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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651251/electrical-potential-of-leaping-eels
#1
Kenneth C Catania
When approached by a large, partially submerged conductor, electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) will often defend themselves by leaping from the water to directly shock the threat. Presumably, the conductor is interpreted as an approaching terrestrial or semiaquatic animal. In the course of this defensive behavior, eels first make direct contact with their lower jaw and then rapidly emerge from the water, ascending the conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. In this study, the equivalent circuit that develops during this behavior was proposed and investigated...
June 27, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651089/validation-of-commercial-real-time-pcr-arrays-for-environmental-risk-assessment-application-to-the-study-of-p-p%C3%A2-dde-toxicity-in-mus-spretus-mice-liver
#2
Noelia Morales-Prieto, Carmen Pueyo, Nieves Abril
Data on gene transcription profiles provide a comprehensive assessment of the toxic and defensive mechanisms that are triggered by pollutants. PCR-arrays have emerged as a reliable tool for analyzing the expression of a panel of relevant, pathway- or disease-focused genes under uniform cycling conditions. By using SYBR Green-optimized primer assays, it is possible to simultaneously amplify a sample with high specificity and amplification efficiencies. However, commercial PCR-arrays target a limited group of organisms, excluding most of those with environmental relevance, as is the case with Mus spretus mice...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651010/macrophages-but-not-neutrophils-are-critical-for-proliferation-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-and-ensuing-host-damaging-inflammation
#3
Jennifer Mesureur, Joana R Feliciano, Nelly Wagner, Margarida C Gomes, Lili Zhang, Monica Blanco-Gonzalez, Michiel van der Vaart, David O'Callaghan, Annemarie H Meijer, Annette C Vergunst
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) can cause devastating pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet the precise mechanisms underlying inflammation, recurrent exacerbations and transition from chronic stages to acute infection and septicemia are not known. Bcc bacteria are generally believed to have a predominant extracellular biofilm life style in infected CF lungs, similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but this has been challenged by clinical observations which show Bcc bacteria predominantly in alveolar macrophages...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650635/ternary-interactions-and-energy-transfer-between-fluorescein-isothiocyanate-adenosine-triphosphate-and-graphene-oxide-nanocarriers
#4
Katarzyna Ratajczak, Magdalena Stobiecka
The interactions of fluorescent probes and biomolecules with nanocarriers are of key importance to the emerging targeted drug delivery systems. Graphene oxide nanosheets (GONs) as the nanocarriers offer biocompatibility and robust drug binding capacity. The interactions of GONs with fluorophores lead to strong fluorescence quenching, which may interfere with fluorescence bioimaging and biodetection. Herein, we report on the interactions and energy transfers in a model ternary system: GONs-FITC-ATP, where FITC is a model fluorophore (fluorescein isothiocyanate) and ATP is a common biomolecule (adenosine-5'-triphosphate)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650626/selenium-sequestration-in-a-cationic-layered-rare-earth-hydroxide-a-combined-batch-experiments-and-exafs-investigation
#5
Lin Zhu, Linjuan Zhang, Jie Li, Duo Zhang, Lanhua Chen, Daopeng Sheng, Shitong Yang, Chengliang Xiao, Jianqiang Wang, Zhifang Chai, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Shuao Wang
Selenium is of great concern owing to its acutely toxic characteristic at elevated dosage and the long-term radiotoxicity of 79Se. The contents of selenium in industrial wastewater, agricultural runoff, and drinking water have to be constrained to a value of 10 μg/L as the maximum concentration limit. We reported here the selenium uptake using a structurally well-defined cationic layered rare earth hydroxide, Y2(OH)5Cl•1.5H2O. The sorption kinetics, isotherms, selectivity, and desorption of selenite and selenate on Y2(OH)5Cl•1...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650094/hydroxyapatite-polymer-biocomposites-for-bone-regeneration-a-review-of-current-trends
#6
REVIEW
Niranjan Ramesh, Stephen C Moratti, George J Dias
Bone tissue engineering has emerged as one of the most indispensable approaches to address bone trauma in the past few decades. This approach offers an efficient and a risk-free alternative to autografts and allografts by employing a combination of biomaterials and cells to promote bone regeneration. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a ceramic biomaterial that mimics the mineral composition of bones and teeth in vertebrates. HA, commonly produced via several synthetic routes over the years has been found to exhibit good bioactivity, biocompatibility, and osteoconductivity under both in vitro and in vivo conditions...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650023/ligand-induced-conformational-preorganization-of-loops-of-c-myc-g-quadruplex-dna-and-its-implications-in-structure-specific-drug-design
#7
S Harikrishna, Saikiran Kotaru, P I Pradeepkumar
Stabilization of a G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structure in the proto-oncogene c-MYC using small molecule ligands has emerged as an attractive strategy for the development of anticancer therapeutics. To understand the subtle structural changes in the G4 structure upon ligand binding, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of c-MYC G4 DNA were carried out in a complex with six different potent ligands: 3AQN, 6AQN, 3APN, 360A, Nap-Et, and Nap-Pr. The results show that the ligands 3AQN, 6AQN, 3APN, and 360A stabilize the G4 structure by making stacking interactions with the top quartet...
