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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793158/botulinum-toxin-type-a-affects-mechanics-of-non-injected-antagonistic-rat-muscles
#1
Filiz Ateş, Can A Yucesoy
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) effects on the mechanics of non-injected antagonistic muscles are unknown. The aim was to test the following hypotheses in a rat model: BTX-A injected into gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and lateralis (GL) (1) decreases forces of the antagonistic tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), (2) reduces length range of force exertion and (3) increases passive forces of the TA, and (4) changes inter-antagonistic and inter-synergistic epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790266/clindamycin-to-reduce-preterm-birth-in-a-low-resource-setting-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#2
Mrutyunjaya B Bellad, Matthew K Hoffman, Ashalata A Mallapur, Umesh S Charantimath, Geetanjali M Katageri, Ganachari, Avinash Kavi, Umesh Y Ramdurg, Sheshidhar G Bannale, Amit Revankar, Nancy L Sloan, Bhalachandra Kodkany, Shivaprasad S Goudar, Richard J Derman
OBJECTIVE: To determine if oral Clindamycin reduces the risk of preterm birth in women with abnormal vaginal microflora as evidenced by a vaginal pH ≥5·0. DESIGN: Randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Rural southern India. POPULATION: Pregnant women with a singleton foetus between 13 0/7 weeks and 20 6/7 weeks. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited during prenatal visits in Karnataka India from October 2013 to July 2015...
May 22, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784034/comparison-of-three-imaging-modalities-used-to-evaluate-bone-healing-after-tibial-tuberosity-advancement-in-cranial-cruciate-ligament-deficient-dogs-and-comparison-of-the-effect-of-a-gelatinous-matrix-and-a-demineralized-bone-matrix-mix-on-bone-healing-a-pilot
#3
Marije Risselada, Matthew D Winter, Daniel D Lewis, Emily Griffith, Antonio Pozzi
BACKGROUND: Bone healing and assessment of the state of bone bridging is an important part of clinical orthopedics, whether for fracture healing or for follow up of osteotomy procedures. Tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) is designed to restore stability in cruciate deficient stifle joints by advancing the tuberosity while creating an osteotomy gap. The current study aims to: 1) compare three different imaging modalities to assess bone healing: ultrasound, radiographs and computed tomography (CT) and, to 2) compare the effect of a gelatinous matrix (GM) versus a demineralized bone matrix mix (DBM mix) on bone healing and bridging of this osteotomy gap in 10 otherwise healthy client-owned dogs with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency...
May 22, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777594/il-3-producing-basophils-are-required-to-exacerbate-airway-hyper-responsiveness-in-a-murine-inflammatory-model
#4
Rachel Rignault-Bricard, François Machavoine, Salah Mecheri, Olivier Hermine, Elke Schneider, Michel Dy, Maria Leite-de-Moraes
BACKGROUND: Basophils are commonly associated with allergic responses because of their ability to produce large amounts of pro-Th2 cytokines and histamine. However, the mechanisms through which bone marrow-resident basophils (BMRB) become fully competent cytokine and histamine producers in response to IgE crosslinking are poorly understood. Here, we sought to determine the role of IL-3 in promoting pro-Th2 basophils. METHODS: BMRB and basophils exposed to IL-3 in vitro and in vivo were evaluated for their production of Th2 cytokines and histamine in response to FcεRI crosslinking on both protein and gene expression levels...
May 19, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774652/nonscarring-diffuse-hair-loss-in-women-a-clinico-etiological-study-from-tertiary-care-center-in-north-west-india
#5
Kavita Poonia, Gurvinder Pal Thami, Mala Bhalla, Shivani Jaiswal, Jasleen Sandhu
BACKGROUND: Diffuse hair loss (DHL) is a common problem in adult women and has a major impact on quality of life. Ascertaining the etiological diagnosis is a challenging task in such patients. Satisfactory treatment can only be instituted after ascertaining the cause of hair loss. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile of nonscarring DHL in females and to ascertain its underlying etiological factors. STUDY DESIGN: Of a total of 110 females, who presented with nonscarring DHL to the outpatient dermatology department, 100 qualified for inclusion in the study...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772098/insights-in-particulate-matter-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-focus-on-the-epithelium
#6
Katrien C De Grove, Sharen Provoost, Guy G Brusselle, Guy F Joos, Tania Maes
Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem throughout the world. In particular, exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with the development and exacerbation of several respiratory diseases, including asthma. Although the adverse health effects of PM have been demonstrated for many years, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully identified. In this review, we focus on the role of the lung epithelium and specifically highlight multiple cytokines in PM-induced respiratory responses...
