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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445704/development-of-standard-methods-for-zika-virus-propagation-titration-and-purification
#1
Sharton Vinicius Antunes Coelho, Rômulo Leão Silva Neris, Michelle Premazzi Papa, Laila Castro Schnellrath, Lana Monteiro Meuren, Diogo A Tschoeke, Luciana Leomil, Brunno Renato Farias Verçoza, Milene Miranda, Fabiano L Thompson, Andrea Thompson Da Poian, Thiago Moreno L Souza, Fabiana Avila Carneiro, Clarissa R Damaso, Iranaia Assunção-Miranda, Luciana Barros de Arruda
The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has stimulated several research groups to study and collaborate to understand virus biology and pathogenesis. These efforts may assist with the development of antiviral drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests, as well as to promote advancements in public health policies. Here, we aim to develop standard protocols for propagation, titration, and purification of Asian and Brazilian ZIKV strains, by systematically testing different cell types, kinetics, multiplicity of infection and centrifugation protocols...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445052/facile-preparation-of-drug-loaded-tristearin-encapsulated-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-using-coaxial-electrospray-processing
#2
Manoochehr Rasekh, Zeeshan Ahmad, Richard Barrie Michael Cross, Javier Hernández Gil, James D E T Wilton-Ely, Philip W Miller
Naturally occurring polymers are promising biocompatible materials that have many applications for emerging therapies, drug delivery systems and diagnostic agents. The handling and processing of such materials still constitutes a major challenge which can limit the full exploitation of their properties. This study explores an ambient environment processing technique: coaxial electrospray (CO-ES) to encapsulate genistein (an isoflavonoid and model drug), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, 10-15 nm) and a fluorophore (BODIPY) into a layered (triglyceride tristearin shell) particulate system, with a view to constructing a theranostic agent...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444937/soluble-inorganic-nanoparticle-constructed-porous-coordination-frameworks-as-homogenized-heterogeneous-photocatalysts-for-suzuki-coupling-reaction-under-near-infrared-light
#3
Baodui Wang, Yuting Luo, Yong Peng, Weisheng Liu, Fengjuan Chen
Self-assembly has emerged as a promising method to control the structure and properties of ensembles of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) for exploiting their collective effects. However, the rational assembly of inorganic NPs into soluble porous architectures as homogenized heterogeneous catalyst has been less studied. Here, we show that inorganic NPs can be used for the assembly of soluble porous coordination frameworks (PCFs) by atom-scale interfacial coordination-driven assembly strategy. Given large pore size, high dispersity in solution, strong absorption in the near-infrared range (NIR), and a long living electron-hole pair, the obtained soluble framework can serve as a platform for homogenize heterogeneous photocatalysts, which exhibited excellent activity, high apparent quantum efficiency, and recyclability to catalyze the noble metal free Suzuki coupling reaction under NIR light at room temperature...
April 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444480/model-based-biotechnological-potential-analysis-of-kluyveromyces-marxianus-central-metabolism
#4
A Pentjuss, E Stalidzans, J Liepins, A Kokina, J Martynova, P Zikmanis, I Mozga, R Scherbaka, H Hartman, M G Poolman, D A Fell, A Vigants
The non-conventional yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is an emerging industrial producer for many biotechnological processes. Here, we show the application of a biomass-linked stoichiometric model of central metabolism that is experimentally validated, and mass and charge balanced for assessing the carbon conversion efficiency of wild type and modified K. marxianus. Pairs of substrates (lactose, glucose, inulin, xylose) and products (ethanol, acetate, lactate, glycerol, ethyl acetate, succinate, glutamate, phenylethanol and phenylalanine) are examined by various modelling and optimisation methods...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444098/the-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-multiple-sclerosis-far-beyond-the-bands
#5
Renan Barros Domingues, Gustavo Bruniera Peres Fernandes, Fernando Brunale Vilela de Moura Leite, Charles Peter Tilbery, Rodrigo Barbosa Thomaz, Gisele Sampaio Silva, Cristóvão Luis Pitangueira Mangueira, Carlos Augusto Senne Soares
The cerebrospinal fluid analysis has been employed for supporting multiple sclerosis diagnosis and ruling out the differential diagnoses. The most classical findings reflect the inflammatory nature of the disease, including mild pleocytosis, mild protein increase, intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin G, and, most typically, the presence of oligoclonal bands. In recent years, new biomarkers have emerged in the context of multiple sclerosis. The search for new biomarkers reflect the need of a better evaluation of disease activity, disease progression, and treatment efficiency...
January 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443923/use-of-alcl3-in-friedel-crafts-arylation-type-reactions-and-beyond-an-overview-on-the-development-of-unique-methodologies-leading-to-n-heteroarenes
#6
REVIEW
Rajnikanth Sunke, Suresh Babu Nallapati, Jetta Sandeep Kumar, K Shiva Kumar, Manojit Pal
As a privileged class of heterocyclic compounds N-heteroarenes have found enormous applications in many areas including medicinal/pharmaceutical chemistry and drug discovery. Consequently, a wide variety of methods have been reported for their synthesis. While not free from their own limitations the AlCl3 mediated methods appeared to have some particular advantages in preparing a number of useful N-heteroarenes. Besides the famous Friedel-Crafts (FC) alkylation/acylation reactions one such example is AlCl3-induced heteroarylation of arenes and heteroarenes (FC arylation type reactions) that can be used to prepare a certain class of N-heteroarenes in an operationally simple, efficient and cost effective manner...