June 26, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649690/enzymatic-conjugation-using-branched-linkers-for-constructing-homogeneous-antibody-drug-conjugates-with-high-potency
#8
Yasuaki Anami, Wei Xiong, Xun Gui, Mi Deng, Cheng Cheng Zhang, Ningyan Zhang, Zhiqiang An, Kyoji Tsuchikama
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are emerging therapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer, and various conjugation strategies and chemical linkers have been developed to efficiently construct ADCs. Despite previous extensive efforts for improving conjugation efficiency and ADC homogeneity, most ADC linkers developed to date load only single payloads. Branched linkers that can load multiple payload molecules have yet to be fully explored. It is logical to envisage that a multi-loading strategy allows for increase in drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) with less chemical or enzymatic modification to the antibody structure compared to traditional linear linkers, leading to efficient ADC construction, minimal destabilization of the antibody structure, and enhanced ADC efficacy...
June 26, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649442/next-generation-mammalian-genetics-toward-organism-level-systems-biology
#9
REVIEW
Etsuo A Susaki, Hideki Ukai, Hiroki R Ueda
Organism-level systems biology in mammals aims to identify, analyze, control, and design molecular and cellular networks executing various biological functions in mammals. In particular, system-level identification and analysis of molecular and cellular networks can be accelerated by next-generation mammalian genetics. Mammalian genetics without crossing, where all production and phenotyping studies of genome-edited animals are completed within a single generation drastically reduce the time, space, and effort of conducting the systems research...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649237/outer-membrane-vesicles-omvs-of-gram-negative-bacteria-a-perspective-update
#10
REVIEW
Arif Tasleem Jan
Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria are spherical membrane-enclosed entities of endocytic origin. Reported in the consortia of different bacterial species, production of OMVs into extracellular milieu seems essential for their survival. Enriched with bioactive proteins, toxins, and virulence factors, OMVs play a critical role in the bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Emergence of OMVs as distinct cellular entities helps bacteria in adaptating to diverse niches, in competing with other bacteria to protect members of producer species and more importantly play a crucial role in host-pathogen interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648732/-adoptive-transfer-of-t-lymphocytes
#11
H Vié, B Clémenceau
Within a few years, the success of treatments based on the use of T-cells armed with a chimeric T-receptor for the CD19 molecule (CAR-T CD19) has revolutionized the perception of adoptive transfer approaches. The levels of responses observed in acute leukemias, of the order of 70-90 % are indeed unprecedented. The medical and financial enthusiasm aroused by these results has led to the current situation where more than 300 clinical trials are under way, against some thirty different antigens. This enthusiasm, well justified by the first successes, must however be tempered by the difficulties associated with the use of these cells...
June 22, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648615/structural-biology-and-the-design-of-new-therapeutics-from-hiv-and-cancer-to-mycobacterial-infections
#12
REVIEW
Sherine E Thomas, Vitor Mendes, So Yeon Kim, Sony Malhotra, Bernardo Ochoa-Montaño, Michal Blaszczyk, Tom L Blundell
Interest in applications of protein crystallography to medicine was evident as the first high-resolution structures emerged in the 50s and 60s. In Cambridge Max Perutz and John Kendrew sought to understand mutations in sickle cell and other genetic diseases related to haemoglobin, while in Oxford the group of Dorothy Hodgkin became interested in long-lasting zinc-insulin crystals for treatment of diabetes and later considered insulin redesign as synthetic insulins became possible. The use of protein crystallography in structure-guided drug discovery emerged as enzyme structures allowed the identification of potential inhibitor-binding sites and optimisation of interactions of hits using the structure of the target protein...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648539/prothrombin-complex-concentrates-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-the-current-state-and-the-future
#13
REVIEW
Elena Ashikhmina, Sameh Said, Mark M Smith, Vilmarie Rodriguez, William C Oliver, Gregory A Nuttall, Joseph A Dearani, Hartzell V Schaff
BACKGROUND: After decades of practice of pediatric cardiac surgery, postoperative bleeding due to the immaturity of hemostasis, hemodilution, and hypothermia remains a concern. Recently, a new approach for adult coagulopathy after bypass has emerged. Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs), designed to treat bleeding in hemophilia patients, are safely and efficiently used off label for hemorrhage after bypass. However, optimal dosing, indications and contraindications, and laboratory tests to assess the efficacy of PCC use in children have not yet been established...
June 22, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648205/cost-analysis-of-integrated-renal-replacement-therapy-program-in-the-province-of-toledo-2012-2013
#14
José L Conde Olasagasti, José Eugenio Garcia Diaz, Pilar Carrasco Benitez, Miguel Ángel Mareque Ruiz, María Pilar Parras Partido, Inmaculada Moreno Alia, Laura Jimenez Lopez, Juan José Cia Lecumberri, Pilar Araque, María Luisa Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is the object of constant analysis in the search for efficiency and sustainability. OBJECTIVE: To calculate the direct cost of healthcare for the prevalent RRT population in the province of Toledo (2012/2013). METHOD: a) Population: All prevalent patients at some point in RRT in 2012 (669) and in 2013 (682). b) Costs included (€): 1) dialysis procedure; 2) inpatient, outpatient and emergency care, dialysis and non-dialysis related; 3) drug consumption; 4) medical transport...
