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Autism, developmental disorders

Chloè Bontinck, Petra Warreyn, Sara Van der Paelt, Ellen Demurie, Herbert Roeyers
Although sibling interactions play an important role in children's early development, they are rarely studied in very young children with an older brother or sister with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a naturalistic, observational method to compare interactions between 18-month-old infants and their older sibling with ASD (n = 22) with a control group of 18-month-old infants and their typically developing (TD) older sibling (n = 29). In addition, role (a)symmetry and the influence of gender were evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Melanie Penner, Evdokia Anagnostou, Wendy J Ungar
Background: Inefficient diagnostic practices for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to longer wait times, delaying access to intervention. The objectives were to describe the diagnostic practices of Canadian pediatricians and to identify determinants of longer wait time for ASD diagnosis. Methods: An online survey was conducted through the Canadian Paediatric Society's developmental pediatrics, community pediatrics, and mental health sections. Participants were asked for demographic information, whether they diagnosed ASD, and elements of their diagnostic assessment...
2018: Molecular Autism
Julia S Anixt, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Halley Estridge, Laura Smith, William B Brinkman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of treatment decisions to address challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Parents of children aged 4 to 15 years with ASD seen in a developmental behavioral pediatric (DBP) clinic completed validated measures to characterize their child's behaviors and their own level of stress. Parents reported their treatment priority before the visit. During the visit, we assessed shared decision making (SDM) using the Observing Patient Involvement (OPTION) scale and alignment of the clinician's treatment plan with the parent's priority...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Rebecca J Landa
With advances in the field's ability to identify autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at younger ages, the need for information about the evidence-base for early intervention continues to rise. This review of the ASD early intervention (EI) literature focuses on efficacy studies published within the past 15 years. The neurodevelopmental context for early intervention, timing of initiating intervention, primary intervention approaches, and predictors of treatment outcomes are discussed. The evidence indicates that young children with ASD benefit from EI, and their parents learn to implement child-responsive engagement strategies when a parent-coaching intervention is provided...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Mehdi Zarrei, Geoffrey G Hicks, James N Reynolds, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, Worrawat Engchuan, Molly Pind, Sylvia Lamoureux, John Wei, Zhouzhi Wang, Christian R Marshall, Richard F Wintle, Albert E Chudley, Stephen W Scherer
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by a combination of neurological, developmental, and congenital defects that may occur as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure. Earlier reports showed that large chromosomal anomalies may link to FASD. Here, we examined the prevalence and types of copy number variations (CNVs) in FASD cases previously diagnosed by a multidisciplinary FASD team in sites across Canada. We genotyped 95 children with FASD and 87 age-matched, typically developing controls on the Illumina Human Omni2...
March 13, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Yu-Chien Chang, Chih-Hsuan Chen, Pai-Chuan Huang, Ling-Yi Lin
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong developmental disability characterized by deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts. Existing literature on social relationships and well-being among adolescents with ASD in Asian countries is scant. AIMS: This study compared the perceptions of adolescents with ASD with those of their neurotypical peers toward their friendship quality, activity participation, and emotional well-being, and examined the relationships between friendship quality, activity participation, and emotional well-being...
March 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
D Zoenen, V Delvenne
INTRODUCTION: The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Sally Ozonoff, Devon Gangi, Elise P Hanzel, Alesha Hill, Monique M Hill, Meghan Miller, A J Schwichtenberg, Mary Beth Steinfeld, Chandni Parikh, Ana-Maria Iosif
While previous studies suggested that regressive forms of onset were not common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), more recent investigations suggest that the rates are quite high and may be under-reported using certain methods. The current study undertook a systematic investigation of how rates of regression differed by measurement method. Infants with (n = 147) and without a family history of ASD (n = 83) were seen prospectively for up to 7 visits in the first three years of life. Reports of symptom onset were collected using four measures that systematically varied the informant (examiner vs...
