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Elena Okada, Débora Pérez, Eduardo De Gerónimo, Virginia Aparicio, Héctor Massone, José Luis Costa
We measured the occurrence and seasonal variations of glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in different environmental compartments within the limits of an agricultural basin. This topic is of high relevance since glyphosate is the most applied pesticide in agricultural systems worldwide. We were able to quantify the seasonal variations of glyphosate that result mainly from endo-drift inputs, that is, from direct spraying either onto genetically modified (GM) crops (i.e., soybean and maize) or onto weeds in no-till practices...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dina Hafez, Laurence F McMahon, Linda Balogh, Floyd John Brinley, John Crump, Mark Ealovega, Audrey Fan, Yeong Kwok, Kristen Krieger, Thomas O'Connor, Elisa Ostafin, Heidi Reichert, Jennifer Meddings
OBJECTIVES: To characterize patterns of emergency department (ED) utilization for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) among patients with established care within a patient-centered medical home. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review using Michigan Medicine's (formerly University of Michigan Health System) electronic health record. METHODS: Ten general medicine (GM) physicians reviewed 256 ambulatory care-sensitive ED encounters that occurred between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014, among patients of a GM medical home...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Brian M Salata, Madeline R Sterling, Ashley N Beecy, Ajayram V Ullal, Erica C Jones, Evelyn M Horn, Parag Goyal
Given high rates of heart failure (HF) hospitalizations and widespread adoption of the hospitalist model, patients with HF are often cared for on General Medicine (GM) services. Differences in discharge processes and 30-day readmission rates between patients on GM and those on Cardiology during the contemporary hospitalist era are unknown. The present study compared discharge processes and 30-day readmission rates of patients with HF admitted on GM services and those on Cardiology services. We retrospectively studied 926 patients discharged home after HF hospitalization...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Naoki Ohno, Tosiaki Miyati, Shuto Suzuki, Hirohito Kan, Toshitaka Aoki, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Yuki Hiramatsu, Satoshi Kobayashi, Toshifumi Gabata
PURPOSE: To suppress olefinic signals and enable simultaneous and quantitative estimation of multiple functional parameters associated with water and lipid, we investigated a modified method using chemical shift displacement and recovery-based separation of lipid tissue (SPLIT) involving acquisitions with different inversion times (TIs), echo times (TEs), and b-values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-shot diffusion echo-planar imaging (SSD-EPI) with multiple b-values (0-3000 s/mm2 ) was performed without fat suppression to separate water and lipid images using the chemical shift displacement of lipid signals in the phase-encoding direction...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Laura Gaetano, Dieter A Häring, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Nicole Mueller-Lenke, Avinash Thakur, Davorka Tomic, Ludwig Kappos, Till Sprenger
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fingolimod on deep gray matter (dGM), thalamus, cortical GM (cGM), white matter (WM), and ventricular volume (VV) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Data were pooled from 2 phase III studies. A total of 2,064 of 2,355 (88%) contributed to the analysis: fingolimod 0.5 mg n = 783, fingolimod 1.25 mg n = 799, or placebo n = 773. Percentage change from baseline in dGM and thalamic volumes was evaluated with FMRIB's Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool; WM, cGM, and VV were evaluated with structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy cross-sectional version (SIENAX) at months 12 and 24...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Ronald J Maughan, Louise M Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Eric S Rawson, Neil P Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Lucas J C van Loon, Susan M Shirreffs, Lawrence L Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M Ali, Richard Gm Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
R Magliozzi, O W Howell, R Nicholas, C Cruciani, M Castellaro, C Romualdi, S Rossi, M Pitteri, M D Benedetti, A Gajofatto, F B Pizzini, S Montemezzi, S Rasia, R Capra, A Bertoldo, F Facchiano, S Monaco, R Reynolds, M Calabrese
OBJECTIVE: Grey matter (GM) damage and meningeal inflammation have been associated with early disease onset and a more aggressive disease course in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but can these changes be identified in the patient early in the disease course? METHODS: To identify possible biomarkers linking meningeal inflammation, GM damage and disease severity, gene and protein expression were analysed in meninges and CSF from 27 post-mortem secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and 14 control cases...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo, Lorenza Brusini, Silvia Obertino, Mauro Zucchelli, Cristina Granziera, Gloria Menegaz
