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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805019/cd11b-gr1-dim-tolerogenic-dendritic-cell-like-cells-are-expanded-in-interstitial-lung-disease-in-skg-mice
#1
Sho Sendo, Jun Saegusa, Takaichi Okano, Soshi Takahashi, Kengo Akashi, Akio Morinobu
OBJECTIVE: SKG mice develop interstitial lung disease (ILD) resembling rheumatoid arthritis-associated ILD (RA-ILD) in human. The aim of this study is to clarify the mechanism behind the lung pathology by analyzing the lung-infiltrating cells in ILD of SKG mice. METHODS: We assessed the severity of zymosan A (ZyA)-induced ILD in SKG mice histologically, and examined lung-infiltrating cells by flow cytometry. Total lung cells and isolated monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) were cultured in vitro with GM-CSF (and IL-4)...
August 13, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804806/how-biological-background-assumptions-influence-scientific-risk-evaluation-of-stacked-genetically-modified-plants-an-analysis-of-research-hypotheses-and-argumentations
#2
Elena Rocca, Fredrik Andersen
Scientific risk evaluations are constructed by specific evidence, value judgements and biological background assumptions. The latter are the framework-setting suppositions we apply in order to understand some new phenomenon. That background assumptions co-determine choice of methodology, data interpretation, and choice of relevant evidence is an uncontroversial claim in modern basic science. Furthermore, it is commonly accepted that, unless explicated, disagreements in background assumptions can lead to misunderstanding as well as miscommunication...
August 14, 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802959/a-combined-tract-based-spatial-statistics-and-voxel-based-morphometry-study-of-the-first-mri-scan-after-diagnosis-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-with-subgroup-analysis
#3
A R Alruwaili, K Pannek, A Coulthard, R Henderson, N D Kurniawan, P McCombe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the cortical and subcortical deep gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of ALS subjects and controls and to compare ALS subjects with (ALScog) and without (ALSnon-cog) cognitive impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in 30 ALS subjects, and 19 healthy controls. Structural T1- and diffusion-weighted MRI data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801270/immunomodulatory-effects-and-anti-candida-activity-of-lactobacilli-in-macrophages-and-in-invertebrate-model-of-galleria-mellonella
#4
Felipe Eduardo de Oliveira, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Patricia Pimentel de Barros, Barbara Evelyn Begnini, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Mariella Vieira Pereira Leão, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
Due to the growing number of multi-resistant Candida spp., adjuvant treatments that may help combat these fungal pathogens are relevant and useful. This study evaluated the immunomodulation and anti-Candida activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus paracasei suspensions, either single- or multiple-strain, in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) and Galleria mellonella (GM). Mouse macrophages were activated by different lactobacilli suspensions and challenged with C. albicans (CA)...
August 8, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801157/toxin-production-growth-kinetics-and-molecular-characterization-of-ostreopsis-cf-ovata-isolated-from-todos-os-santos-bay-tropical-southwestern-atlantic
#5
Maria Cristina de Q Mendes, José Marcos C Nunes, Mariângela Menezes, Santiago Fraga, Francisco Rodríguez, José A Vázquez, Juan Blanco, José M Franco, Pilar Riobó
The toxin profile and hemolytic activity of a strain of Ostreopsis cf. ovata (UFBA013) isolated from Todos os Santos Bay (northeastern Brazil) were evaluated under different levels of N and P. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS rDNA region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) placed UFBA013 within the Atlantic/Mediterranean/Pacific clade of O. cf. ovata. Growth experiments were conducted in f/2 medium modified by adding N and P (P: 0-36 μM; N: 0-882 μM). The growth kinetics was adequately described by logistic equations. The best growth (highest Gm) was recorded under levels of N/P = 0/18, 129/5 and 441/36, while one of the lowest Gm was obtained under P-depletion...
August 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799160/intramuscular-perfusion-response-in-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-doms-a-quantitative-analysis-with-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus
#6
Marion Kellermann, Rafael Heiss, Bernd Swoboda, Kolja Gelse, Jürgen Freiwald, Casper Grim, Armin Nagel, Michael Uder, Dane Wildner, Thilo Hotfiel
The purpose of this study was to analyse intramuscular perfusion response in ultrastructural muscle lesions, by applying contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to a delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) model. Results of this analysis were compared to high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI T2-weighted sequences. 14 healthy participants were recruited. Average perfusion parameters, represented as Peak enhancement (contrast agent inflow) and wash-in area under curve (WiAUC) of the gastrocnemius (GM) and soleus muscle (SM) were assessed before (baseline) and 60 h after inducing DOMS by eccentric exercise...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798999/influence-of-immunostimulant-polysaccharides-nucleic-acids-and-bacillus-strains-on-the-innate-immune-and-acute-stress-response-in-turbots-scophthalmus-maximus-fed-soy-bean-and-wheat-based-diets
#7
V I Fuchs, J Schmidt, M J Slater, B H Buck, D Steinhagen
Immunostimulants are widely applied in aquaculture practice and may have beneficial effects on the immune system and physical functions allowing higher tolerance to stress. In the current study, the impact of four (i-iv) dietary active ingredients on the immune and stress response of turbot was examined in two experiments (I and II). A basal low fish meal (FM; 32%) diet was formulated and supplemented with (i) yeast β-glucan and mannan oligosaccharide (GM), (ii) alginic acid (AC), (iii) yeast nucleotides and RNA (NR), or (iv) Bacillus strains (BS)...
