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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783126/systemic-therapy-for-intermediate-and-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-sorafenib-and-beyond
#1
REVIEW
Jean-Luc Raoul, Masatoshi Kudo, Richard S Finn, Julien Edeline, Maria Reig, Peter R Galle
The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment landscape changed a decade ago, with sorafenib demonstrating survival benefit in the first-line setting and becoming the first systemic therapy to be approved for HCC. More recently, regorafenib and nivolumab have received approval in the second-line setting after sorafenib, with further positive phase 3 studies emerging in the first line (lenvatinib non-inferior to sorafenib) and second line versus placebo (cabozantinib and ramucirumab). A key recommendation in the management of patients receiving sorafenib is to promote close communication between the patient and the physician so that adverse events (AEs) are detected early and severe AEs can be prevented...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782800/suspect-screening-and-regulatory-databases-a-powerful-combination-to-identify-emerging-micropollutants
#2
Pablo Gago-Ferrero, Agnes Krettek, Stellan Fischer, Karin Wiberg, Lutz Ahrens
This study demonstrates that regulatory databases combined with the latest advances in high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) can be efficiently used to prioritize and identify new, potentially hazardous pollutants being discharged into the aquatic environment. Of the approximately 23,000 chemicals registered in the database of the National Swedish Product Register, 160 potential organic micropollutants were prioritized through quantitative knowledge of market availability, quantity used, extent of use on the market, and predicted compartment-specific environmental exposure during usage...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782706/biological-stimulus-driven-assembly-disassembly-of-functional-nanoparticles-for-targeted-delivery-controlled-activation-and-bioelimination
#3
REVIEW
Xi Hu, Fangyuan Li, Shuying Wang, Fan Xia, Daishun Ling
Nanoassembly technology has emerged as a powerful tool for targeted drug delivery and provides a basis for fabricating medical theranostic nanosystems. However, it is extremely difficult to concentrate nanoparticles at tumor sites, and the poor target-to-background ratio undoubtedly obstructs the accurate diagnosis and effective therapy of cancerous tissues. Importantly, the addition of biological stimulus-responsive groups to nanoassembly systems can enable a biological stimulus-driven assembly-disassembly mutual switch or structural composition/conformation change, thereby amplifying the imaging signal and/or enhancing the therapeutic effect...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782676/composition-graded-cesium-lead-halide-perovskite-nanowires-with-tunable-dual-color-lasing-performance
#4
Ling Huang, Qinggang Gao, Ling-Dong Sun, Hao Dong, Shuo Shi, Tong Cai, Qing Liao, Chun-Hua Yan
Cesium lead halide (CsPbX3 ) perovskite has emerged as a promising low-threshold multicolor laser material; however, realizing wavelength-tunable lasing output from a single CsPbX3 nanostructure is still constrained by integrating different composition. Here, the direct synthesis of composition-graded CsPbBrx I3- x nanowires (NWs) is reported through vapor-phase epitaxial growth on mica. The graded composition along the NW, with an increased Br/I from the center to the ends, comes from desynchronized deposition of cesium lead halides and temperature-controlled anion-exchange reaction...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781716/determining-typical-smartphone-usage-what-data-do-we-need
#5
Thomas D W Wilcockson, David A Ellis, Heather Shaw
Problematic smartphone use is an emerging issue in behavioral addiction research. At the same time, measuring smartphone use with mobile apps has become increasingly common. However, understanding how much data are necessary requires careful consideration if the field is to move forward. Here, we examine how much time should be spent measuring mobile phone operation to reliably infer general patterns of usage and repetitive checking behaviors. In a second analysis, we consider whether a self-report measure of problematic smartphone use is associated with real-time patterns of use...
May 21, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781384/how-to-uncover-sources-of-unwarranted-practice-variation-a-case-study-in-emergency-medicine
#6
Markus A Feufel
Forty years of statistical database analyses have demonstrated the existence of unwarranted practice variation in care delivery, that is, variations independent of medical need, evidence, or patient preference. Alas, little is known about the underlying mechanisms and thus finding interventions to reduce unwarranted variations remains difficult, hampering quality, equity, and efficiency of care. Whereas statistical analyses describe deviations from ideal patterns, ethnographically inspired analyses aim at understanding when, how, and why variations occur in practice...
