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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923069/characterization-in-helicobacter-pylori-of-a-nickel-transporter-essential-for-colonization-that-was-acquired-during-evolution-by-gastric-helicobacter-species
#1
Frédéric Fischer, Marie Robbe-Saule, Evelyne Turlin, Francesco Mancuso, Valérie Michel, Pierre Richaud, Frédéric J Veyrier, Hilde De Reuse, Daniel Vinella
Metal acquisition is crucial for all cells and for the virulence of many bacterial pathogens. In particular, nickel is a virulence determinant for the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori as it is the cofactor of two enzymes essential for in vivo colonization, urease and a [NiFe] hydrogenase. To import nickel despite its scarcity in the human body, H. pylori requires efficient uptake mechanisms that are only partially defined. Indeed, alternative ways of nickel entry were predicted to exist in addition to the well-described NixA permease...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922209/unconventional-pretreatment-of-lignocellulose-with-low-temperature-plasma
#2
Jens Vanneste, Thijs Ennaert, Annick Vanhulsel, Bert F Sels
Lignocellulose represents a potential supply of sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels and chemicals. There is, however, an important cost and efficiency challenge associated with the conversion of such lignocellulosics. Since its structure is complex and not prone to undergo chemical reactions very easily, chemical and mechanical pretreatments are usually necessary in order to be able to refine them into the compositional building blocks (carbohydrates and lignin), from which value-added platform molecules such as glucose, ethylene glycol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, etc...
December 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921459/investigation-of-the-derivatization-conditions-for-gc-ms-metabolomics-of-biological-samples
#3
Georgios Moros, Anastasia Chrysovalantou Chatziioannou, Helen G Gika, Nikolaos Raikos, Georgios Theodoridis
AIM: Metabolomics applications represent an emerging field where significant efforts are directed. Derivatization consists prerequisite for GC-MS metabolomics analysis. METHODS: Common silylation agents were tested for the derivatization of blood plasma. Optimization of methoxyamination and silylation reactions was performed on a mixture of reference standards, consisting of 46 different metabolites. Stability of derivatized metabolites was tested at 4°C. RESULTS: Optimum results were achieved using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide...
January 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921197/counselees-perspectives-of-genomic-counseling-following-online-receipt-of-multiple-actionable-complex-disease-and-pharmacogenomic-results-a-qualitative-research-study
#4
Kevin Sweet, Shelly Hovick, Amy C Sturm, Tara Schmidlen, Erynn Gordon, Barbara Bernhardt, Lisa Wawak, Karen Wernke, Joseph McElroy, Laura Scheinfeldt, Amanda E Toland, J S Roberts, Michael Christman
Genomic applications raise multiple challenges including the optimization of genomic counseling (GC) services as part of the results delivery process. More information on patients' motivations, preferences, and informational needs are essential to guide the development of new, more efficient practice delivery models that capitalize on the existing strengths of a limited genetic counseling workforce. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a subset of counselees from the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative following online receipt of multiple personalized genomic test reports...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921105/ultrasmall-silver-nanoclusters-highly-efficient-antibacterial-activity-and-their-mechanisms
#5
Jian-Cheng Jin, Xiao-Juan Wu, Juan Xu, Bei-Bei Wang, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yi Liu
Silver materials have been widely used as antimicrobial agents. Notably, silver nanoparticles have emerged as a new generation of nanoproducts for biomedical and environmental applications in recent years. However, ultrasmall silver nanoclusters (NCs) (∼2 nm) have rarely been used to kill bacteria and their antibacterial mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Herein, we studied the antibacterial activities of bifunctional fluorescent DHLA-AgNCs against three types of bacteria. The results showed that DHLA-AgNCs exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against Gram-negative E...
