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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647219/higher-mortality-of-severe-influenza-patients-with-probable-aspergillosis-than-those-with-and-without-other-coinfections
#1
Yee-Huang Ku, Khee-Siang Chan, Chun-Chieh Yang, Che-Kim Tan, Yin-Ching Chuang, Wen-Liang Yu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Aspergillus-associated infection might comprise up to 23-29% of severe influenza patients from the community throughout stay in an intensive care unit (ICU). In Taiwan, cases of severe influenza with aspergillosis are increasingly reported. Therefore, we describe the relative risk of mortality among severe influenza patients with aspergillosis and other coinfections compared to severe influenza patients without Aspergillus coinfections. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 124 adult patients with severe influenza in a tertiary medical center in southern Taiwan from January 2015 through March 2016...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646630/characteristics-of-systemic-inflammation-in-hepatitis-b-precipitated-aclf-differentiate-it-from-no-aclf
#2
Wei Wu, Huadong Yan, Hong Zhao, Wenjie Sun, Qiao Yang, Jifang Sheng, Yu Shi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (SE-CHB) are at risk of developing acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Systemic inflammation (SI) is a major driver of ACLF. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of SI in hepatitis B-precipitated-ACLF (HB-ACLF), which may be distinct from No-ACLF patients with SE-CHB. METHODS: Two cohorts of patients with SE-CHB were enrolled in two tertiary hospitals. The associations between circulating leukocyte counts/subsets and ACLF progression and prognoses were analysed in Cohort A...
June 24, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631336/a-neuroimaging-approach-to-capture-cognitive-reserve-application-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Anna C van Loenhoud, Alle Meije Wink, Colin Groot, Sander C J Verfaillie, Jos Twisk, Frederik Barkhof, Bart van Berckel, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier, Rik Ossenkoppele
Cognitive reserve (CR) explains interindividual differences in the ability to maintain cognitive function in the presence of neuropathology. We developed a neuroimaging approach including a measure of brain atrophy and cognition to capture this construct. In a group of 511 Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker-positive subjects in different stages across the disease spectrum, we performed 3T magnetic resonance imaging and predicted gray matter (GM) volume in each voxel based on cognitive performance (i.e. a global cognitive composite score), adjusted for age, sex, disease stage, premorbid brain size (i...
June 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630585/identification-of-the-plasmodium-species-in-clinical-samples-from-children-residing-in-five-epidemiological-strata-of-malaria-in-cameroon
#4
Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti, Tayong Dizzle Bita Kwenti, Longdoh Anna Njunda, Andreas Latz, Kukwah Anthony Tufon, Theresa Nkuo-Akenji
BACKGROUND: Malaria in Cameroon was previously known to be caused solely by Plasmodium falciparum but today, evidence points to other Plasmodium species including P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. The purpose of this study was to identify the Plasmodium species in clinical samples from children residing in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon, so as to advise control policies. METHODS: One thousand six hundred nine febrile children (≤15 years) were recruited from five epidemiological strata of malaria including the Sudano-sahelian (SS) strata, the High inland plateau (HIP) strata, the South Cameroonian Equatorial forest (SCEF) strata, the High western plateau (HWP) strata and the Coastal (C) strata...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629570/the-association-between-multiple-sclerosis-and-spondylosis-when-and-why
#5
Vasileios G Xydis, Anastasia K Zikou, Vassiliki Kostadima, Loukas G Astrakas, Paraskevi Kosta, Maria I Argyropoulou
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate risk factors for the development of cervical spine spondylosis (CSS) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to propose a pathogenetic mechanism. METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients aged 23-66 years with MS and 42 age and sex matched controls were evaluated retrospectively; Clinical disability was evaluated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and spasticity with the Asworth score. Total brain lesion volume (BLV), total grey matter (GM) volume and deep GM volume were assessed...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621316/combination-of-p53-dc-vaccine-and-rad-p53-gene-therapy-induced-ctls-cytotoxic-against-p53-deleted-human-prostate-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#6