May 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770533/nctd-enhances-antitumor-immunity-of-gm-csf-prostate-cancer-cells-vaccine-by-inducing-apoptosis-of-regulatory-t-cells
#7
Lijun Mo, Xinji Zhang, Xiaojun Shi, Lili Wei, Dianpeng Zheng, Hongwei Li, Jimin Gao, Jinlong Li, Zhiming Hu
Norcantharidin (NCTD) is a promising antitumor drug with low toxicity. It was reported to be able to regulate immunity, but the mechanism is not yet clear. Here we explored whether NCTD could enhance the antitumor immunity induced by prostate cancer cells vaccine. The results in vitro study showed that NCTD induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of Tregs. Mechanistic research showed that NCTD inhibited Akt activation and activated FOXO1 transcription, resulting in pro-apoptotic effect. The results in vivo study showed that more tumor-infiltrating Tregs existed within peripheral blood and tumor tissue after treating with the vaccine...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770434/tumor-yap1-and-pten-expression-correlates-with-tumor-associated-myeloid-suppressor-cell-expansion-and-reduced-survival-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
Rong Yang, Ting-Ting Cai, Xiao-Jun Wu, Yi-Na Liu, Jia He, Xiao-Shi Zhang, Gang Ma, Jiang Li
The expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) correlates with tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we found a significant association between CD33+ MDSC number and YAP1 and PTEN levels in CRC patients (P < 0.05). Moreover, the CD33+ MDSCs, YAP1 and PTEN were identified as predictors for the prognosis of CRC patients (P < 0.05). Notably, CD33+ MDSCs were an independent survival predictor for CRC patients through a Cox model analysis. In vitro data determined that the expression levels of YAP1 and PTEN in CRC-derived cell lines were associated with CRC-derived MDSC induction, and the blockade of YAP1 and PTEN decreased CRC-derived MDSC induction...
May 16, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769377/-ex-vivo-cytokine-release-determined-by-a-multiplex-cytokine-assay-in-response-to-coccidioidal-antigen-stimulation-of-whole-blood-among-subjects-with-recently-diagnosed-primary-pulmonary-coccidioidomycosis
#9
Neil M Ampel, Ian Robey, Chinh T Nguyen, Brentin Roller, Jessica August, Kenneth S Knox, Demosthenes Pappagianis
The elements of the cellular immune response in human coccidioidomycosis remain undefined. We examined the ex vivo release of an array of inflammatory proteins in response to incubation with a coccidioidal antigen preparation to ascertain which of these might be associated with diagnosis and outcome. Patients with a recent diagnosis of primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis and a control group of healthy subjects were studied. Blood samples were incubated for 18 h with T27K, a soluble coccidioidal preparation containing multiple glycosylated antigens, and the supernatant was assayed for inflammatory proteins using the multiplex Luminex system...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768710/improving-the-safety-of-high-dose-methotrexate-for-children-with-hematologic-cancers-in-settings-without-access-to-mtx-levels-using-extended-hydration-and-additional-leucovorin
#10
Kalthi Vaishnavi, Deepak Bansal, Amita Trehan, Richa Jain, Savita Verma Attri
BACKGROUND: A lack of access to methotrexate levels is common in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), relevant for 80% of children with cancer worldwide. We evaluated whether high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) can be administered safely with extended hydration and leucovorin rescue, with monitoring of serum creatinine and urine pH. METHODS: The prospective study was conducted at a single centre in Chandigarh, India in 2015. Patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or with T-cell ALL or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-NHL) were administered 3 and 5 gm/m2 of MTX (24 hr infusion), respectively...
May 16, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760929/statin-associated-myopathy-assessment-of-frequency-based-on-data-of-all-statutory-health-insurance-funds-in-germany
#11
Peter Ihle, Franz-Werner Dippel, Ingrid Schubert
Aim of the study was to assess the incidence of statin-associated myopathy (SAM) under real-life conditions in Germany. DATABASE: Administrative data (master data, diagnoses, prescriptions) for all individuals in Germany insured with the Statutory Health Insurance. Basic population: individuals 18 years and older who have been insured continually from 2009 to 2011 (52.9 million; 29.9 million men, 23.9 million women). Data access is provided by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information, DIMDI) according to the Data Transparency Regulation of 2012...
June 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759418/a-clone-directed-approach-may-improve-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-proliferative-glomerulonephritis-with-monoclonal-immunoglobulin-deposits
#12
Ramnika Gumber, Jordana B Cohen, Matthew B Palmer, Sidney M Kobrin, Dan T Vogl, Alan G Wasserstein, Sunita D Nasta, Melissa B Bleicher, Roy D Bloom, Laura Dember, Adam Cohen, Brendan M Weiss, Jonathan J Hogan
The optimal treatment for the monoclonal gammopathies of renal significance is not known, but there is consensus among experts that treatment should be specific for the underlying clone. The majority of patients with proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits (PGNMID) do not have an identifiable clone, and prior studies have found poor renal outcomes for patients with PGNMID treated with a variety of regimens. Here we present a retrospective case series of 19 patients with PGNMID with a more uniform, clone-directed approach...
