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Carlo Dani, Iuri Corsini, Jessica Cangemi, Venturella Vangi, Simone Pratesi
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) cannot be recommended for the routine treatment of respiratory failure in premature neonates, but it has been suggested that the effectiveness of iNO therapy should be further studied in more select preterm infants, such as those with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of PPHN in very preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), to assess the effectiveness of iNO in these patients, and to individuate possible predictive factors for the response to iNO in preterm infants with RDS...
November 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
Xiao-Tong Dong, Hui Liao, Guan-Heng Zhu, Sajjad Ali Khuhro, Zhan-Feng Ye, Qi Yan, Shuang-Lin Dong
Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to bind and transport sex pheromones onto the olfactory receptors on dendrite membrane of olfactory neurons, and thus play a vital role in sex pheromone perception. However, the function of PBPs has rarely been demonstrated in vivo. In this study, two PBPs (PBP1 and PBP3) of Chilo suppressalis, one of the most notorious pyralid pests, were in vivo functionally characterized using insects with PBP gene knocked out by CRISPR/Cas9 system. Firstly, through direct injection of PBP-sgRNA/Cas9 mRNA into new eggs, high rate of target-gene editing (checked with polled eggs) was induced at 24 h after injection, 21...
October 23, 2017: Insect Science
Moritz Ebeler, Florian Pilgram, Kai Wolz, Gunnar Grim, Matthias Franzreb
The growing market of biopharmaceuticals and the constant developments in upstream fermentation have generated a strong demand for new downstream purification methods. Magnetic separation in combination with functional magnetic particles has been known for many years as a promising candidate for a direct capturing tool in protein purification but the lack of suitable GMP-compliant purification equipment has prevented the launch of this technology in large scale bioprocessing. To tackle this bottle-neck, the principle of a 'rotor-stator' high-gradient magnetic separator was fully redesigned to meet the rigorous requirements of modern cGMP biotechnology purification processes...
October 23, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Tomás Aparicio, Víctor de Lorenzo, Esteban Martínez-García
While adoption of single-stranded (ss) DNA recombineering techniques has greatly eased genetic design of the platform strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440, available methods still produce the desired modifications/deletions at low frequencies. This makes isolation of mutants that do not display selectable or conspicuous phenotypes considerably difficult. To overcome this limitation, we have merged ssDNA recombineering with CRISPR/Cas9 technology in this bacterium for efficient killing of unmodified cells and thus non-phenotypic selection of bacteria bearing the mutations of interest...
October 23, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Chao Huang, Peng Wang, Xing Xu, Yaru Zhang, Yu Gong, Wenfeng Hu, Minhui Gao, Yue Wu, Yong Ling, Xi Zhao, Yibin Qin, Rongrong Yang, Wei Zhang
Direct induction of macrophage ramification has been shown to promote an alternative (M2) polarization, suggesting that the ramified morphology may determine the function of immune cells. The ketone body metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) elevated in conditions including fasting and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) can reduce neuroinflammation. However, how exactly BHB impacts microglia remains unclear. We report that BHB as well as its producing stimuli fasting and KD induced obvious ramifications of murine microglia in basal and inflammatory conditions in a reversible manner, and these ramifications were accompanied with microglial profile toward M2 polarization and phagocytosis...
October 23, 2017: Glia
William Pickett, Richard L Berg, Barbara Marlenga
PURPOSE: To determine whether patterns of adolescent risk behavior in rural populations, and especially farm populations, are associated with negative indicators of adolescent health and well-being, beyond an established association between risk-taking and injury. METHODS: The study base was Cycle 7 (2014) of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. Children aged 11-16 years (n = 2,565; 2,533 weighted) who reported living or working on farms were matched within schools in a 1:1 ratio with other rural children...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
Fangfang Cui, Qingliang Feng, Jinhua Hong, Renyan Wang, Yu Bai, Xiaobo Li, Dongyan Liu, Yu Zhou, Xing Liang, Xuexia He, Zhongyue Zhang, Shengzhong Liu, Zhibin Lei, Zonghuai Liu, Tianyou Zhai, Hua Xu
Chemical vapor deposition growth of 1T' ReS2x Se2(1-x) alloy monolayers is reported for the first time. The composition and the corresponding bandgap of the alloy can be continuously tuned from ReSe2 (1.32 eV) to ReS2 (1.62 eV) by precisely controlling the growth conditions. Atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals an interesting local atomic distribution in ReS2x Se2(1-x) alloy, where S and Se atoms are selectively occupied at different X sites in each Re-X6 octahedral unit cell with perfect matching between their atomic radius and space size of each X site...
October 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
P Dickison, S D Smith
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) secondary to acrylates and methacrylates is a well- described occurrence, particularly in those who wear or handle gel nail varnish. Management involves avoidance of the identified allergen. The cause of chronic urticaria (CI) is often not identified, and CU is not known to be associated with acrylates or methacrylates. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman who initially presented with hand dermatitis exacerbated by gel nail varnish on a background of CU. Avoiding all nail varnishes because of her ACD also resulted in improvement of her CU...
October 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Gaetano Angelici, Marcin Górecki, Gennaro Pescitelli, Nicola Zanna, Magda Monari, Claudia Tomasini
Ferrocene with its aromaticity and facile redox properties is an attractive moiety to be incorporated into functional moieties. Medicinal applications of ferrocene are well known and ferrocene itself shows cytotoxic and antianemic properties. In this article, we will describe the synthesis and the structure analysis of two pseudopeptides containing a ferrocene moiety as N-terminal group. After purification, Fc-l-Phe-d-Oxd-OBn [l-Phel-phenylalanine; d-Oxd(4R,5S)-4-Methyl-5-carboxy-oxazolidin-2-one] appears as bright brown solid that spontaneously forms brown needles...