August 10, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796812/toxicological-and-bio-distribution-profile-of-a-gm-csf-expressing-double-targeted-chimeric-oncolytic-adenovirus-oncos-102-support-for-clinical-studies-on-advanced-cancer-treatment
#8
Lukasz Kuryk, Lotta Vassilev, Tuuli Ranki, Akseli Hemminki, Aila Karioja-Kallio, Onerva Levälampi, Antti Vuolanto, Vincenzo Cerullo, Sari Pesonen
The purpose of this work was to carry out preclinical toxicity and bio-distribution studies required for regulatory approval of a clinical trial application for Phase I clinical studies of ONCOS-102 (Ad5/3-D24-GM-CSF) for therapy of advanced cancers (NCT01598129). The study design, route of administration and dosage differs from the clinical protocol and in more detail, investigate bio-distribution and toxicological profile of ONCOS-102 treatment in animal model. The study was carried out in 300 hamsters divided into nine test groups-three bio-distribution groups and six groups for analysis of toxicity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794970/agreement-of-msmetrix-with-established-methods-for-measuring-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-brain-atrophy
#9
Martijn D Steenwijk, Houshang Amiri, Menno M Schoonheim, Alexandra de Sitter, Frederik Barkhof, Petra J W Pouwels, Hugo Vrenken
INTRODUCTION: Despite the recognized importance of atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS), methods for its quantification have been mostly restricted to the research domain. Recently, a CE labelled and FDA approved MS-specific atrophy quantification method, MSmetrix, has become commercially available. Here we perform a validation of MSmetrix against established methods in simulated and in vivo MRI data. METHODS: Whole-brain and gray matter (GM) volume were measured with the cross-sectional pipeline of MSmetrix and compared to the outcomes of FreeSurfer (cross-sectional pipeline), SIENAX and SPM...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793897/aqueous-extract-of-phragmitis-rhizoma-ameliorates-myelotoxicity-of-docetaxel-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Jinhee Kim, You Jin Lee, Young Ah Kim, Eun-Sang Cho, Eunna Huh, Ok-Sun Bang, No Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: A variety of anticancer chemotherapeutics induce adverse side effects including myelotoxicity. Dried roots of Phragmites communis Trinius, Phragmitis rhizoma, have been clinically used in traditional folk medicine to relieve various symptoms like fever. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Phragmitis rhizoma (EPR) against docetaxel-induced myelotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The in vitro myelo-protective effect of EPR was evaluated using the colony forming unit (CFU) assay with hematopoietic progenitor cells...
August 9, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774090/assessment-of-effects-of-si-ca-p-biphasic-ceramic-on-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-a-population-of-multipotent-adult-human-stem-cells
#11
Patricia Ros-Tárraga, Rubén Rabadan-Ros, Angel Murciano, Luis Meseguer-Olmo, Piedad N De Aza
A new type of bioceramic with osteogenic properties, suitable for hard tissue regeneration, was synthesised. The ceramic was designed and obtained in the Nurse's A-phase-silicocarnotite subsystem. The selected composition was that corresponding to the eutectoid 28.39 wt % Nurse's A-phase-71.61 wt % silicocarnotite invariant point. We report the effect of Nurse's A-phase-silicocarnotite ceramic on the capacity of multipotent adult human mesenchymal stem cells (ahMSCs) cultured under experimental conditions, known to adhere, proliferate and differentiate into osteoblast lineage cells...
November 29, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772208/structural-brain-correlates-of-interpersonal-violence-systematic-review-and-voxel-based-meta-analysis-of-neuroimaging-studies
#12
REVIEW
Jelle Lamsma, Clare Mackay, Seena Fazel
Owing to inconsistent nomenclature and results, we have undertaken a label-based review and anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of studies measuring the quantitative association between regional grey matter (GM) volume and interpersonal violence. Following PRISMA guidelines, we identified studies by searching 3 online databases (Embase, Medline, PsycInfo) and reference lists. Thirty-five studies were included in the label-based review, providing information for 1288 participants and 86 brain regions...
July 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767077/gut-liver-axis-derangement-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A "multiple-hit" hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The "first hit" is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as "second hits" implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis...