May 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780813/loss-of-heterogeneity-quiescence-and-differentiation-in-muscle-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Haser Hasan Sutcu, Miria Ricchetti
Skeletal muscle stem cells in the adult display heterogeneity that has been functionally linked to their behavior, self-renewal capacity, and resistance to stress in hostile environments. Behavioral heterogeneity emerges also during developmental myogenesis. Muscle stem cell diversity may be functionally linked to the changing needs of skeletal muscle regeneration. Intriguingly, dramatic reduction of stem cell diversity, the "clonal drift", that implies loss of stem cells and related expansion of clonally related stem cells has been reported for tissue replacement in several adult tissues and suggested in the zebrafish embryo...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780476/trends-in-activity-for-the-oxygen-evolution-reaction-on-transition-metal-m-fe-co-ni-phosphide-pre-catalysts
#8
Junyuan Xu, Junjie Li, Dehua Xiong, Bingsen Zhang, Yuefeng Liu, Kuang-Hsu Wu, Isilda Amorim, Wei Li, Lifeng Liu
Transition metal phosphides (TMPs) have recently emerged as a new class of pre-catalysts that can efficiently catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, how the OER activity of TMPs varies with the catalyst composition has not been systematically explored. Here, we report the alkaline OER electrolysis of a series of nanoparticulate phosphides containing different equimolar metal (M = Fe, Co, Ni) components. Notable trends in OER activity are observed, following the order of FeP < NiP < CoP < FeNiP < FeCoP < CoNiP < FeCoNiP, which indicate that the introduction of a secondary metal(s) to a mono-metallic TMP substantially boosts the OER performance...
April 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780463/simultaneous-multiple-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-detection-based-on-click-chemistry-combined-with-dna-encoded-probes
#9
Qian-Yu Zhou, Fang Yuan, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Ying-Lin Zhou, Xin-Xiang Zhang
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are emerging as important biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognostics and disease pathogenesis. As one type of disease is always connected to several SNP sites, there is great demand for a reliable multiple SNP detection method. Herein, we mimicked a ligation reaction based on DNA ligase and originally utilized an enzyme-free DNA template-directed click reaction for SNP detection. With 5'-alkyne and 3'-azide groups labelled on two oligonucleotide probes, the target DNA-directed Cu(i)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction produced a new DNA strand with a triazole backbone, as a mimic of a DNA phosphodiester linkage...
April 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780457/highly-efficient-base-editing-in-staphylococcus-aureus-using-an-engineered-crispr-rna-guided-cytidine-deaminase
#10
Tongnian Gu, Siqi Zhao, Yishuang Pi, Weizhong Chen, Chuanyuan Chen, Qian Liu, Min Li, Dali Han, Quanjiang Ji
Novel therapeutic means against Staphylococcus aureus infections are urgently needed due to the emergence of drug-resistant S. aureus . We report the development of a CRISPR RNA-guided cytidine deaminase (pnCasSA-BEC), enabling highly efficient gene inactivation and point mutations in S. aureus . We engineered a fusion of a Cas9 nickase (Cas9D10A) and a cytidine deaminase (APOBEC1) that can be guided to a target genomic locus for gene inactivation via generating a premature stop codon. The pnCasSA-BEC system nicks the non-edited strand of the genomic DNA, directly catalyzes the conversion of cytidine (C) to uridine (U), and relies on DNA replication to achieve C → T (G → A) conversion without using donor repair templates...
March 28, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779379/phase-segregation-in-potassium-doped-lead-halide-perovskites-from-39k-solid-state-nmr-at-21-1-t
#11
Dominik J Kubicki, Daniel Prochowicz, Albert Hofstetter, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel, Lyndon Emsley
Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites are a promising family of light absorbers for a new generation of solar cells, with reported efficiencies currently exceeding 22%. A common problem of solar cells fabricated using these materials is that their efficiency depends on their cycling history, an effect known as current-voltage (J-V) hysteresis. Potassium doping has recently emerged as a universal way to overcome this adverse phenomenon. While the atomistic origins of J-V hysteresis are still not fully understood, it is essential to rationalize the atomic-level effect of protocols that lead to its suppression...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779206/old-new-and-emerging-immunohistochemical-markers-in-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#12
REVIEW
Veronica K Y Cheung, Anthony J Gill, Angela Chou
The evolution of genetic research over the past two decades has greatly improved the understanding of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. It is now accepted that more than one third of pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas arise in the context of syndromic disease, usually hereditary. The genetic profile of these tumors also has important prognostic implications which may help guide treatment. Accompanying the changing molecular landscape is the development of new immunohistochemical markers. Initially used in assisting with diagnosis, immunohistochemical markers have now become an important adjunct to screening programs for inherited conditions and subsequently as prognostic markers...
May 19, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778791/evolutionary-transitions-in-controls-reconcile-adaptation-with-continuity-of-evolution
#13
REVIEW
Alexander V Badyaev
Evolution proceeds by accumulating functional solutions, necessarily forming an uninterrupted lineage from past solutions of ancestors to the current design of extant forms. At the population level, this process requires an organismal architecture in which the maintenance of local adaptation does not preclude the ability to innovate in the same traits and their continuous evolution. Representing complex traits as networks enables us to visualize a fundamental principle that resolves tension between adaptation and continuous evolution: phenotypic states encompassing adaptations traverse the continuous multi-layered landscape of past physical, developmental and functional associations among traits...
May 17, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778272/development-of-the-waveless-bovine-model
#14
F Jimenez-Krassel, J L H Ireland, C Kronemeyer, A Wilson-Alvarado, J J Ireland
Development of a bovine model without ovarian follicular waves (waveless) and transient increases in gonadotropin secretion during estrous cycles may lead to new methods to more consistently regulate ovulatory follicle growth thereby improving efficiency of embryo transfer. We hypothesized that the GnRH antagonist acyline would inhibit gonadotropin secretion thereby blocking follicular waves, ovarian function and ovulation during estrous cycles of cattle. To test this hypothesis, beef heifers (n = 5 per group) were treated twice daily with vehicle (control) or 25 or 50 μg/kg acyline beginning 12 h after GnRH-induced ovulation and ending 21 days later...