October 23, 2017: Biopolymers
David Graham, Deepak Gill, Russell C Dale, Martin M Tisdall
AIM: To describe 20 years of experience with corpus callosotomy at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London and the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney. METHOD: Records of patients who underwent corpus callosotomy between January 1995 and December 2015 were reviewed. Complications of surgery and changes in seizure type and frequency, injuries, and use of antiepileptic drugs were recorded. Drop attacks were analysed using Kaplan-Meier event-free survival curves...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Daniela De Jesús Cruz-González, Diana Gómez-Martin, Lourdes Baranda, Carlos Abud-Mendoza, Jorge Alcocer-Varela, Roberto González-Amaro, Adriana E Monsiváis-Urenda
Natural Killer cells (NK cells) participates in the regulation of the immune response. However, the immunomodulatory function of NK cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regulatory function of NK cells in SLE patients and to identify the NK cells involved in the pathogenesis of this complex disease. We analyzed the expression of NK receptors and costimulatory molecules in peripheral NK cells (CD3-CD56+) from SLE patients as well as the numbers of HLA-DR/CD11c+ NK cells...
October 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Marco D Huesch
BACKGROUND: Real-world evidence of statin side effects is potentially biased because statin use is neither randomized nor unblinded. An innovative study design can mitigate these biases. For example, in the recent ASCOT-LLA trial, patient-reported adverse events such as muscle pain and weakness were higher in the non-randomized and non-blinded setting than in the randomized, blinded setting. Less optimally, secondary re-analysis of clinical trials in which statin use is recorded and in which serious adverse events (SAEs) are adjudicated may be conducted...
October 22, 2017: Drugs in R&D
San-Lan Wu, Jun Gan, Jing Rao, Si-Jie He, Wen-Wen Zhu, Ying Zhao, Yong-Ning Lv, Jian-Geng Huang, Ya-Ni Liu
Huperzine A is a potent, reversible, and blood-brain barrier permeable acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and bioavailability of two formulations with the established reference formulation of huperzine A in a fasting, healthy Chinese male population. This was a randomized, single-dose, 3-period, 6-sequence crossover study. The plasma concentrations of huperzine A were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Tolerability was assessed based on subject interview, vital sign monitoring, physical examination, and routine blood and urine tests...
October 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Jia Xia, Hang Zhang, Qun Hu, Shuang-You Liu, Liu-Qing Zhang, Ai Zhang, Xiao-Ling Zhang, Ya-Qin Wang, Ai-Guo Liu
To perform a systemic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of PET (CT) and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for diagnosing neuroblastoma (NB), electronic databases were searched as well as relevant references and conference proceedings. The diagnostic accuracy of MIBG and PET (CT) was calculated for NB, primary NB, and relapse/metastasis of NB based on their sensitivity, specificity, and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUSROC) in terms of per-lesion and per-patient data...
October 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Mona M Voges, Claire-Marie Giabbiconi, Benjamin Schöne, Manuel Waldorf, Andrea S Hartmann, Silja Vocks
Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face...
October 20, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Charlotte Buckley, Maria Stokes, Dinesh Samuel
BACKGROUND: Grip strength is a reliable predictor of whole body strength in older adults, but muscle characteristics of people with different activity levels have not been studied previously. The present study examined the relationship between grip strength (GS), quadriceps peak torque (QPT), functional endurance, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older female golfers. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy female golfers (mean age 69.1 years, SD 3.4) participated...
October 23, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
C Yang, J Zhang, M Ding, K Xu, L Li, L Mao, J Zheng
Ki67 is a well-known proliferation marker for the evaluation of cell proliferation. Numerous studies have indicated that Ki67 index independently predicts cancer progression. Moreover, because Ki67 is highly expressed in malignant cells but almost could not be detected in normal cells, it has become a promising target for cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize recent advances in Ki67 targeted cancer therapy. In particular, we highlight recent development on the exploitation of Ki67 promoter to drive the expression of siRNAs or therapeutic genes in cancer cells specifically...
October 20, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Anna Maria Aloisi
In the world of pain, we must always consider the presence of gender. In nociception, as well as in pain, women are different from men in many, if not all, aspects of the system. Nociception is the sum of several events that occur from the periphery to the CNS, and there is much evidence that female nociception differs from male nociception. Moreover, it has to be considered that pain results from a male or a female cortex. Genetic, anatomical, physiological, hormonal, psychological, and social factors have been considered to explain the differences present at both levels...
October 20, 2017: Pain and Therapy
Niralee Babooa, Wen-Jing Shi, Chao Chen
BACKGROUND: Several studies have clearly demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) in neonates delivered by caesarean section (CS) compared to those delivered vaginally. The pathophysiological factors underlying the link between CS and PPHN are still poorly understood. In this review, we describe the mechanisms that could explain the association between CS delivery and subsequent PPHN, as well as potential preventive measures...
December 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Nicole M Gilbertson, Andrew S Paisley, Sibylle Kranz, Arthur Weltman, Jennifer L Kirby, Peter T Hallowell, Steven K Malin
Bariatric surgery is an effective and durable treatment for individuals with obesity and its associated comorbidities. However, not all patients meet weight loss and/or cardiometabolic goals following bariatric surgery, suggesting that some people are bariatric surgery resistant. The reason for this resistance is unclear, but potential factors, such as adiposity-derived inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and aerobic fitness prior to surgery, have been related to blunted surgery responsiveness...
October 23, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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