H Saito, K Kitagawa, T Yoneda, Y Fukui, M Fujsawa, D Bautista, T Shirakawa
Recently, the US FDA approved sipuleucel-T, which is composed of autologous DCs stimulated with a recombinant fusion protein of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), as the first immunotherapeutic agent for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, sipuleucel-T demonstrated only modest efficacy in mCPRC patients. Researchers are now investigating the potential of p53 protein as a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) loaded in DC-based cancer vaccine...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618071/histamine-receptor-2-modifies-inkt-cell-activity-within-the-inflamed-lung
#7
R Ferstl, R Frei, W Barcik, E Schiavi, K Wanke, M Ziegler, N Rodriguez-Perez, D Groeger, P Konieczna, S Zeiter, D Nehrbass, Roger Lauener, C A Akdis, L O'Mahony
BACKGROUND: Histamine is a key immunoregulatory mediator and can dampen proinflammatory responses via activation of histamine receptor 2 (H2 R). The aim of this study was to determine the role of H2 R in modulating lung inflammatory responses. METHODS: H2 R was blocked using famotidine or activated using dimaprit in both the ovalbumin (OVA) and house dust mite extract (HDM) murine models of respiratory inflammation. H2 R-deficient animals and CD1d/ H2 R-deficient animals were utilized to examine the CD1d presentation of lipid antigens (αGal-Cer or OCH) to invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells...
June 15, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612961/genome-wide-analysis-of-allele-frequency-change-in-sunflower-crop-wild-hybrid-populations-evolving-under-natural-conditions
#8
Jonathan Corbi, Eric J Baack, Jennifer M Dechaine, Gerald Seiler, John M Burke
Crop-wild hybridization occurs in numerous plant species, and could alter the genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics of wild populations. Studying crop-derived alleles in wild populations is also relevant to assessing/mitigating the risks associated with transgene escape. To date, crop-wild hybridization has generally been examined via short-term studies, typically within a single generation, focusing on few traits or genetic markers. Little is known about patterns of selection on crop-derived alleles over multiple generations, particularly at a genome-wide scale...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605483/vedolizumab-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-retrospective-multi-center-experience-from-the-paediatric-ibd-porto-group-of-espghan
#9
Oren Ledder, Amit Assa, Arie Levine, Johanna C Escher, Lissy de Ridder, Frank Ruemmele, Neil Shah, Ron Shaoul, Victorien M Wolters, Astor Rodrigues, Holm H Uhlig, Carsten Posovsky, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Christian Jakobsen, Shlomi Cohen, Dror S Shouval, Tim de Meij, Javier Martin-de-Carpi, Lisa Richmond, Jiri Bronsky, Mira Friedman, Dan Turner
Background: Vedolizumab, an anti-integrin antibody, has proven to be effective in adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), but the data in pediatrics are limited. We describe the short-term effectiveness and safety of vedolizumab in a European multi-center pediatric IBD cohort. Method: Retrospective review of children (2-18 years) treated with vedolizumab from 19 centers affiliated with the Paediatric IBD Porto group of ESPGHAN. Primary outcome was week 14 corticosteroid-free remission (CFR)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600857/quantification-of-tumor-uptake-with-molecular-breast-imaging
#10
Steven T Bache, Cheenu Kappadath
PURPOSE: We developed scatter and attenuation correction techniques for quantifying images obtained with Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI) systems. METHODS: To investigate scatter correction, energy spectra of a (99m) Tc point source were acquired with 0-7-cm-thick acrylic to simulate scatter between the detector heads. System-specific scatter correction factor, k, was calculated as a function of thickness using a dual-energy-window technique. To investigate attenuation correction, a 7-cm-thick rectangular phantom containing (99m) Tc-water simulating breast tissue and fillable spheres simulating tumors was imaged...
