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Emergency Efficiency

Noelia Lopez Montero, Jost Enninga
Small GTPases of the Rab protein family control intracellular vesicular trafficking to allow their communication and maintenance. It is a common strategy for intracellular bacteria to exploit these pathways to shape their respective niches for survival. The subversion of Rabs for the generation of an intracellular environment favoring the pathogen has been described almost exclusively for intracellular bacteria that reside within bacterial containing vacuoles (BCVs). However, less is known about Rab subversion for bacteria that rupture the BCV to reach the host cytoplasm...
October 20, 2016: Small GTPases
Jin-Long Pan, Quan-Zhe Li, Ting-Yu Zhang, Si-Hua Hou, Jun-Cheng Kang, Shu-Yu Zhang
An efficient and convenient method has been developed to achieve direct silylation of unactivated remote primary or secondary C(sp(3))-H bonds to form C-Si bonds with hexamethyldisilane (HMDS). This method highlights the emerging strategy to transform unactivated methyl or methylene into versatile functional groups in organic synthesis and provides a new method to construct functionalized C-Si bonds for synthetic chemistry.
October 20, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Long Pang, Peijie Yang, Jihong Zhao, Hongzhong Zhang
Organophosphate esters (OPs), widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers, are regarded as a class of emerging pollutants. The effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants is generally considered to be the main contributor of OP pollution to the surface water. In this study, anoxic-oxic (AO) and University of Capetown (UCT) processes were selected to investigate the removal efficiency of OPs. The results indicated that the UCT process showed better removal efficiency than that of the AO process. For the chlorinated OPs, approximately 12...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Yoon Kim, Amin Tamadon, Seung-Yup Ku
In vitro culture of ovarian follicles is a promising bioengineering technique for preserving fecundity in reproductive age female by providing fertilizable oocytes. Successful clinical application should be preceded by developing the protocols that can efficiently overcome follicular cell apoptosis since the apoptosis is a critical phenomenon in in vivo folliculogenesis and in in vitro follicular maturation. Numerous pro-survival and anti-apoptotic molecules including follicular developmental regulators have been reported to be involved in the intra-ovarian apoptosis...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Alessandro Borri, Pasquale Palumbo, Abhyudai Singh
Synthetic biology combines different branches of biology and engineering aimed at designing synthetic biological circuits able to replicate emergent properties useful for the biotechnology industry, human health and environment. The role of negative feedback in noise propagation for a basic enzymatic reaction scheme is investigated. Two feedback control schemes on enzyme expression are considered: one from the final product of the pathway activity, the other from the enzyme accumulation. Both schemes are designed to provide the same steady-state average values of the involved players, in order to evaluate the feedback performances according to the same working mode...
October 2016: IET Systems Biology
Jie Liu, Liang Guo, Jiping Jiang, Dexun Jiang, Peng Wang
In the emergency management relevant to chemical contingency spills, efficiency emergency rescue can be deeply influenced by a reasonable assignment of the available emergency materials to the related risk sources. In this study, an emergency material scheduling model (EMSM) with time-effective and cost-effective objectives is developed to coordinate both allocation and scheduling of the emergency materials. Meanwhile, an improved genetic algorithm (IGA) which includes a revision operation for EMSM is proposed to identify the emergency material scheduling schemes...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Saad Mohammed Dahlawi, Samreen Siddiqui
Easy availability, preparation technique, and economic value make calcium polysulphide (CaS x ) a very useful inorganic chemical for various field and industrial applications. In this article, disparate applications of CaS x solution have been reviewed to suggest potential and future consolidation. This article also encompasses the physiochemical properties and production of CaS x solution, with critical appraisal on research focusing on CaS x application in agriculture industries and removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from the environment...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Katrin Ochsenreither, Claudia Glück, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Christoph Syldatk
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the ω-3 and ω-6 class (e.g., α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid) are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a promising source as well...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Q L Huang, D Gao, F G Yue, C G Jiang, T Zhang, L Lei
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Bailemian capsule combined with self-help cognitive behavioral therapy (CBTI-SH) in treatment of chronic insomnia. Methods: Approved by the Ethics Committee of the hospital, 60 patients with chronic insomnia were randomly divided into two groups, the test group (Bailemian capsule combined with CBTI-SH) and the control group (CBTI-SH alone). Each group contained 30 cases. After 4 weeks for therapy, the sleep quality, mood and adverse reactions of treatment in patients were evaluated by sleep diary, sleep severity index scale (ISI), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS) and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) respectively...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Leon E Hugo, Natalie A Prow, Bing Tang, Greg Devine, Andreas Suhrbier
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus associated with epidemics of acute and chronic arthritic disease in humans. Aedes albopictus has emerged as an important new natural vector for CHIKV transmission; however, mouse models for studying transmission have not been developed. METHODS: Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were infected with CHIKV via membrane feeding and by using infected adult wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Paraffin sections of infected mosquitoes were analysed by immunofluorescent antibody staining using an anti-CHIKV antibody...
October 19, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jyothi Padiadpu, Priyanka Baloni, Kushi Anand, MohamedHusen Munshi, Chandrani Thakur, Abhilash Mohan, Amit Singh, Nagasuma Chandra
The global mechanisms and associated molecular alterations that occur in drug-resistant mycobacteria are poorly understood. To address this, we obtain genomics data and then construct a genome-scale response network in isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium smegmatis and apply a network-mining algorithm. Through this, we decipher global alterations in an unbiased manner and identify emergent vulnerabilities in resistant bacilli, of which redox response was prominent. Using phenotypic profiling, we find that resistant bacilli exhibit collateral sensitivity to several compounds that block antioxidant responses...
