Results suggest that although both FXS and ASD are associated with language difficulties, there are important differences between the two conditions in terms of the language profiles observed and the factors influencing language when considering children of similar developmental levels...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070788/developmental-markers-of-genetic-liability-to-autism-in-parents-a-longitudinal-multigenerational-study
#9
Molly Losh, Gary E Martin, Michelle Lee, Jessica Klusek, John Sideris, Sheila Barron, Thomas Wassink
Genetic liability to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be expressed in unaffected relatives through subclinical, genetically meaningful traits, or endophenotypes. This study aimed to identify developmental endophenotypes in parents of individuals with ASD by examining parents' childhood academic development over the school-age period. A cohort of 139 parents of individuals with ASD were studied, along with their children with ASD and 28 controls. Parents' childhood records in the domains of language, reading, and math were studied from grades K-12...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070787/predictors-of-self-injurious-behavior-and-self-restraint-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-towards-a-hypothesis-of-impaired-behavioral-control
#10
Caroline Richards, Louise Davies, Chris Oliver
Self-injury is common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however few studies have investigated correlates of self-injury or the putative associations with self-restraint. Questionnaire data on self-injury, self-restraint, health conditions, overactivity/impulsivity and repetitive/restricted behavior were collected on 208 children and 216 adults with ASD (mean age = 24.10, range 6-61). Self-injury and self-restraint were frequent and significantly associated in both children (45.7% and 40.9%, p < 0...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067728/advances-in-developmental-neuropsychiatry-autism-spectrum-disorder-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-self-injurious-behavior-down-syndrome-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-and-borderline-intellectual-functioning
#11
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065825/electroencephalogram-coherence-patterns-in-autism-an%C3%A2-updated-review
#12
REVIEW
Sophie Schwartz, Riley Kessler, Thomas Gaughan, Ashura W Buckley
Electrophysiologic studies suggest that autism spectrum disorder is characterized by aberrant anatomic and functional neural circuitry. During normal brain development, pruning and synaptogenesis facilitate ongoing changes in both short- and long-range neural wiring. In developmental disorders such as autism, this process may be perturbed and lead to abnormal neural connectivity. Careful analysis of electrophysiologic connectivity patterns using EEG coherence may provide a way to probe the resulting differences in neurological function between people with and without autism...
October 28, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064060/a-current-view-on-contactin-4-5-and-6-implications-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Oguro-Ando Asami, Amila Zuko, Kristel T E Kleijer, J Peter H Burbach
Contactins (Cntns) are a six-member subgroup of the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule superfamily (IgCAMs) with pronounced brain expression and function. Recent genetic studies of neuropsychiatric disorders have pinpointed contactin-4 (CNTN4), contactin-5 (CNTN5) and contactin-6 (CNTN6) as candidate genes in neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but also in intellectual disability, schizophrenia (SCZ), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and anorexia nervosa (AN)...
January 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058799/impact-of-asd-traits-on-treatment-outcomes-of-eating-disorders-in-girls
#14
Catherine S Stewart, Fiona S McEwen, Anna Konstantellou, Ivan Eisler, Mima Simic
Evidence links high levels of Autism Spectrum Disorder Traits in women with chronicity of anorexia nervosa. This study reports through clinical audit the impact of ASD traits on treatment outcomes of girls who were referred for treatment in a specialist eating disorder service. Presence of current, but not early childhood, ASD traits was elevated in comparison with previously reported community samples. Current ASD traits were correlated with emotional disorders and with need for treatment augmentation (psychiatric inpatient or day patient admission), but this relationship was not significant after the contribution of depression had been controlled for...
January 6, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057930/atypical-developmental-trajectory-of-local-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Xiaonan Guo, Heng Chen, Zhiliang Long, Xujun Duan, Youxue Zhang, Huafu Chen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by atypical trajectory of brain maturation, yet the developmental abnormalities in brain function remain unclear. The current study examined the effect of age on amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in ASD and typical controls (TC) using a cross-sectional design. We classified all the participants into three age cohorts: child (<11 years, 18ASD/20TC), adolescent (11-18 years, 28ASD/26TC) and adult (≥18 years, 18ASD/18TC). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to ascertain main effects and interaction effects on whole brain ALFF maps...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057268/control-of-neuronal-development-by-t-box-genes-in-the-brain
#16
A B Mihalas, R F Hevner
T-box transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes such as cell differentiation and migration. Mammals have 17 T-box genes, of which several regulate brain development. The Tbr1 subfamily of T-box genes is particularly important in development of the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs (OBs), and cerebellum. This subfamily is comprised of Tbr1, Tbr2 (also known as Eomes), and Tbx21. In developing cerebral cortex, Tbr2 and Tbr1 are expressed during successive stages of differentiation in the pyramidal neuron lineage, from Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors to Tbr1+ postmitotic glutamatergic neurons...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053279/prevalence-of-maternal-affective-disorders-in-chinese-mothers-of-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Y W Yu, K H Chung, Y K Lee, W C Lam, M Gc Yiu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of affective disorders and identify their associated factors among Chinese mothers of preschool children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Autism Spectrum Disorders Multidisciplinary Clinic of the United Christian Hospital from August 2012 to June 2013. All mothers of a consecutive series of preschool children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders at their first visit to the clinic were recruited...
December 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051218/parental-satisfaction-of-an-assessment-unit-for-autistic-spectrum-disorders
#18
Arwa Ben Amor, Soumeyya Halayem, Maissa Touati, Ahlem Belhadj, Riadh Gouider, Ridha Mrad, Asma Bouden
Background - Based on the recognized principles of assessment of autistic disorders, the child and adolescent psychiatry department in Razi Hospital developed an assessment unit with diagnostic as well as therapeutic roles. The aim of this work was to examine its functioning and to analyze the parents' perceptions about the unit services. Methods - We gathered the parental satisfaction about the unit by the means of a hetero-questionnaire. Results - Fifty-two parents of children evaluated within the unit were included...
June 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050484/sleep-disorder-gastrointestinal-problems-and-behaviour-problems-seen-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-children-and-yoga-as-therapy-a-descriptive-review
#19
REVIEW
Kumar Narasingharao, Balaram Pradhan, Janardhana Navaneetham
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with deficiencies in many developmental milestones during the infantile childhood. Recent researches have shown that apart from behaviour problems, the ASD children also suffer from physiological conditions such as disturbed sleep and gastrointestinal problems that could be the contributing factors to their daytime behaviour problems. Lots of parents have expressed that, lack of sleep among the children have resulted in high levels of stress among the family members particularly among the immediate caretakers which are in most cases the mother of the child...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045139/chrna7-deficient-mice-manifest-no-consistent-neuropsychiatric-and-behavioral-phenotypes
#20
Jiani Yin, Wu Chen, Hongxing Yang, Mingshan Xue, Christian P Schaaf
The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, encoded by the CHRNA7 gene, has been implicated in various psychiatric and behavioral disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, autism, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, and is considered a potential target for therapeutic intervention. 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, caused by submicroscopic deletions on chromosome 15q. CHRNA7 is the only gene in this locus that has been deleted entirely in cases involving the smallest microdeletions...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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