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Marina E Borisova, Andrea Voigt, Maxim A X Tollenaere, Sanjeeb Kumar Sahu, Thomas Juretschke, Nastasja Kreim, Niels Mailand, Chunaram Choudhary, Simon Bekker-Jensen, Masato Akutsu, Sebastian A Wagner, Petra Beli
Ultraviolet (UV) light radiation induces the formation of bulky photoproducts in the DNA that globally affect transcription and splicing. However, the signaling pathways and mechanisms that link UV-light-induced DNA damage to changes in RNA metabolism remain poorly understood. Here we employ quantitative phosphoproteomics and protein kinase inhibition to provide a systems view on protein phosphorylation patterns induced by UV light and uncover the dependencies of phosphorylation events on the canonical DNA damage signaling by ATM/ATR and the p38 MAP kinase pathway...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Huai-Chin Chiang, Xiaowen Zhang, Xiayan Zhao, Chi Zhang, Jerry Chen, Paula Garza, Sabrina Smith, Thomas Ludwig, Richard J Baer, Rong Li, Yanfen Hu
Germ-line mutations in breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA1, result in familial predisposition to breast and ovarian cancers. The BRCA1 protein has multiple functional domains that interact with a variety of proteins in multiple cellular processes. Understanding the biological consequences of BRCA1 interactions with its binding partners is important for elucidating its tissue-specific tumor suppression function. The Cofactor of BRCA1 (COBRA1) is a BRCA1-binding protein that, as a component of negative elongation factor (NELF), regulates RNA polymerase II pausing during transcription elongation...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria A Sacta, Bowranigan Tharmalingam, Maddalena Coppo, David A Rollins, Dinesh K Deochand, Bradley Benjamin, Li Yu, Bin Zhang, Xiaoyu Hu, Rong Li, Yurii Chinenov, Inez Rogatsky
The Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) potently represses macrophage-elicited inflammation, however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Our genome-wide analysis in mouse macrophages reveals that pro-inflammatory paused genes, activated via global negative elongation factor (NELF) dissociation and RNA Polymerase (Pol)2 release from early elongation arrest, and non-paused genes, induced by de novo Pol2 recruitment, are equally susceptible to acute glucocorticoid repression. Moreover, in both cases the dominant mechanism involves rapid GR tethering to p65 at NF-kB binding sites...
February 9, 2018: ELife
Matteo Minelli, Giulio C Sarti
The transport of gases in glassy polymeric membranes has been analyzed by means of a fundamental approach based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic model for glassy polymers (NET-GP) that considers the penetrant chemical potential gradient as the actual driving force of the diffusional process. The diffusivity of a penetrant is thus described as the product of a purely kinetic quantity, the penetrant mobility, and a thermodynamic factor, accounting for the chemical potential dependence on its concentration in the polymer...
February 3, 2018: Membranes
Anthony C Chiu, Hiroshi I Suzuki, Xuebing Wu, Dig B Mahat, Andrea J Kriz, Phillip A Sharp
Regulation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation is a critical step in gene regulation. Here, we report that U1 snRNP recognition and transcription pausing at stable nucleosomes are linked through premature polyadenylation signal (PAS) termination. By generating RNA exosome conditional deletion mouse embryonic stem cells, we identified a large class of polyadenylated short transcripts in the sense direction destabilized by the RNA exosome. These PAS termination events are enriched at the first few stable nucleosomes flanking CpG islands and suppressed by U1 snRNP...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Kyung Min Shin, Mi Jeong Hong, Shin Yup Lee, Cheng Cheng Jin, Sun Ah Baek, Jang Hyuck Lee, Jin Eun Choi, Hyo-Gyoung Kang, Won Kee Lee, Yangki Seok, Eung Bae Lee, Ji Yun Jeong, Seung Soo Yoo, Jaehee Lee, Seung Ick Cha, Chang Ho Kim, Young Chul Kim, In Jae Oh, Kook Joo Na, Sukki Cho, Sanghoon Jheon, Jae Yong Park
BACKGROUND: We conducted this study to identify genetic variants in cancer-related pathway genes which can predict prognosis of NSCLC patients after surgery, using a comprehensive list of regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) prioritized by RegulomeDB. METHOD: A total of 509 potentially functional SNPs in cancer-related pathway genes selected from RegulomeDB were evaluated. These SNPs were analyzed in a discovery set (n=354), and a replication study was performed in an independent set (n=772)...