August 2, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765056/predicting-brain-age-with-deep-learning-from-raw-imaging-data-results-in-a-reliable-and-heritable-biomarker
#14
James H Cole, Rudra P K Poudel, Dimosthenis Tsagkrasoulis, Matthan W A Caan, Claire Steves, Tim D Spector, Giovanni Montana
Machine learning analysis of neuroimaging data can accurately predict chronological age in healthy people. Deviations from healthy brain ageing have been associated with cognitive impairment and disease. Here we sought to further establish the credentials of 'brain-predicted age' as a biomarker of individual differences in the brain ageing process, using a predictive modelling approach based on deep learning, and specifically convolutional neural networks (CNN), and applied to both pre-processed and raw T1-weighted MRI data...
July 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761640/predictive-and-diagnostic-value-of-serum-intestinal-fatty-acid-binding-protein-in-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-case-series
#15
Omima M Abdel-Haie, Eman G Behiry, Eman R Abd Almonaem, Enas S Ahmad, Effat H Assar
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to investigate the value of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) in early diagnosis and predicting the severity of Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). METHODS: This prospective study was performed on 160 preterm neonates ageing less than 35 weeks and weighting less than 2000 gm selected from the Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) of the Pediatric Department at Benha University hospital and Benha children hospital to evaluate which of them will develop NEC, after follow-up these neonates were divided into two groups: Group one compromised eighteen preterm neonates with symptoms and signs of NEC...
September 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755496/procedure-to-select-test-organisms-for-environmental-risk-assessment-of-genetically-modified-crops-in-aquatic-systems
#16
Angelika Hilbeck, Rebecca Bundschuh, Mirco Bundschuh, Frieder Hofmann, Bernadette Oehen, Mathias Otto, Ralf Schulz, Miluse Trtikova
For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops mainly focused on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues which may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems...
July 29, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755467/connexin-43-and-aquaporin-4-are-markers-of-artag-related-astroglial-response
#17
Gabor G Kovacs, Ahmed Yousef, Sabine Kaindl, Virginia M Lee, John Q Trojanowski
AIMS: Ageing-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) appears in subependymal, subpial, perivascular, white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) locations. Physical effects, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, blood- or vessel-related factors have been considered as aetiology. Since Connexin-43 (Cx43) and Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are related to these, we hypothesized that their immunoreactivity varies with ARTAG in a location-specific manner. METHODS: We performed a morphometric immunohistochemical study measuring the densities of immunoreactivity (IR) of Cx43, AQP4, AT8 (phospho-tau), and glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP)...
July 29, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749730/static-versus-dynamic-kinematics-in-cyclists-a-comparison-of-goniometer-inclinometer-and-3d-motion-capture
#18
W Holliday, J Fisher, R Theo, J Swart
Kinematic measurements conducted during bike set-ups utilise either static or dynamic measures. There is currently limited data on reliability of static and dynamic measures nor consensus on which is the optimal method. The aim of the study was to assess the difference between static and dynamic measures of the ankle, knee, hip, shoulder and elbow. Nineteen subjects performed three separate trials for a 10-min duration at a fixed workload (70% of peak power output). Static measures were taken with a standard goniometer (GM), an inclinometer (IM) and dynamic three-dimensional motion capture (3DMC) using an eight camera motion capture system...
July 27, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749544/combined-electroencephalography-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-electrical-source-imaging-improves-localization-of-pediatric-focal-epilepsy
#19
Maria Centeno, Tim M Tierney, Suejen Perani, Elhum A Shamshiri, Kelly St Pier, Charlotte Wilkinson, Daniel Konn, Serge Vulliemoz, Frédéric Grouiller, Louis Lemieux, Ronit M Pressler, Christopher A Clark, J Helen Cross, David W Carmichael
OBJECTIVE: Surgical treatment in epilepsy is effective if the epileptogenic zone (EZ) can be correctly localized and characterized. Here we use simultaneous electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) data to derive EEG-fMRI and electrical source imaging (ESI) maps. Their yield and their individual and combined ability to (1) localize the EZ and (2) predict seizure outcome were then evaluated. METHODS: Fifty-three children with drug-resistant epilepsy underwent EEG-fMRI...
July 27, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747792/tailoring-seed-oil-composition-in-the-real-world-optimising-omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-accumulation-in-transgenic-camelina-sativa
#20
Sarah Usher, Lihua Han, Richard P Haslam, Louise V Michaelson, Drew Sturtevant, Mina Aziz, Kent D Chapman, Olga Sayanova, Johnathan A Napier
There is considerable interest in the de novo production of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), not least of all given the importance of these fatty acids in both aquaculture and human nutrition. Previously we have demonstrated the feasibility of using metabolic engineering in transgenic plants (Camelina sativa) to modify the seed oil composition to now include EPA and/or DHA. In this study, we further tailored the seed oil profile to reduce the omega-6 content, and evaluated the performance of such GM plants under field conditions (i...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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