Recent tract-based analyses provided evidence for the exploitability of 3D-SHORE microstructural descriptors derived from diffusion MRI (dMRI) in revealing white matter (WM) plasticity. In this work, we focused on the main open issues left: (1) the comparative analysis with respect to classical tensor-derived indices, i.e., Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Mean Diffusivity (MD); and (2) the ability to detect plasticity processes in gray matter (GM). Although signal modeling in GM is still largely unexplored, we investigated their sensibility to stroke-induced microstructural modifications occurring in the contralateral hemisphere...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Thibo Billiet, Iris Elens, Charlotte Sleurs, Anne Uyttebroeck, Rudi D'Hooge, Jurgen Lemiere, Sabine Deprez
Background: This study aimed to assess functional and structural brain connectivity in adult childhood leukemia survivors and the link with cognitive functioning and previously identified risk factors such as intrathecal methotrexate dose and age at start of therapy. Methods: Thirty-one nonirradiated adult childhood leukemia survivors and 35 controls underwent cognitive testing and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (resting state functional MRI, T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and myelin water imaging [MWI])...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Robert O Dillman, Andrew N Cornforth, Gabriel I Nistor, Edward F McClay, Thomas T Amatruda, Carol Depriest
BACKGROUND: Despite improved survival following checkpoint inhibitors, there is still a potential role for anti-cancer therapeutic vaccines. Because of biological heterogeneity and neoantigens resulting from each patient's mutanome, autologous tumor may be the best source of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) for vaccines. Ex vivo loading of autologous dendritic cells with TAA may be associated with superior clinical outcome compared to injecting irradiated autologous tumor cells. We conducted a randomized phase II trial to compare autologous tumor cell vaccines (TCV) and autologous dendritic cell vaccines (DCV) loaded with autologous TAA...
March 6, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Timothy D Weaver, Philipp Gunz
Researchers studying extant and extinct taxa are often interested in identifying the evolutionary processes that have lead to the morphological differences among the taxa. Ideally, one could distinguish the influences of neutral evolutionary processes (genetic drift, mutation) from natural selection, and in situations for which selection is implicated, identify the targets of selection. The directional selection gradient is an effective tool for investigating evolutionary process, because it can relate form (size and shape) differences between taxa to the variation and covariation found within taxa...
March 6, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Craig C Wood, Shoko Okada, Matthew C Taylor, Amratha Menon, Anu Mathew, Darren Cullerne, Stuart J Stephen, Robert S Allen, Xue-Rong Zhou, Qing Liu, John G Oakeshott, Surinder P Singh, Allan G Green
Vegetable oils extracted from oilseeds are an important component of foods, but are also used in a range of high value oleochemical applications. Despite being biodegradable, non-toxic and renewable current plant oils suffer from the presence of residual polyunsaturated fatty acids that are prone to free radical formation that limit their oxidative stability, and consequently shelf-life and functionality. Many decades of plant breeding have been successful in raising the oleic content to ~90%, but has come at the expense of overall field performance, including poor yields...
March 6, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Joseph Meletiadis, Oscar Zaragoza, Karin Meinike Jørgensen, Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Lamprini Kanioura, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Johan W Mouton, Jesus Guinea
OBJECTIVES: Rezafungin (CD101) is a new long-acting echinocandin allowing weekly dosing, currently undergoing phase-II clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. The aim of this study was to assess rezafungin's in vitro activity against the most frequent Candida species following the EUCAST methodology. METHODS: The susceptibility of 2,018 clinical Candida isolates was determined at four European laboratories. In parallel, six control strains were repeatedly tested...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Susana Córdoba, Guillermina Isla, Wanda Szusz, Walter Vivot, Alejandra Hevia, Graciela Davel, Cristina E Canteros
We studied 23 clinical and environmental strains of Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato collected from 1984 to 2017 in Argentina. The molecular identification (partial sequencing of a fragment of the calmodulin gene) of the strains was performed. For the yeast and mycelial phases, the in vitro susceptibility testing by a microdilution reference method was determined against eight antifungal drugs. Strains studied were identified as S. schenckii sensu stricto 13 (56.5%), S. brasiliensis 8 (34.7%) and S. globosa 2 (8...