June 10, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600596/relevance-of-early-cervical-cord-volume-loss-in-the-disease-evolution-of-clinically-isolated-syndrome-and-early-multiple-sclerosis-a-2-year-follow-up-study
#11
Inga T Hagström, Ruth Schneider, Barbara Bellenberg, Anke Salmen, Florian Weiler, Odo Köster, Ralf Gold, Carsten Lukas
Upper cervical cord area (UCCA) atrophy is a prognostic marker for clinical progression in longstanding multiple sclerosis (MS). The objectives of the study were to quantify UCCA atrophy and evaluate its impact in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS); to compare converting CIS patients with stable CIS, and to study changes of UCCA and brain white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) at 2-year follow-up. 110 therapy-naive patients including 53 CIS [6 ± 6 months after symptom onset (SO)] and 57 early RRMS (SO: 12 ± 9 months) underwent sagittal 3D-T1w brain MR (3T)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595117/effect-of-the-anticoagulant-storage-time-and-temperature-of-blood-samples-on-the-concentrations-of-27-multiplex-assayed-cytokines-consequences-for-defining-reference-values-in-healthy-humans
#12
Linda Torrissen Hennø, Elin Storjord, Dorte Christiansen, Grete Bergseth, Judith Krey Ludviksen, Hilde Fure, Svein Barene, Erik Waage-Nielsen, Tom E Mollnes, Ole-Lars Brekke
Cytokines are potentially useful biomarkers of sepsis and other inflammatory conditions. Many cytokines can be released by leukocytes and platelets after sampling. The sampling and processing techniques are consequently critically important to measure the in vivo levels. We therefore examined the effects of four different anticoagulants, EDTA, citrate, lepirudin, heparin compared to serum, on the levels of 27 different cytokines. The effects of storage temperature, freezing and thawing on the plasma cytokines were examined...
June 5, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591401/an-overview-of-the-molecular-and-epidemiological-features-of-hiv-1-infection-in-two-major-cities-of-bahia-state-brazil
#13
Amanda Gm Amaral, Isabele B Oliveira, Diego C Carneiro, Luiz Cj Alcantara, Joana P Monteiro-Cunha
BACKGROUND: The high mutation rate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has created a public health challenge because the use of antiretroviral drugs can generate selective pressure that drives resistance in these viruses. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to characterise the molecular and epidemiological profile of HIV in Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: DNA sequences from regions of HIV gag, pol, and env genes were obtained from previous studies performed in this area between 2002 and 2012...
June 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591218/when-is-genetic-modification-socially-acceptable-when-used-to-advance-human-health-through-avenues-other-than-food
#14
Nicole J Olynk Widmar, S R Dominick, Wallace E Tyner, Audrey Ruple
Given the potential for genetic modification (GM) to impact human health, via food and health mechanisms, a greater understanding of the social acceptance of GM is necessary to facilitate improved health outcomes. This analysis sought to quantify U.S. residents' acceptance of GM across five potential uses (grain production, fruit or vegetable production, livestock production, human medicine, and human health, i.e. disease vector control) and provides an in-depth analysis of a timely case study-the Zika virus (ZIKV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588320/the-influence-of-timing-of-radiation-therapy-following-breast-conserving-surgery-on-10-year-disease-free-survival
#15
Marissa C van Maaren, Reini W Bretveld, Jan J Jobsen, Renske K Veenstra, Catharina Gm Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Hendrik Struikmans, John H Maduro, Luc Ja Strobbe, Philip Mp Poortmans, Sabine Siesling
BACKGROUND: The Dutch guidelines advise to start radiation therapy (RT) within 5 weeks following breast-conserving surgery (BCS). However, much controversy exists regarding timing of RT. This study investigated its effect on 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) in a Dutch population-based cohort. METHODS: All women diagnosed with primary invasive stage I-IIIA breast cancer in 2003 treated with BCS+RT were included. Two populations were studied. Population 1 excluded patients receiving chemotherapy before RT...
