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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351335/the-effects-of-an-acute-exercise-bout-on-gh-and-igf-1-in-prediabetic-and-healthy-african-americans-a-pilot-study-investigating-gene-expression
#1
Nathaniel T Berry, Monica Hubal, Laurie Wideman
The incidence of pre-diabetes (PD) and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic. African American (AA) individuals are disproportionately more likely to become diabetic than other ethnic groups. Over the long-term, metabolic complications related to diabetes result in significant alterations in growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Considering the limited exercise-related studies in the area of gene expression changes with disease progression, the objective of this study was to examine differences in exercise-induced gene expression related to the GH and IGF-1 pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy (CON) and PD AA individuals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350264/linking-muscle-metabolism-and-functional-variation-to-field-swimming-performance-in-bluegill-sunfish-lepomis-macrochirus
#2
David J Ellerby, Shauna Cyr, Angela X Han, Mika Lin, Lloyd A Trueblood
Skeletal muscle has diverse mechanical roles during locomotion. In swimming fish, power-producing muscles work in concert with the accessory muscles of the fins which augment and control power transfer to the water. Although fin muscles represent a significant proportion of the locomotor muscle mass, their physiological properties are poorly characterized. To examine the relationship between muscle metabolism and the differing mechanical demands placed on distinct muscle groups, we quantified the aerobic and glycolytic capacities of the myotomal, pectoral and caudal muscles of bluegill sunfish...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349631/promoter-analysis-of-the-fish-gene-of-slow-cardiac-type-myosin-heavy-chain-implicated-in-specification-of-muscle-fiber-types
#3
Shigeharu Kinoshita, Saltuk Bugrahan Ceyhun, Asaduzzamann Md, Bhuiyan Sharmin Siddique, Dadasaheb B Akolkar, Shuichi Asakawa, Shugo Watabe
Vertebrate skeletal muscles consist of heterogeneous tissues containing various types of muscle fibers, where specification of the fiber type is crucial for muscle development. Fish are an attractive experimental model to study the mechanisms of such fiber type specification because of the separated localization of slow and fast muscles in the trunk myotome. We examined regulation of expression of the torafugu gene of slow/cardiac-type myosin heavy chain, MYH M5 , and isolated an operational promoter in order to force its tissue-specific expression across different fish species via the transgenic approach in zebrafish and medaka...
January 18, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348840/the-prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-diabetes-mellitus-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance-among-tibetans-in-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Shaopeng Xu, Qing Wang, Jie Liu, Bo Bian, Xuefang Yu, Xiangdong Yu, Xianjia Ning, Jinghua Wang
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) has increased worldwide, although their prevalence and determinants among Tibetans are currently unknown. We thus aimed to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for DM and IGT among Tibetans in China. In 2011, 1659 Tibetan adults (aged ≥ 18 years) from Changdu, China, were recruited to this cross-sectional study. They completed a questionnaire and underwent physical examinations and laboratory testing to assess risk factors for DM and IGT...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348834/activity-strengths-of-cortical-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neurons-are-correlated-with-transgenerational-inheritance-of-learning-ability
#5
Yulong Liu, Rongjing Ge, Xin Zhao, Rui Guo, Li Huang, Shidi Zhao, Sudong Guan, Wei Lu, Shan Cui, Shirlene Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
The capabilities of learning and memory in parents are presumably transmitted to their offsprings, in which genetic codes and epigenetic regulations are thought as molecular bases. As neural plasticity occurs during memory formation as cellular mechanism, we aim to examine the correlation of activity strengths at cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons to the transgenerational inheritance of learning ability. In a mouse model of associative learning, paired whisker and odor stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion, whose onset appeared fast (high learning efficiency, HLE) or slow (low learning efficiency, LLE)...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348565/an-in-vitro-system-of-autologous-lymphocytes-culture-that-allows-the-study-of-homeostatic-proliferation-mechanisms-in-human-naive-cd4-t-cells
#6
Isaac Rosado-Sánchez, Amaia González-Magaña, María M Pozo-Balado, Inés Herrero-Fernández, María J Polaino, María M Rodríguez-Méndez, María Francisca González-Escribano, Manuel Leal, Yolanda M Pacheco
The size of peripheral T-cell pool is kept constant throughout life. However, a decline in lymphocyte numbers is a feature of several human disorders, in which fast and slow homeostatic proliferation play a crucial role. Several in vitro and in vivo models have been developed to study such processes. Nevertheless, self- and commensal- antigens, well-known triggers of homeostatic proliferation, have not been examined in these models. We have designed an in vitro culture of human T-cells exposed to rIL7 and autologous antigen-presenting cells (aAPC) that allows the simultaneous characterization of the different types of homeostatic proliferation...
January 18, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348383/improving-diagnostic-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-hiv-patients-by-bronchoscopy-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Prayudi Santoso, Arto Y Soeroto, Rianita Juniati, Yovita Hartantri, Rudi Wisaksana, Bachti Alisjabana, Heda M Nataprawira, Ida Parwati
BACKGROUND: diagnostic of pulmonary TB in HIV patients is a problem due to non specific clinical features, or radiological appearance. HIV patients with CD4≤200 cells/mL infected with M. tuberculosis have less capacity in containing M. tuberculosis, developing granulomas, casseous necrosis, or cavities. This condition is caused by weakend inflammatory which later reduced sputum production and may cause false negative result. This study aimed to assess differences in the positivity level of acid fast bacilli (AFB) and cultures of M...