March 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
G N Soke, M J Maenner, D Christensen, M Kurzius-Spencer, L A Schieve
We compared the prevalence of various medical and behavioral co-occurring conditions/symptoms between 4- and 8-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from five sites in the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network during the 2010 survey year, accounting for sociodemographic differences. Over 95% of children had at least one co-occurring condition/symptom. Overall, the prevalence was higher in 8- than 4-year-olds for 67% of co-occurring conditions/symptoms examined. Further, our data suggested that co-occurring conditions/symptoms increased or decreased the age at which children were first evaluated for ASD...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Rachel C Leung, Elizabeth W Pang, Evdokia Anagnostou, Margot J Taylor
Social cognition is impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ability to perceive and interpret affect is integral to successful social functioning and has an extended developmental course. However, the neural mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in ASD are unclear. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), the present study explored neural activation during implicit emotional face processing in young adults with and without ASD. Twenty-six young adults with ASD and 26 healthy controls were recruited...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
M Palau-Baduell, B Salvado-Salvado, M A Idiazabal-Alecha, A Fernandez-Teruel, T Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: The perisylvian areas, located around the Sylvian fissure, are constituted by frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions. These are connected forming specialized neural networks and play a primary role in the development of linguistic skills and social cognition. These areas are a possible neuronal substrate of cognitive and behavioral impairments in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). AIM: To locate and quantify epileptiform activity sources through magnetoencephalography in frontal perisylvian areas in children with idiopathic ASD...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
A Hernandez-Fabian, R Canal-Bedia, M Magan-Maganto, G de la Fuente, I Ruiz-Ayucar de la Vega, A Bejarano-Martin, C Janicel-Fernandez, C Jenaro-Rio
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) reported in current studies in risk groups such as preterm or low birth weight infants is higher than in the normal population. This fact has led to the increase in recent years of screening studies that investigate possible risk factors for ASD in preterm newborns and their developmental trajectory. AIM: To present the results of the main screening studies of preterm newborns in order to propose screening recommendations for this population at risk...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
A Klin, W Jones
The future of neurodevelopmental medicine has the potential of situating child neurology at the forefront of a broad-based public health effort to optimize neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born with high-prevalence and diverse genetic, pre- and peri-natal, and environmental burdens compromising early brain development and leading to lifetime disabilities. Building on advancements in developmental social neuroscience and in implementation science, this shift is already occurring in the case of emblematic neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Sarah E Frampton, M Alice Shillingsburg
Few studies have applied Skinner's (1953) conceptualization of problem solving to teach socially significant behaviors to individuals with developmental disabilities. The current study used a multiple probe design across behavior (sets) to evaluate the effects of problem-solving strategy training (PSST) on the target behavior of explaining how to complete familiar activities. During baseline, none of the three participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could respond to the problems presented to them (i...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Marieke G N Bos, Sofia Diamantopoulou, Lex Stockmann, Sander Begeer, Carolien Rieffe
Children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often show comorbid emotional and behavior problems. The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the relation between emotion control (i.e., negative emotionality, emotion awareness, and worry/rumination) and the development of internalizing and externalizing problems. Boys with and without ASD (N = 157; age 9-15) were followed over a period of 1.5 years (3 waves). We found that baseline levels of worry/rumination was a specific predictor of later externalizing problems for boys with ASD...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Sarah L Ferri, Ted Abel, Edward S Brodkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurodevelopmental disorders disproportionately affect males. The mechanisms underlying male vulnerability or female protection are not known and remain understudied. Determining the processes involved is crucial to understanding the etiology and advancing treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we review current findings and theories that contribute to male preponderance of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on autism. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work on the biological basis of the male preponderance of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders includes discussion of a higher genetic burden in females and sex-specific gene mutations or epigenetic changes that differentially confer risk to males or protection to females...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Tzu-Ying Yu, Willy Chou, Julie Chi Chow, Chien-Ho Lin, Li-Chen Tung, Kuan-Lin Chen
Purpose: We investigated 1) the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD) on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); 2) the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. Methods: A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81), discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points]), and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points])...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Carlo Ripoli, Anna Paola Pinna, Faustina Podda, Roberta Zanni, Maria Giada Tronci, Anna Maria Nurchi
Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) are used in children for the treatment of various psychiatric diseases, including pervasive developmental disorders. These drugs can cause metabolic effects as hyperglycemia and diabetes. A 16-year-old young-boy, diagnosed with autism, developed diabetes mellitus type 1 whilst he was on treatment with olanzapine (started 4 months before), clomipramine, valproic acid and lithium. The hypothesis of druginduced diabetes imposed olanzapine interruption and clozapine initiation...
December 13, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Yoyo T Y Cheng, William W N Tsang, Catherine Mary Schooling, Shirley S M Fong
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common motor disorder affecting balance performance. However, few studies have investigated reactive balance performance and the underlying mechanisms in children with DCD. This study aimed to compare the reactive balance performance, lower limb muscle reflex contraction latency and attention level in response to unpredictable balance perturbations between 100 typically developing children and 120 children with DCD (with and without comorbid autism spectrum disorder) aged 6-9 years...
March 1, 2018: Gait & Posture
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