April 26, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443841/automatic-concentration-and-reformulation-of-pet-tracers-via-microfluidic-membrane-distillation
#7
Philip H Chao, Jeffery Collins, Joseph P Argus, Wei-Yu Tseng, Jason T Lee, R Michael van Dam
Short-lived radiolabeled tracers for positron emission tomography (PET) must be rapidly synthesized, purified, and formulated into injectable solution just prior to imaging. Current radiosynthesizers are generally designed for clinical use, and the HPLC purification and SPE formulation processes often result in a final volume that is too large for preclinical and emerging in vitro applications. Conventional technologies and techniques for reducing this volume tend to be slow, resulting in radioactive decay of the product, and often require manual handling of the radioactive materials...
April 26, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443689/recent-achievements-in-tc-99m-radiopharmaceutical-direct-production-by-medical-cyclotrons
#8
Alessandra Boschi, Petra Martini, Micol Pasquali, Licia Uccelli
(99m)Tc is the most commonly used radionuclide in the field of diagnostic imaging, a noninvasive method intended to diagnose a disease, assess the disease state and monitor the effects of treatments. Annually, the use of (99m)Tc, covers about 85% of nuclear medicine applications. This isotope releases gamma rays at about the same wavelength as conventional X-ray diagnostic equipment, and owing to its short half-life (t½ = 6 hours) is ideal for diagnostic nuclear imaging. A patient can be injected with a small amount of (99m)Tc and within 24 hours almost 94% of the injected radionuclide would have decayed and left the body, limiting the patient's radiation exposure...
April 26, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443595/evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-role-of-bedside-lung-ultrasonography-in-patients-with-suspected-pulmonary-embolism-in-the-emergency-department
#9
Hüseyin Acar, Serkan Yılmaz, Elif Yaka, Nurettin Özgür Doğan, Asım Enes Özbek, Murat Pekdemir
BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of detailed consensus guidelines, challenges continue to exist regarding efficient, appropriate and safe imaging methods for the diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism. AIMS: This study was conducted to investigate the role of wedge sign, B-lines and pleural effusion seen on bedside lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. STUDY DESIGN: Diagnostic accuracy study. METHODS: During the first evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, bedside lung ultrasound was performed, and the B-lines, wedge sign, and pleural effusion were investigated...
April 6, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443202/dna-methylation-assay-for-colorectal-carcinoma
#10
Ji-Jun Chen, Ai-Qin Wang, Qing-Qi Chen
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Two pathogenic pathways are involved in the development of adenoma to CRC. The first pathway involvesAPC/β-catenin characterized by chromosomal instability resulting in the accumulation of mutations. The second pathway is characterized by lesions inDNA mismatch repair genes. Aberrant DNA methylation in selected gene promoters has emerged as a new epigenetic pathway in CRC development. CRC screening is the most efficient strategy to reduce death...
February 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441779/glyoxalase-goes-green-the-expanding-roles-of-glyoxalase-in-plants
#11
REVIEW
Subramanian Sankaranarayanan, Muhammad Jamshed, Abhinandan Kumar, Logan Skori, Sabine Scandola, Tina Wang, David Spiegel, Marcus A Samuel
The ubiquitous glyoxalase enzymatic pathway is involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis. The glyoxalase system has been more extensively studied in animals versus plants. Plant glyoxalases have been primarily associated with stress responses and their overexpression is known to impart tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In plants, glyoxalases exist as multigene families, and new roles for glyoxalases in various developmental and signaling pathways have started to emerge...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441712/virus-based-devices-prospects-for-allopoiesis
#12
Bogdan Dragnea
The assembly line is a commonly invoked example of allopoiesis, the process whereby a system produces a different system than itself. In this sense, virus production in plants is an instance of bio-enabled bottom-up allopoiesis because the plant host can be regarded as a programmable assembly line for the virus. Reprogramming this assembly line and integrating it into a larger lineup of chemical manipulations has seen a flurry of activity recently, with more sophisticated systems emerging every year. The field of virus nanomaterials now has several subdisciplines that focus on virus shells as assemblers, scaffolds for molecular circuitry, chemical reactors, magnetic and photonic beacons, and therapeutic carriers...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441612/mass-loading-and-removal-of-benzotriazoles-benzothiazoles-benzophenones-and-bisphenols-in-indian-sewage-treatment-plants
#13
Rajendiran Karthikraj, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Little is known about the occurrence of emerging environmental contaminants, such as benzotriazoles (BTRs), benzothiazoles (BTHs), benzophenones (BzPs), and bisphenol analogues (BPs) in India. In this study, we determined the occurrence and removal of BTRs, BTHs, BzPs, and BPs in five Indian sewage treatment plants (STPs). The respective measured mean concentrations (N = 5) in influents and effluents were 370 and 57.4 ng L(-1) for BTRs, 50800 and 20200 ng L(-1) for BTHs, 351 and 163 ng L(-1) for BzPs, and 98...