May 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648044/dendrons-and-multiarm-polymers-with-thiol-exchangeable-cores-a-reversible-conjugation-platform-for-delivery
#15
Ozgul Gok, Pelin Erturk, Burcu Sumer Bolu, Tugce Nihal Gevrek, Rana Sanyal, Amitav Sanyal
Disulfide exchange reaction has emerged as a powerful tool for reversible conjugation of proteins, peptides and thiol containing molecules to polymeric supports. In particular, the pyridyl disulfide group provides an efficient handle for the site-specific conjugation of therapeutic peptides and proteins bearing cysteine moieties. In this study, novel biodegradable dendritic platforms containing a pyridyl disulfide unit at their focal point were designed. Presence of hydroxyl groups at the periphery of these dendrons allows their elaboration to multivalent initiators that yield poly(ethylene glycol) based multiarm star polymers via controlled radical polymerization...
June 24, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646446/innovations-in-the-endovascular-management-of-critical-limb-ischemia-retrograde-tibiopedal-access-and-advanced-percutaneous-techniques
#16
REVIEW
Jihad A Mustapha, Larry J Diaz-Sandoval, Fadi Saab
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Retrograde tibiopedal access and interventions have contributed to advance of endovascular techniques to treat critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. This review encompasses the spectrum from advanced diagnostic imaging and technical therapeutic approaches for infrapopliteal occlusions, to a discussion of current standards and future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Contemporary studies of infrapopliteal angioplasty show suboptimal short-term and 1-year clinical outcomes...
August 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646219/efficient-and-unbiased-metagenomic-recovery-of-rna-virus-genomes-from-human-plasma-samples
#17
Carmen F Manso, David F Bibby, Jean L Mbisa
RNA viruses cause significant human pathology and are responsible for the majority of emerging zoonoses. Mainstream diagnostic assays are challenged by their intrinsic diversity, leading to false negatives and incomplete characterisation. New sequencing techniques are expanding our ability to agnostically interrogate nucleic acids within diverse sample types, but in the clinical setting are limited by overwhelming host material and ultra-low target frequency. Through selective host RNA depletion and compensatory protocol adjustments for ultra-low RNA inputs, we are able to detect three major blood-borne RNA viruses - HIV, HCV and HEV...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646112/crispr-cas12a-assisted-recombineering-in-bacteria
#18
Mei-Yi Yan, Hai-Qin Yan, Gai-Xian Ren, Ju-Ping Zhao, Xiao-Peng Guo, Yi-Cheng Sun
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas12a (Cpf1) has emerged as an effective genome editing tool in many organisms. Here, we developed and optimized a CRISPR-Cas12a assisted recombineering system to facilitate genetic manipulation in bacteria. Using this system, point mutations, deletions, insertions, and gene replacements can be easily generated on the chromosome or native plasmids in Escherichia coli, Yersinia pestis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis Because CRISPR-Cas12a-assisted recombineering does not require introduction of an antibiotic resistance gene into the chromosome to select for recombinants, it is an efficient approach for generating markerless and scarless mutations in bacteria...
June 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645288/a-cohort-study-of-a-general-surgery-electronic-consultation-system-safety-implications-and-impact-on-surgical-yield
#19
Jesus G Ulloa, Marika D Russell, Alice Hm Chen, Delphine S Tuot
BACKGROUND: Electronic consultation (eConsult) systems have enhanced access to specialty expertise and enhanced care coordination among primary care and specialty care providers, while maintaining high primary care provider (PCP), specialist and patient satisfaction. Little is known about their impact on the efficiency of specialty care delivery, in particular surgical yield (percent of ambulatory visits resulting in a scheduled surgical case). METHODS: Retrospective cohort of a random selection of 150 electronic consults from PCPs to a safety-net general surgery clinic for the three most common general surgery procedures (herniorrhaphy, cholecystectomy, anorectal procedures) in 2014...
June 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645146/analysis-of-in-vitro-evolution-reveals-the-underlying-distribution-of-catalytic-activity-among-random-sequences
#20
Abe Pressman, Janina E Moretti, Gregory W Campbell, Ulrich F Müller, Irene A Chen
The emergence of catalytic RNA is believed to have been a key event during the origin of life. Understanding how catalytic activity is distributed across random sequences is fundamental to estimating the probability that catalytic sequences would emerge. Here, we analyze the in vitro evolution of triphosphorylating ribozymes and translate their fitnesses into absolute estimates of catalytic activity for hundreds of ribozyme families. The analysis efficiently identified highly active ribozymes and estimated catalytic activity with good accuracy...
June 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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