March 3, 2018: Mycoses
Liang Wang, Shaokun Han, Wenze Xia, Jieyu Lei
Although the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD) flash ladar system offers the advantages of high sensitivity and simple construction, its detection performance is influenced not only by the incoming signal-to-noise ratio but also by the absolute number of noise photons. In this paper, we deduce a hyperbolic approximation to estimate the noise-photon number from the false-firing percentage in a GM-APD flash ladar system under dark conditions. By using this hyperbolic approximation function, we introduce a method to adapt the aperture to reduce the number of incoming background-noise photons...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Zhen Bian, Ahmed Mansour Abdelaal, Lei Shi, Hongwei Liang, Lanqiao Xiong, Koby Kidder, Mahathi Venkataramani, Courtney Culpepper, Ke Zen, Yuan Liu
Although previous reports suggest that tumor-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) inhibit T cells by L-arginine depletion through arginase-1 activity, we herein show that arginase-1 is neither inherently expressed in MDSC nor required for MDSC-mediated inhibition. Employing Percoll density gradients, large expansions of MDSC in the bone marrow of tumor-bearing mice were isolated and demonstrated potent inhibition in T cell proliferation activated by TCR-ligation, Concanavalin A, PMA plus ionomycin, or IL-2...
February 28, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Nico Andreas, Marc Riemann, Carla N Castro, Marco Groth, Ievgen Koliesnik, Christian Engelmann, Tim Sparwasser, Thomas Kamradt, Ronny Haenold, Falk Weih
The NF-κB transcription factor subunit RelB is important for the full activation of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) during T-cell-dependent immune responses. Although the number of splenic DCs is greatly reduced in RelBnull mice, the cause and consequences of this deficiency are currently unknown. To circumvent the impact of the pleiotropic defects in RelBnull mice we used a reporter model for RelB expression (RelBKatushka mice) and conditionally deleted RelB in DCs (RelBCD11c-Cre mice). Thereby, we can show here that RelB is essential for the differentiation of a CD117+ CD172a+ cDC subpopulation which highly expresses RelB...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Jieyuan Cui, Chunzhen Li, Lin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by a selective destruction of the pancreatic β-cells. There are few reports on peripheral neutropenia in T1D for different reasons. We reported 6 cases of childhood onset T1D combined with neutropenia and explored its possible mechanisms. METHODS: The clinical diagnosis and treatment course of 6 cases of childhood onset T1D combined with neutropenia, who were hospitalized in our hospital from January, 2013 to December, 2016, were studied retrospectively...
February 27, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Takayuki Inami, Kento Nakagawa, Takahisa Yonezu, Mako Fukano, Ayako Higashihara, Satoshi Iizuka, Taira Abe, Takaya Narita
We sought to identify changes in individual muscle hardness after a full marathon and to track time-dependent changes using ultrasound strain elastography (SE). Twenty-one collegiate marathon runners were recruited. Muscle hardness (i.e., strain ratio, SR) was measured using SE for the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris long head (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medial head (GM), and soleus (SOL) muscles at the following time points: pre (PRE), immediately post (POST), day-1 (D1), day-3 (D3), and day-8 (D8), after a full marathon...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Rowaida Refaat, Dalia Sarhan, Metwali Kotb, Eman El-Abd, Emad El-Bassiouni
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the possible post-irradiation protective effects of ectoine on CNS and testes of male mice. METHODS: The study included thirty male Swiss albino mice (20-22 gm). Mice were divided into five groups (six each); controls (injected intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml saline), irradiated group1 (received six Gy whole body x-irradiation single dose, injected with saline, and sacrificed after one day), irradiated group 2 (x-irradiated, injected with saline, and sacrificed after one week), ectoine group 1 (x-irradiated, injected with 200 mg/kg ectoine, and sacrificed after one day), and ectoine group 2 (x-irradiated, injected daily with 200 mg/kg ectoine, and sacrificed after one week)...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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