December 28, 2017: Gene
Jennifer A Urban, John M Urban, Guray Kuzu, Erica N Larschan
Gaining new insights into gene regulation involves an in-depth understanding of protein-protein interactions on chromatin. A powerful model for studying mechanisms of gene regulation is dosage compensation, a process that targets the X-chromosome to equalize gene expression between XY males and XX females. We previously identified a zinc finger protein in Drosophila melanogaster that plays a sex-specific role in targeting the Male-specific lethal (MSL) dosage compensation complex to the male X-chromosome, called the Chromatin-Linked Adapter for MSL Proteins (CLAMP)...
2017: PloS One
Huan Meng, Blaine Bartholomew
Initiation and regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in eukaryotes relies upon the control elements of promoters and enhancers. Promoters and enhancers share common architectures and functions in similar ways. The prevailing view is functional promoters and enhancers can initiate bidirectional transcription. With the acceleration of recent genome-wide studies of regulated transcription, it has become clear that transcriptional enhancers in mammalian genomes are major sources of pervasive non-coding RNA transcription...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Wiebke Manuela Schulze, Stephen Cusack
Pol II transcribes diverse classes of RNAs that need to be directed into the appropriate nuclear maturation pathway. All nascent Pol II transcripts are 5'-capped and the cap is immediately sequestered by the nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC). Mutually exclusive interactions of CBC with different partner proteins have been implicated in transcript fate determination. Here, we characterise the direct interactions between CBC and NELF-E, a subunit of the negative elongation factor complex, ARS2 and PHAX. Our biochemical and crystal structure results show that the homologous C-terminal peptides of NELF-E and ARS2 bind identically to CBC and in each case the affinity is enhanced when CBC is bound to a cap analogue...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
Eun Kyung Ko, Lynn P Chorich, Megan E Sullivan, Richard S Cameron, Lawrence C Layman
Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is crucial for the proper function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, subsequent puberty, and reproduction. When GnRH neuron migration or GnRH regulation is impaired, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism results. Mutations in the gene for nasal embryonic luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (NELF) have been identified in GnRH-deficient humans. NELF is a predominantly nuclear protein that may participate in gene transcription, but the genes NELF regulates are unknown...
October 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Kyle A Nilson, Christine K Lawson, Nicholas J Mullen, Christopher B Ball, Benjamin M Spector, Jeffery L Meier, David H Price
Oxidative stress has pervasive effects on cells but how they respond transcriptionally upon the initial insult is incompletely understood. We developed a nuclear walk-on assay that semi-globally quantifies nascent transcripts in promoter-proximal paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Using this assay in conjunction with ChIP-Seq, in vitro transcription, and a chromatin retention assay, we show that within a minute, hydrogen peroxide causes accumulation of Pol II near promoters and enhancers that can best be explained by a rapid decrease in termination...
November 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Xiuli Liu, Aishwarya A Gogate, Melodi Tastemel, Venkat S Malladi, Huiyu Yao, Kim Nguyen, Lily Jun-Shen Huang, Xiaoying Bai
The NELF complex is a metazoan-specific factor essential for establishing transcription pausing. Although NELF has been implicated in cell fate regulation, the cellular regulation of NELF and its intrinsic role in specific lineage differentiation remains largely unknown. Using mammalian hematopoietic differentiation as a model system, here we identified a dynamic change of NELF-mediated transcription pausing as a novel mechanism regulating hematopoietic differentiation. We found a sharp decrease of NELF protein abundance upon granulocytic differentiation and a subsequent genome-wide reduction of transcription pausing...
August 8, 2017: Blood Advances
Matteo Minelli, Giulio Cesare Sarti
Solubility and permeability of gases in glassy polymers have been considered with the aim of illustrating the applicability of thermodynamically-based models for their description and prediction. The solubility isotherms are described by using the nonequilibrium lattice fluid (NELF) (model, already known to be appropriate for nonequilibrium glassy polymers, while the permeability isotherms are described through a general transport model in which diffusivity is the product of a purely kinetic factor, the mobility coefficient, and a thermodynamic factor...