April 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440996/-quality-dimensions-focused-on-the-healthcare-protocol-infarction-code-c%C3%A3-digo-infarto
#14
Jesús Arriaga-Dávila, Gilberto Pérez-Rodríguez, Gabriela Borrayo-Sánchez
The Código Infarto (Infarction Code) strategy is part of the comprehensive care program "A Todo Corazón" (To All Heart), whose aim is to reinforce the prevention and health care of cardiovascular diseases. Mexico faces a big challenge, since it is the country with greater mortality secondary to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the first 30 days in patients of 45 years or older (28% compared with 7.9% of the average). In addition, Mexico's population has a high prevalence of risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, tobacco use, dyslipidemias, overweight, and obesity)...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440570/mass-spectrometric-characterization-of-the-selective-androgen-receptor-modulator-sarm-yk-11-for-doping-control-purposes
#15
Mario Thevis, Thomas Piper, Josef Dib, Andreas Lagojda, Dirk Kuehne, Lars Packschies, Hans Geyer, Wilhelm Schaenzer
RATIONALE: Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) represent an emerging class of therapeutics targeting inter alia conditions referred to as cachexia and sarcopenia. Due to their anabolic properties, the use of SARMs is prohibited in sports as regulated by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), and doping control laboratories test for these anabolic agents in blood and urine. In order to accomplish and maintain comprehensive test methods, the characterization of new drug candidates is critical for efficient sports drug testing...
April 25, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440202/oral-nano-delivery-systems-for-colon-targeting-therapy
#16
Tianxu Zhang, Guanyin Zhu, Boyao Lu, Qiang Peng
Targeting drug delivery is an attractive research area, as it enables localized treatment, improves the efficacy of therapeutics and reduces systemic toxicity. Colon targeting delivery is particularly beneficial to the treatment of colon diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer, due to the improved local drug concentrations. The traditional strategies for colon targeting delivery include time-dependent and pH-dependent technologies, etc. In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a novel and efficient tool for targeting drug delivery...
April 24, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440091/microbial-exopolysaccharide-mediated-synthesis-and-stabilization-of-metal-nanoparticles
#17
Ganesan Sathiyanarayanan, Krishnamoorthy Dineshkumar, Yung-Hun Yang
Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are structurally and functionally valuable biopolymer secreted by different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms in response to biotic/abiotic stresses and to survive in extreme environments. Microbial EPSs are fascinating in various industrial sectors due to their excellent material properties and less toxic, highly biodegradable, and biocompatible nature. Recently, microbial EPSs have been used as a potential template for the rapid synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and EPS-mediated metal reduction processes are emerging as simple, harmless, and environmentally benign green chemistry approaches...
April 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439853/crispr-cas-mediated-in-planta-gene-targeting
#18
Simon Schiml, Friedrich Fauser, Holger Puchta
The recent emergence of the CRISPR/Cas system has boosted the possibilities for precise genome engineering approaches throughout all kingdoms of life. The most common application for plants is targeted mutagenesis, whereby a Cas9-mediated DNA double-strand break (DSB) is repaired by mutagenic nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). However, the site-specific alteration of a genomic sequence or integration of a transgene relies on the precise repair by homologous recombination (HR) using a suitable donor sequence: this poses a particular challenge in plants, as NHEJ is the preferred repair mechanism for DSBs in somatic tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439539/imaging-the-dark-emission-of-spasers
#19
Hua-Zhou Chen, Jia-Qi Hu, Suo Wang, Bo Li, Xing-Yuan Wang, Yi-Lun Wang, Lun Dai, Ren-Min Ma
Spasers are a new class of laser devices with cavity sizes free from optical diffraction limit. They are an emergent tool for various applications, including biochemical sensing, superresolution imaging, and on-chip optical communication. According to its original definition, a spaser is a coherent surface plasmon amplifier that does not necessarily generate a radiative photon output. However, to date, spasers have only been studied with scattered photons, and their intrinsic surface plasmon emission is a "dark" emission that is yet to be revealed because of its evanescent nature...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439493/targeted-therapies-in-breast-cancer-new-challenges-to-fight-against-resistance
#20
REVIEW
Viviana Masoud, Gilles Pagès
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer found in women and today represents a significant challenge to public health. With the latest breakthroughs in molecular biology and immunotherapy, very specific targeted therapies have been tailored to the specific pathophysiology of different types of breast cancers. These recent developments have contributed to a more efficient and specific treatment protocol in breast cancer patients. However, the main challenge to be further investigated still remains the emergence of therapeutic resistance mechanisms, which develop soon after the onset of therapy and need urgent attention and further elucidation...
April 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
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