December 6, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920740/spaces-in-the-brain-from-neurons-to-meanings
#6
REVIEW
Christian Balkenius, Peter Gärdenfors
Spaces in the brain can refer either to psychological spaces, which are derived from similarity judgments, or to neurocognitive spaces, which are based on the activities of neural structures. We want to show how psychological spaces naturally emerge from the underlying neural spaces by dimension reductions that preserve similarity structures and the relevant categorizations. Some neuronal representational formats that may generate the psychological spaces are presented, compared, and discussed in relation to the mathematical principles of monotonicity, continuity, and convexity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920376/invasions-and-extinctions-through-the-looking-glass-of-evolutionary-ecology
#7
REVIEW
Robert I Colautti, Jake M Alexander, Katrina M Dlugosch, Stephen R Keller, Sonia E Sultan
Invasive and endangered species reflect opposite ends of a spectrum of ecological success, yet they experience many similar eco-evolutionary challenges including demographic bottlenecks, hybridization and novel environments. Despite these similarities, important differences exist. Demographic bottlenecks are more transient in invasive species, which (i) maintains ecologically relevant genetic variation, (ii) reduces mutation load, and (iii) increases the efficiency of natural selection relative to genetic drift...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920175/bridging-the-gap-between-experimental-data-and-model-parameterization-for-chikungunya-virus-transmission-predictions
#8
Rebecca C Christofferson, Christopher N Mores, Helen J Wearing
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has experienced 2 major expansion events in the last decade. The most recently emerged sublineage (ECSA-V) was shown to have increased efficiency in a historically secondary vector, Aedes albopictus, leading to speculation that this was a major factor in expansion. Subsequently, a number of experimental studies focused on the vector competence of CHIKV, as well as transmission modeling efforts. Mathematical models have used these data to inform their own investigations, but some have incorrectly parameterized the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) of the mosquitoes, using vector competence data...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919685/programmed-cell-clearance-from-nematodes-to-humans
#9
Katharina Klöditz, Yu-Zen Chen, Ding Xue, Bengt Fadeel
Programmed cell clearance is a highly regulated physiological process of elimination of dying cells that occurs rapidly and efficiently in healthy organisms. It thus ensures proper development as well as homeostasis. Recent studies have disclosed a considerable degree of conservation of cell clearance pathways between nematodes and higher organisms. The externalization of the anionic phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) has emerged as an important "eat-me" signal for phagocytes and its exposition on apoptotic cells is controlled by phospholipid translocases and scramblases...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919374/the-m-health-revolution-exploring-perceived-benefits-of-whatsapp-use-in-clinical-practice
#10
Kurubaran Ganasegeran, Pukunan Renganathan, Abdul Rashid, Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai
BACKGROUND: The dawn of m-Health facilitates new horizons of professional communication through WhatsApp, allowing health professionals to interact fast and efficiently for effective patient management. This preliminary study aimed to investigate perceived benefits, if any, of WhatsApp use across general medical and emergency teams during clinical practice in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 307 health professionals comprising of nurses, medical assistants, medical residents, medical officers and physicians across medical and casualty departments in a Malaysian public hospital...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918958/drivers-of-airborne-human-to-human-pathogen-transmission
#11
REVIEW
Sander Herfst, Michael Böhringer, Basel Karo, Philip Lawrence, Nicola S Lewis, Michael J Mina, Charles J Russell, John Steel, Rik L de Swart, Christian Menge
Airborne pathogens - either transmitted via aerosol or droplets - include a wide variety of highly infectious and dangerous microbes such as variola virus, measles virus, influenza A viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Emerging zoonotic pathogens, for example, MERS coronavirus, avian influenza viruses, Coxiella, and Francisella, would have pandemic potential were they to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Here, we synthesize insights from microbiological, medical, social, and economic sciences to provide known mechanisms of aerosolized transmissibility and identify knowledge gaps that limit emergency preparedness plans...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918646/bionanofiber-assisted-decoration-of-few-layered-mose2-nanosheets-on-3d-conductive-networks-for-efficient-hydrogen-evolution
#12
Feili Lai, Dingyu Yong, Xueliang Ning, Bicai Pan, Yue-E Miao, Tianxi Liu
Molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2 ) has emerged as a promising electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, its properties are still confined due to the limited active sites and poor conductivity. Thus, it remains a great challenge to synergistically achieve structural and electronic modulations for MoSe2 -based HER catalysts because of the contradictory relationship between these two characteristics. Herein, bacterial cellulose-derived carbon nanofibers are used to assist the uniform growth of few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets, which effectively increase the active sites of MoSe2 for hydrogen atom adsorption...
December 5, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918408/full-practice-authority-for-nurse-practitioners
#13
Deborah Dillon, Faye Gary
Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (2010) enabled more than 30 million people to have new access to primary care services. On the basis of current utilization patterns, demand for primary care providers is expected to grow more rapidly than physician supply. This imbalance is expected to worsen, as the aging population requires more health care resources. In addition, more patients are requiring critical care services and physician numbers are not keeping with this growing need. Restrictions on resident physician practice hours have impacted inpatient care as well...