May 11, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755976/a-general-safety-assessment-for-purified-food-ingredients-derived-from-biotechnology-crops-case-study-of-brazilian-sugar-and-beverages-produced-from-insect-protected-sugarcane
#13
Reese D Kennedy, Adriana Cheavegatti-Gianotto, Wladecir S de Oliveira, Ronald P Lirette, Jerry J Hjelle
Insect-protected sugarcane that expresses Cry1Ab has been developed in Brazil. Analysis of trade information has shown that effectively all the sugarcane-derived Brazilian exports are raw or refined sugar and ethanol. The fact that raw and refined sugar are highly purified food ingredients, with no detectable transgenic protein, provides an interesting case study of a generalized safety assessment approach. In this study, both the theoretical protein intakes and safety assessments of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, NPTII, and Bar proteins used in insect-protected biotechnology crops were examined...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755555/the-ethanolic-extract-of-eysenhardtia-polystachya-ort-sarg-bark-and-its-fractions-delay-the-progression-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-show-antinociceptive-activity-in-murine-models
#14
Saudy Saret Pablo-Pérez, Benjamín Parada-Cruz, Olivier Christophe Barbier, María Estela Meléndez-Camargo
Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. The EE was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, and its fractions at 25 mg/kg/day in all animal models...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755473/differential-effect-of-viable-versus-necrotic-neutrophils-on-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-growth-and-cytokine-induction-in-whole-blood
#15
David M Lowe, Julie Demaret, Nonzwakazi Bangani, Justine K Nakiwala, Rene Goliath, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson, Adrian R Martineau
Neutrophils exert both positive and negative influences on the host response to tuberculosis, but the mechanisms by which these differential effects are mediated are unknown. We studied the impact of live and dead neutrophils on the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a whole blood bioluminescence-based assay, and assayed supernatant cytokine concentrations using Luminex™ technology and ELISA. CD15+ granulocyte depletion from blood prior to infection with M. tuberculosis -lux impaired control of mycobacteria by 96 h, with a greater effect than depletion of CD4+, CD8+, or CD14+ cells ( p  < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748200/extent-of-microstructural-tissue-damage-correlates-with-hemodynamic-failure-in-high-grade-carotid-occlusive-disease-an-mri-study-using-quantitative-t2-and-dsc-perfusion
#16
A Seiler, R Deichmann, U Nöth, A Lauer, W Pfeilschifter, O C Singer, M Wagner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic hemodynamic impairment in high-grade carotid occlusive disease is thought to cause microstructural abnormalities that might be subclinical or lead to subtle symptoms including cognitive impairment. Quantitative MR imaging allows assessing pathologic structural changes beyond macroscopically visible tissue damage. In this study, high-resolution quantitative T2 mapping combined with DSC-based PWI was used to investigate quantitative T2 changes as a potential marker of microstructural damage in relation to hemodynamic impairment in patients with unilateral high-grade carotid occlusive disease...
May 10, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746559/comparative-genotypic-and-phenotypic-analysis-of-human-peripheral-blood-monocytes-and-surrogate-monocyte-like-cell-lines-commonly-used-in-metabolic-disease-research
#17
Darren M Riddy, Emily Goy, Philippe Delerive, Roger J Summers, Patrick M Sexton, Christopher J Langmead
Monocyte-like cell lines (MCLCs), including THP-1, HL-60 and U-937 cells, are used routinely as surrogates for isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To systematically evaluate these immortalised cells and PBMCs as model systems to study inflammation relevant to the pathogenesis of type II diabetes and immuno-metabolism, we compared mRNA expression of inflammation-relevant genes, cell surface expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) markers, and chemotactic responses to inflammatory stimuli...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745046/adsorption-of-soluble-immunoglobulin-type-adhesion-molecules-to-cellulose-acetate-beads
#18
Shoichi Nishise, Yuji Takeda, Hidetoshi Nara, Yasuhiko Abe, Yu Sasaki, Hironobu Asao, Yoshiyuki Ueno
Circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) are elevated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Cellulose acetate (CA) beads are used as carriers for granulocyte and monocyte (GM) adsorptive apheresis (GMA). We investigated the effect of CA beads on sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 plasma concentrations in vitro. Because GM adsorption to CA beads increased with a rise in the incubation temperature in our previous study, peripheral blood was incubated with and without CA beads at 5, 25, 37, or 43 °C and plasma sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 was measured...
May 9, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741289/grommets-ventilation-tubes-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Roderick P Venekamp, Paul Mick, Anne Gm Schilder, Desmond A Nunez
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood illnesses. While many children experience sporadic AOM episodes, an important group suffer from recurrent AOM (rAOM), defined as three or more episodes in six months, or four or more in one year. In this subset of children AOM poses a true burden through frequent episodes of ear pain, general illness, sleepless nights and time lost from nursery or school. Grommets, also called ventilation or tympanostomy tubes, can be offered for rAOM...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728956/the-assessment-of-field-trials-in-gmo-research-around-the-world-and-their-possible-integration-in-field-trials-for-variety-registration
#20
REVIEW
M M Slot, C C M van de Wiel, G A Kleter, R G F Visser, E J Kok
Most regulations worldwide stipulate that a new genetically modified (GM) crop event has to be compared to its closest non-GM counterpart as a corner stone of the pre-market risk assessment. To this end the GM crop and its comparator should be grown in field trials for a phenotypic comparison as well as for subsequent detailed analysis of the composition of the two crop varieties. A more in-depth globally harmonised approach for the conduct of these field trials is lacking. Only a few countries have formulated detailed protocols for the set-up of GM field trials...
May 4, 2018: Transgenic Research
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