October 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347609/noise-induced-drift-in-two-dimensional-anisotropic-systems
#8
Oded Farago
We study the isothermal Brownian dynamics of a particle in a system with spatially varying diffusivity. Due to the heterogeneity of the system, the particle's mean displacement does not vanish even if it does not experience any physical force. This phenomenon has been termed "noise-induced drift," and has been extensively studied for one-dimensional systems. Here, we examine the noise-induced drift in a two-dimensional anisotropic system, characterized by a symmetric diffusion tensor with unequal diagonal elements...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346907/fast-electrons-generated-by-quasistatic-electric-fields-of-a-fs-laser-pulse-induced-plasma
#9
F Kleeschulte, B Hagmeister, D Hemmers, G Pretzler
We present a new acceleration mechanism for electrons taking place during the interaction of an ultrashort, nonrelativistic laser pulse with a plasma generated at the surface of a solid density target. In our experiments, the plasma is created by a laser pulse with femtosecond duration and an energy of about 1 mJ focused to intensities of above 10^{17}W/cm^{2}. We observe that the electron energies acquired by this mechanism exceed the ponderomotive potential of the laser by an order of magnitude. This result was reproduced and quantitatively confirmed by particle-in-cell simulations, which further revealed that the observed electron acceleration is based on quasistatic electric fields caused by the space charges of ponderomotively preaccelerated electrons...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346414/reliability-of-plasma-polar-metabolite-concentrations-in-a-large-scale-cohort-study-using-capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry
#10
Sei Harada, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Queenie Chan, Ayako Kurihara, Kota Fukai, Miho Iida, Suzuka Kato, Daisuke Sugiyama, Kazuyo Kuwabara, Ayano Takeuchi, Miki Akiyama, Tomonori Okamura, Timothy M D Ebbels, Paul Elliott, Masaru Tomita, Asako Sato, Chizuru Suzuki, Masahiro Sugimoto, Tomoyoshi Soga, Toru Takebayashi
BACKGROUND: Cohort studies with metabolomics data are becoming more widespread, however, large-scale studies involving 10,000s of participants are still limited, especially in Asian populations. Therefore, we started the Tsuruoka Metabolomics Cohort Study enrolling 11,002 community-dwelling adults in Japan, and using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The CE-MS method is highly amenable to absolute quantification of polar metabolites, however, its reliability for large-scale measurement is unclear...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345582/is-the-impact-of-starvation-on-the-gut-microbiota-specific-or-unspecific-to-anorexia-nervosa-a-narrative-review-based-on-a-systematic-literature-search
#11
Isabelle Mack, John Penders, Jessica Cook, Jaslyn Dugmore, Nazar Mazurak, Paul Enck
BACKGROUND: The role of the gut microbiota in Anorexia nervosa (AN) has long been neglected by researchers, although the former is known to play an important role in health, disease and weight regulation. Overweight and underweight due to natural states of starvation and refeeding are normal in many vertebrates in their ecological niches. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to compare the similarities and differences between the gut microbiota in eating disorders with conditions of fasting and refeeding in other vertebrates...
January 17, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345551/quantifying-novice-and-expert-differences-in-visual-diagnostic-reasoning-in-veterinary-pathology-using-eye-tracking-technology
#12
Amy L Warren, Tyrone L Donnon, Catherine R Wagg, Heather Priest, Nicole J Fernandez
Visual diagnostic reasoning is the cognitive process by which pathologists reach a diagnosis based on visual stimuli (cytologic, histopathologic, or gross imagery). Currently, there is little to no literature examining visual reasoning in veterinary pathology. The objective of the study was to use eye tracking to establish baseline quantitative and qualitative differences between the visual reasoning processes of novice and expert veterinary pathologists viewing cytology specimens. Novice and expert participants were each shown 10 cytology images and asked to formulate a diagnosis while wearing eye-tracking equipment (10 slides) and while concurrently verbalizing their thought processes using the think-aloud protocol (5 slides)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345287/intermittent-calorie-restriction-enhances-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-the-alteration-of-energy-metabolism-in-a-mouse-tumor-model
#13
Osamu Kusuoka, Rina Fujiwara-Tani, Chie Nakashima, Kiyomu Fujii, Hitoshi Ohmori, Takuya Mori, Shingo Kishi, Yoshihiro Miyagawa, Kei Goto, Isao Kawahara, Hiroki Kuniyasu
The effect of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) on cancer is controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of ICR and food content in syngeneic BALB/c mice injected with CT26 mouse colon cancer cells. Mice were subjected to 24-h fasting once a week for 4 weeks, and then provided with a control, high-calorie, or trans fatty acid-rich diet. While ICR resulted in increases in tumor weights, metastasis and in the number of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the tumors or blood of mice fed the control and high-fat diets, it had no effect on body weight after 4 weeks...