August 19, 2017: Membranes
Zhiyuan Zhao, Ka-Wei Tang, Isabella Muylaert, Tore Samuelsson, Per Elias
DNA replication greatly enhances expression of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) γ2 late genes by still unknown mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), an inhibitor of CDK9, suppresses expression of γ2 late genes with an IC50 of 5 μm, which is at least 10 times lower than the IC50 value required for inhibition of expression of early genes. The effect of DRB could not be explained by inhibition of DNA replication per se or loading of RNA polymerase II to late promoters and subsequent reduction of transcription...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hien Dang, Atsushi Takai, Marshonna Forgues, Yotsowat Pomyen, Haiwei Mou, Wen Xue, Debashish Ray, Kevin C H Ha, Quaid D Morris, Timothy R Hughes, Xin Wei Wang
Global transcriptomic imbalance is a ubiquitous feature associated with cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Analyses of 1,225 clinical HCC samples revealed that a large numbers of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are dysregulated and that RBP dysregulation is associated with poor prognosis. We further identified that oncogenic activation of a top candidate RBP, negative elongation factor E (NELFE), via somatic copy-number alterations enhanced MYC signaling and promoted HCC progression. Interestingly, NELFE induces a unique tumor transcriptome by selectively regulating MYC-associated genes...
July 10, 2017: Cancer Cell
Lihua Shii, Li Song, Kelly Maurer, Zhe Zhang, Kathleen E Sullivan
The SERPINB2 gene is strongly upregulated in inflammatory states. In monocytes, it can constitute up to 1% of total cellular protein. It functions in protection from proteotoxic stress and plays a role in angioedema. The purpose of this study was to define the roles of enhancer RNAs embedded in the SERPIN gene complex. We found that the upstream enhancer RNAs upregulated SERPINB2 and the enhancer RNAs were expressed prior to those of SERPINB2 mRNA. Studies of the SERPINB2 promoter demonstrated the presence of an RNA polymerase II pause-inducing protein, NELF...
August 2017: Molecular Immunology
Samah W Awwad, Enas R Abu-Zhayia, Noga Guttmann-Raviv, Nabieh Ayoub
Double-strand breaks (DSBs) trigger rapid and transient transcription pause to prevent collisions between repair and transcription machineries at damage sites. Little is known about the mechanisms that ensure transcriptional block after DNA damage. Here, we reveal a novel role of the negative elongation factor NELF in blocking transcription activity nearby DSBs. We show that NELF-E and NELF-A are rapidly recruited to DSB sites. Furthermore, NELF-E recruitment and its repressive activity are both required for switching off transcription at DSBs...
May 2017: EMBO Reports
Yijun Qiu, David S Gilmour
DRB sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF or Spt4/5) is a conserved transcription elongation factor that both inhibits and stimulates transcription elongation in metazoans. In Drosophila and vertebrates, DSIF together with negative elongation factor (NELF) associates with RNA polymerase II during early elongation and causes RNA polymerase II to pause in the promoter-proximal region of genes. The mechanism of how DSIF establishes pausing is not known. We constructed Spt5 mutant forms of DSIF and tested their capacity to restore promoter-proximal pausing to DSIF-depleted Drosophila nuclear extracts...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Eman El Zeneini, Sarah Kamel, Mahmoud El-Meteini, Asma Amleh
Cofactor of BRCA1 (COBRA1) is one of the four subunits that make up the negative elongation factor (NELF) complex that is involved in the stalling of RNA polymerase II early during transcription elongation. As such, it regulates the expression of a substantial number of genes involved in cell cycle control, cellular metabolism and DNA repair. With no DNA binding domain, its capacity to modulate gene expression occurs via its ability to interact with different transcription factors. In the field of cancer, its role is not yet fully understood...
March 2017: Oncology Reports
Ruowen Zhang, Jiahui Wu, Sylvain Ferrandon, Katie J Glowacki, Janet A Houghton
The GLI genes are transcription factors and in cancers are oncogenes, aberrantly and constitutively activated. GANT61, a specific GLI inhibitor, has induced extensive cytotoxicity in human models of colon cancer. The FOXM1 promoter was determined to be a transcriptional target of GLI1. In HT29 cells, inhibition of GLI1 binding at the GLI consensus sequence by GANT61 led to inhibited binding of Pol II, the pause-release factors DSIF, NELF and p-TEFb. The formation of R-loops (RNA:DNA hybrids, ssDNA), were reduced by GANT61 at the FOXM1 promoter...
December 6, 2016: Oncotarget
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