January 2017: Nursing Administration Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918179/mining-big-data-to-extract-patterns-and-predict-real-life-outcomes
#14
Michal Kosinski, Yilun Wang, Himabindu Lakkaraju, Jure Leskovec
This article aims to introduce the reader to essential tools that can be used to obtain insights and build predictive models using large data sets. Recent user proliferation in the digital environment has led to the emergence of large samples containing a wealth of traces of human behaviors, communication, and social interactions. Such samples offer the opportunity to greatly improve our understanding of individuals, groups, and societies, but their analysis presents unique methodological challenges. In this tutorial, we discuss potential sources of such data and explain how to efficiently store them...
December 2016: Psychological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918097/sugars-and-fat-a-healthy-way-to-generate-functional-regulatory-t-cells
#15
Sarah Sharon Gabriel, Axel Kallies
Cellular metabolism has emerged as an important regulator of adaptive immunity. While the metabolic requirements of conventional T cells are increasingly understood, the role of cellular metabolism in Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells is less clear. Although it is well accepted that repression of Akt/mTOR, HIF-1α and aerobic glycolysis are important for the efficient generation of Treg cells in vitro, clear evidence how these pathways impact on Treg-cell development in vivo is limited. Furthermore, newer studies have shown that the same pathways that appear to suppress Treg-cell development are active in and required for functionally mature Treg cells...
December 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917816/effect-of-ankaferd-blood-stopper-on-muscle-healing
#16
Murat Uygun, Osman Y Yavuz, İsmail Uraş, İbrahim G Duman, Hacer Haltaş, Mahmut Kömürcü
PURPOSE: Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), which is a standardized mixture of herbal extracts obtained from five plants, has been proven as an efficient hemostatic agent and is still used in emergency situations. It is not known exactly if decreased bleeding has positive or negative effects on muscle healing and fibrosis, so the purpose of this study was to test the effect of ABS on muscle healing and morphology. METHODS: A total of 66 outbred Wistar rats were divided into three control and three experimental subgroups...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916917/a-routing-protocol-for-multisink-wireless-sensor-networks-in-underground-coalmine-tunnels
#17
Xu Xia, Zhigang Chen, Hui Liu, Huihui Wang, Feng Zeng
Traditional underground coalmine monitoring systems are mainly based on the use of wired transmission. However, when cables are damaged during an accident, it is difficult to obtain relevant data on environmental parameters and the emergency situation underground. To address this problem, the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been proposed. However, the shape of coalmine tunnels is not conducive to the deployment of WSNs as they are long and narrow. Therefore, issues with the network arise, such as extremely large energy consumption, very weak connectivity, long time delays, and a short lifetime...
November 30, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916841/market-model-for-resource-allocation-in-emerging-sensor-networks-with-reinforcement-learning
#18
Yue Zhang, Bin Song, Ying Zhang, Xiaojiang Du, Mohsen Guizani
Emerging sensor networks (ESNs) are an inevitable trend with the development of the Internet of Things (IoT), and intend to connect almost every intelligent device. Therefore, it is critical to study resource allocation in such an environment, due to the concern of efficiency, especially when resources are limited. By viewing ESNs as multi-agent environments, we model them with an agent-based modelling (ABM) method and deal with resource allocation problems with market models, after describing users' patterns...
November 29, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915199/deep-eutectic-solvents-as-green-media-for-extraction-of-flavonoid-glycosides-and-aglycones-from-platycladi-cacumen
#19
Bo Zhuang, Li-Li Dou, Ping Li, E-Hu Liu
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are emerging as alternatives to conventional ionic liquids and organic solvents due to their unique advantages. In the present study, the tuneability of DESs as tailor-made solvents to efficiently extract polar and non-polar bioactive compounds from Platycladi Cacumen was detailedly investigated. Totally 12 types of choline chloride-, betaine-, and l-proline-based DESs were synthesized for initial screening, and extraction conditions was optimized by single-factor experiment. Experiments with different DESs and principal components analysis demonstrated that the extractability of both flavonoid glycosides and aglycones was greater with certain designed DESs than conventional solvents...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915037/quantification-of-pea-enation-mosaic-virus-1-and-2-during-infection-of-pisum-sativum-by-one-step-real-time-rt-pcr
#20
Juliette Doumayrou, Melissa Sheber, Bryony C Bonning, W Allen Miller
Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1) and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2) are two viruses in an obligate symbiosis that cause pea enation mosaic disease mainly in plants in the Fabaceae family. This virus system is a valuable model to investigate plant virus replication, movement and vector transmission. Thus, here we describe growth conditions, virus detection methods, and virus accumulation behavior. To measure the accumulation and movement of PEMV1 and PEMV2 in plants during the course of infection, we developed a quantitative real-time one-step reverse transcription PCR procedure using the SYBR-green(®) technology...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
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