February 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344532/functional-ability-of-clients-with-bipolar-disorders-in-tertiary-hospital-puducherry
#14
Rajendran Rangasamy Kavitha, Sethuramachandran Kamalam, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
Background: Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a common long standing mental illness which is episodic in nature, affecting approximately1-2% of the world adult population. BD frequently affects the patient's life. Few studies have examined the functional impairment in patients with affective illness. The main objective of the current study was to assess specific domains of functioning as well as the overall functioning of the clients with BD. Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of function among the clients with BD in JIPMER Hospital, Puducherry during 2015-2016 and to identify the socio- demographic and clinical factors associated with the level of functioning...
January 2018: International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344480/primary-conjunctival-tuberculosis-presenting-as-dry-eye-a-rare-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Rupinder Kaur Brar, Ashok Singh, Archana Hemant Deshpande, Chitrawati Bal Gargade, Sujit Das
Primary conjunctival tuberculosis is very rare in the developed countries. In an endemic country like India, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any unusual conjunctival lesion with unilaterality, chronicity, and nonresolution of symptoms after steroid use. We present the case of a 52-year-old female who presented with unilateral itching and blurring of vision for 20 days. There were irregular nodular elevated areas with shrinkage of the lower palpebral conjunctiva. A biopsy of the lesion revealed necrotizing epithelioid cell granulomas along with Langhans type of giant cells...
November 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343164/inflammatory-and-oxidative-responses-in-pregnancies-with-obesity-and-periodontal-disease
#16
Marta Zambon, Chiara Mandò, Alessandra Lissoni, Gaia Maria Anelli, Chiara Novielli, Manuela Cardellicchio, Roberto Leone, Marta Noemi Monari, Maddalena Massari, Irene Cetin, Silvio Abati
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is related to immunologic and inflammatory systemic modifications that may worsen the pregnancy inflammatory status. Hormonal changes during pregnancy can adversely affect oral biofilms and oral health initiating or worsening periodontal diseases, with enhanced local and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between local salivary and systemic parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation in relation to obesity and periodontal diseases...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342295/empagliflozin-treatment-is-associated-with-improved-beta-cell-function-in-t2dm
#17
Hussein Al Jobori, Giuseppe Daniele, John Adams, Eugenio Cersosimo, Carolina Solis-Herrera, Curtis Triplitt, Ralph A DeFronzo, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani
Objective: To examine whether lowering the plasma glucose concentration with empagliflozin (SGLT2 inhibitor) improves beta cell function in T2DM. Research Design and Methods: 15 T2DM patients received empagliflozin (25 mg/day) for 2 weeks, and beta cell function was measured with 9-step hyperglycemic clamp (each step = +40 mg/dl) before and 48 hours and 14 days after empagliflozin. Results: Empagliflozin caused 101±10 and 117±11 grams glucosuria on days 1 and 14 and produced 25±6 and 38±8 mg/dl reduction (p<0...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342171/health-behavior-associated-with-liver-enzymes-among-obese-korean-adolescents-2009-2014
#18
Eun-Young Lee, Hwa Young Choi, Hyunsoon Cho, Bo Hyun Kim, Moran Ki
AIMS: Obesity is major risk factor for liver health. This study aimed to clarify whether specific health behaviors were associated with liver function in obese adolescents in Korea. METHODS: Based on national school health examination data from 2009 to 2014, 25,142 obese or overweight students were examined for aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels, and health behaviors. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio for liver enzyme elevation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342124/the-root-of-atractylodes-macrocephala-koidzumi-prevents-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance-and-increases-energy-metabolism-in-mice
#19
Mi Young Song, Soo-Kyoung Lim, Jing-Hua Wang, Hojun Kim
Targeting energy expenditure offers a strategy for treating obesity more effectively and safely. In previous studies, we found that the root of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi (Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, ARA) increased energy metabolism in C2C12 cells. Here, we investigated the effects of ARA on obesity and glucose intolerance by examining energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and brown fat in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice. ARA decreased body weight gain, hepatic lipid levels and serum total cholesterol levels, but did not modify food intake...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341907/molecular-level-elucidation-of-saccharin-assisted-rapid-dissolution-and-high-supersaturation-level-of-drug-from-eudragit%C3%A2-e-solid-dispersion
#20
Keisuke Ueda, Harunobu Kanaya, Kenjirou Higashi, Keiji Yamamoto, Kunikazu Moribe
In this work, the effect of saccharin (SAC) addition on the dissolution and supersaturation level of phenytoin (PHT)/Eudragit® E (EUD-E) solid dispersion (SD) at neutral pH was examined. The PHT/EUD-E SD showed a much slower dissolution of PHT compared to the PHT/EUD-E/SAC SD. EUD-E formed a gel layer after the dispersion of the PHT/EUD-E SD into an aqueous medium, resulting in a slow dissolution of PHT. Pre-dissolving SAC in the aqueous medium significantly improved the dissolution of the PHT/EUD-E SD. Solid-state 13C NMR measurements showed an ionic interaction between the tertiary amino group of EUD-E and the amide group of SAC in the EUD-E gel layer...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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