September 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Janne Kalikka, Xilin Zhou, Jitendra Behera, Giacomo Nannicini, Robert E Simpson
We use an evolutionary algorithm to explore the design space of hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5; a van der Waals layered two dimensional crystal heterostructure. The Ge2Sb2Te5 structure is more complicated than previously thought. Predominant features include layers of Ge3Sb2Te6 and Ge1Sb2Te4 two dimensional crystals that interact through Te-Te van der Waals bonds. Interestingly, (Ge/Sb)-Te-(Ge/Sb)-Te alternation is a common feature for the most stable structures of each generation's evolution. This emergent rule provides an important structural motif that must be included in the design of high performance Sb2Te3-GeTe van der Waals heterostructure superlattices with interfacial atomic switching capability...
October 19, 2016: Nanoscale
Shreya Thakkar, Viral Shah, Manju Misra, Kiran Kalia
BACKGROUND: Most of the chemical substances which emerge out as potential drug candidates (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients) are either weak acids or weak bases. Poor aqueous solubility of these drug substances is a common concern. Several R&D centers are focused on developing suitable, economic, simpler and more feasible solubility enhancement techniques for increasing the solubility and thereby bioavailability of such drug substances. Nanocrystals is one of the preferred approaches for solubility enhancement in last few decades...
October 14, 2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Mark O'Driscoll
Accurate and efficient replication of the human genome occurs in the context of an array of constitutional barriers including regional topological constraints imposed by chromatin architecture and processes such as transcription, catenation of the helical polymer and spontaneously generated DNA lesions including base modifications and strand breaks. DNA replication is fundamentally important for tissue development and homeostasis; differentiation programmes are intimately linked with stem cell division. Unsurprisingly, impairments of the DNA replication machinery can have catastrophic consequences for genome stability and cell division...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Gaspar Morgado, Daniel Gerngross, Tania M Roberts, Sven Panke
Cell-free biosynthesis in the form of in vitro multi-enzyme reaction networks or enzyme cascade reactions emerges as a promising tool to carry out complex catalysis in one-step, one-vessel settings. It combines the advantages of well-established in vitro biocatalysis with the power of multi-step in vivo pathways. Such cascades have been successfully applied to the synthesis of fine and bulk chemicals, monomers and complex polymers of chemical importance, and energy molecules from renewable resources as well as electricity...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Shu-Ping Lin, Chen-Lung Yang, Han-Chung Pi, Thao-Minh Ho
BACKGROUND: The emergence of advanced IT and cloud services has beneficially supported the information-intensive tourism industry, simultaneously caused extreme competitions in attracting customers through building efficient service platforms. On response, numerous nations have implemented cloud platforms to provide value-added sightseeing information and personal intelligent service experiences. Despite these efforts, customers' actual perspectives have yet been sufficiently understood...
2016: SpringerPlus
Carla Pereira, Catarina Moreirinha, Magdalena Lewicka, Paulo Almeida, Carla Clemente, Jesús L Romalde, Maria L Nunes, Adelaide Almeida
In the present study two new phages (phT4A and ECA2) were characterized and their efficacy was evaluated separately and in cocktail (phT4A/ECA2) to control Escherichia coli. The isolated phages, phT4A and ECA2, belonged to the Myoviridae and Podoviridae family, respectively and both are safe (no integrase and toxin codifying genes) to be used in bacterial control. In general, the increase of multiplicity of infection (MOI) from 1 to 100 promoted a significant increase in the efficiency of phage phT4A and phage cocktail phT4A/ECA2...
October 15, 2016: Virus Research
Ricky-John Spencer, James U Van Dyke, Michael B Thompson
Ecological traps are threats to organisms, and exist in a range of biological systems. A subset of ecological trap theory is the "ethological trap," whereby behaviors canalized by past natural selection become traps when environments change rapidly. Invasive predators are major threats to imperiled species and their ability to exploit canalized behaviors of naive prey is particularly important for the establishment of the predator and the decline of the native prey. Our study uses ecological theory to demonstrate that invasive predator controls require shifts in management priorities...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Shirley J Ingram, Gabrielle McKee, Mary B Quirke, Niamh Kelly, Ashling Moloney
BACKGROUND: Chest pain is a common presentation to emergency departments (EDs). Pathways for patients with non-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) chest pain are not optimal. An advanced cardiology nurse-led chest pain service was commenced to address this. The aim of the study was to assess the outcomes of non-ACS patients discharged from ED to an advanced cardiology nurse-led chest pain clinic and compare by referral type (nurse or ED physician). METHODS: The service consisted of advanced cardiology nurse or ED physician consultation in the ED and discharge to advanced nurse-led chest pain clinic review less than 72 hours after discharge...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Darren Rodenhizer, Dan Cojocari, Bradly G Wouters, Alison P McGuigan
The tumour microenvironment is heterogeneous and consists of multiple cell types, variable extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, and contains cell-defined gradients of small molecules, oxygen, nutrients and waste. Emerging in vitro cell culture systems that attempt to replicate these features often fail to incorporate design strategies to facilitate efficient data collection and stratification. The tissue roll for analysis of cellular environment and response (TRACER) is a novel strategy to assemble layered, three-dimensional tumours with cell-defined, graded heterogeneous microenvironments that also facilitates cellular separation and stratification of data from different cell populations from specific microenvironments...
October 18, 2016: Biofabrication
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