June 6, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585128/expression-of-il-17-and-syndecan-1-in-nasal-polyps-and-their-correlation-with-nasal-polyps
#16
Guo-Qing Gong, Fang-Fang Ren, Yan-Jun Wang, Lang Wan, Shan Chen, Jie Yuan, Chuan-Mei Yang, Bang-Hua Liu, Wei-Jia Kong
Nasal polyp (NP) is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal cavity and sinuses. Although some authors have suggested that NP is related to inflammatory factors such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, IL-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-17, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and progression of NP remain obscure. This study investigated the expression and distribution of IL-17 and syndecan-1 in NP, and explored the roles of these two molecules in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (Eos CRSwNP) and non-Eos CRSwNP...
June 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583338/distal-corporal-anchoring-stitch-a-technique-to-address-distal-corporal-crossovers-and-impending-lateral-extrusions-of-a-penile-prosthesis
#17
Gabriele Antonini, Gian Maria Busetto, Francesco Del Giudice, Matteo Ferro, Benjamin I Chung, Simon L Conti, Alfredo Suarez Sarmiento, Arianna Pacchiarotti, Ettore De Berardinis, Paul E Perito
BACKGROUND: Unidentified distal crossovers, delayed distal crossovers, and impending lateral extrusion are complications of penile prosthesis implant insertion but are not as common as prosthesis infection or mechanical failure. AIM: To evaluate results of a surgical technique, the distal corporal anchoring stitch, that addresses fixation of the penile prosthesis in patients with these complications. METHODS: A lateral sub-coronal incision is used on the side where the crossover or laterally extruding cylinder should be positioned...
June 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576879/robust-patient-derived-xenografts-of-mds-mpn-overlap-syndromes-capture-the-unique-characteristics-of-cmml-and-jmml
#18
Akihide Yoshimi, Maria E Balasis, Alexis Vedder, Kira Feldman, Yan Ma, Hailing Zhang, Stanley Chun-Wei Lee, Christopher Letson, Sandrine Niyongere, Sydney X Lu, Markus Ball, Justin Taylor, Qing Zhang, Yulong Zhao, Salma Youssef, Young Rock Chung, Xiao Jing Zhang, Benjamin H Durham, Wendy Yang, Alan F List, Mignon L Loh, Virginia Klimek, Michael F Berger, Elliot Stieglitz, Eric Padron, Omar Abdel-Wahab
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) are characterized by monocytosis, myelodysplasia, and a characteristic hypersensitivity to GM-CSF. Currently, there are no available disease-modifying therapies for CMML, nor are there preclinical models that fully recapitulate the unique features of CMML. Through use of immunocompromised mice with transgenic expression of human GM-CSF, IL-3, and SCF in a NOD/SCID-IL2Rγ(null) background (NSGS mice), we demonstrate remarkable engraftment of CMML and JMML providing the first examples of serially transplantable and genetically accurate models of CMML...
June 2, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561920/2d-and-shearwave-elastography-ultrasound-a-reliable-method-to-analyse-spastic-muscles
#19
Laure Mathevon, F Michel, S Aubry, R Testa, T Lapole, L F Arnaudeau, B Fernandez, B Parratte, P Calmels
Introduction-Few data exist on the feasibility and reliability of measuring muscular atrophy in two dimensions (2D) by ultrasonography (US) and elasticity using ShearWave Elastography (SWE) in spastic muscles. Methods-Fourteen patients with chronic stroke took part in two inter-session reliability experiments performed with a one week interval between sessions. Pennation angle (PA), muscle thickness (MT), and shear elastic modulus (µ) were measured in spastic gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles at rest and at maximal passive stretching in paretic and non-paretic legs...
May 31, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557525/human-milk-provision-experiences-goals-and-outcomes-for-teen-mothers-with-low-birth-weight-infants-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#20
Beverly Rossman, Paula P Meier, Judy E Janes, Christie Lawrence, Aloka L Patel
INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding rates are virtually unknown for teen mothers whose low-birth-weight (LBW; <2500 gm) infants are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The objective was to examine the infant feeding experiences, goals, and outcomes of teen mothers of LBW infants. METHODS: We conducted a multimethod study using a qualitative research design, survey, and infant medical records. The primary data source was individual interviews conducted with teen mothers of LBW infants hospitalized in a tertiary NICU...
May 30, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
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