May 15, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778168/development-of-a-novel-myconanomining-approach-for-the-recovery-of-agriculturally-important-elements-from-jarosite-waste
#15
Ankita Bedi, Braj Raj Singh, Sunil K Deshmukh, Nisha Aggarwal, Colin J Barrow, Alok Adholeya
In this study, an ecofriendly and economically viable waste management approach have been attempted towards the biosynthesis of agriculturally important nanoparticles from jarosite waste. Aspergillus terreus strain J4 isolated from jarosite (waste from Debari Zinc Smelter, Udaipur, India), showed good leaching efficiency along with nanoparticles (NPs) formation under ambient conditions. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of NPs...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778143/efficiency-in-hydrocarbon-degradation-and-biosurfactant-production-by-joostella-sp-a8-when-grown-in-pure-culture-and-consortia
#16
Carmen Rizzo, Alessandro Ciro Rappazzo, Luigi Michaud, Emilio De Domenico, Carlos Rochera, Antonio Camacho, Angelina Lo Giudice
Joostella strains are emerging candidates for biosurfactant production. Here such ability was analyzed for Joostella strain A8 in comparison with Alcanivorax strain A53 and Pseudomonas strain A6, all previously isolated from hydrocarbon enrichment cultures made of polychaete homogenates. In pure cultures Joostella sp. A8 showed the highest stable emulsion percentage (78.33%), hydrophobicity rate (62.67%), and an optimal surface tension reduction during growth in mineral medium supplemented with diesel oil (reduction of about 12mN/m), thus proving to be highly competitive with Alcanivorax and Pseudomonas strains...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778034/early-discharge-of-patients-with-pulmonary-embolism-in-daily-clinical-practice-a-prospective-observational-study-comparing-clinical-gestalt-and-clinical-rules
#17
Simone Vanni, Cecilia Becattini, Peiman Nazerian, Carlo Bova, Valerio Teodoro Stefanone, Ludovica Anna Cimini, Gabriele Viviani, Cosimo Caviglioli, Michela Sanna, Giuseppe Pepe, Stefano Grifoni
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the efficiency and safety of clinicians' gestalt in the identification of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) candidates for early discharge and to compare the efficiency and safety of clinical gestalt with that of the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI), the simplified PESI (sPESI) and the Hestia criteria (HC). METHODS: Consecutive adult patients presenting to the emergency department of four Italian hospitals with confirmed diagnosis of PE were included...
May 8, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777957/dual-ph-reduction-responsive-hybrid-polymeric-micelles-for-targeted-chemo-photothermal-combination-therapy
#18
Linhua Zhang, Yu Qin, Zhiming Zhang, Fan Fan, Chenlu Huang, Li Lu, Hai Wang, Xu Jin, Hanxue Zhao, Deling Kong, Chun Wang, Hongfan Sun, Xigang Leng, Dunwan Zhu
The combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy in multifunctional nanovesicles has emerged as a promising strategy to improve cancer therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we designed new pH/reduction dual-responsive and folate decorated polymeric micelles (FA Co-PMs) as theranostic nanocarrier to co-encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) and indocyanine green (ICG) for targeted NIR imaging and chemo-photothermal combination therapy. The Co-PMs exhibited nano-sized structure (∼100 nm) with good monodispersity, high encapsulation efficiency of both ICG and DOX, triggered DOX release in response to acid pH and reduction environment, and excellent temperature conversion with laser irradiation...
May 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777906/reduced-rar-%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-benzo-a-pyrene-induced-lung-cancer-mice-is-upregulated-by-dotap-lipo-atra-treatment
#19
S Viswanathan, V M Berlin Grace
Molecular targeted therapy for specific genes is an emerging research. Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR-β) is a key tumor suppressor which is found to be lost drastically during much cancer progression. We hence, analyzed the expression level of RAR-β gene during B(a)P induced lung cancer development in mice and studied the lung cancer targeted action of All Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) in DOTAP liposomal formulation. The effect of its treatment on lung cancer was determined by histopathological analysis. RAR-β gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR and qPCR...
May 16, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777436/fatigue-related-risk-management-in-the-emergency-department-a-focus-group-study
#20
Pierre Bérastégui, Mathieu Jaspar, Alexandre Ghuysen, Anne-Sophie Nyssen
Fatigue has major implications on both patient safety and healthcare practitioner's well-being. Traditionally, two approaches can be used to reduce fatigue-related risk: reducing the likelihood of a fatigued operator working (i.e. fatigue reduction), or reducing the likelihood that a fatigued operator will make an error (i.e. fatigue proofing). Recent progress mainly focussed on fatigue reduction strategies such as reducing work hours. Yet it has to be recognized that such approach has not wholly overcome the experience of fatigue...
May 18, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
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