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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915474/racial-differences-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Giuliano Di Pietro, Ganna Chornokur, Nagi B Kumar, Chemar Davis, Jong Y Park
Disparities between African American and Caucasian men in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and treatment in the United States have been well established, with significant racial disparities documented at all stages of PCa management, from differences in the type of treatment offered to progression-free survival or death. These disparities appear to be complex in nature, involving biological determinants as well as socioeconomic and cultural aspects. We present a review of the literature on racial disparities in the diagnosis of PCa, treatment, survival, and genetic susceptibility...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915463/the-our-hope-approach-for-ethics-and-communication-about-neonatal-neurological-injury
#2
REVIEW
Eric Racine, Emily Bell, Barbara Farlow, Steven Miller, Antoine Payot, Lisa Anne Rasmussen, Michael I Shevell, Donna Thomson, Pia Wintermark
Predicting neurological outcomes of neonates with acute brain injury is an essential component of shared decision-making, in order to guide the development of treatment goals and appropriate care plans. It can aid parents in imagining the child's future, and guide timely and ongoing treatment decisions, including shifting treatment goals and focusing on comfort care. However, numerous challenges have been reported with respect to evidence-based practices for prognostication such as biases about prognosis among clinicians...
December 4, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915457/combined-use-of-the-rationalization-of-home-medication-by-an-adjusted-stopp-in-older-patients-rasp-list-and-a-pharmacist-led-medication-review-in-very-old-inpatients-impact-on-quality-of-prescribing-and-clinical-outcome
#3
Lorenz Van der Linden, Liesbeth Decoutere, Karolien Walgraeve, Koen Milisen, Johan Flamaing, Isabel Spriet, Jos Tournoy
BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate drugs have been associated with negative outcomes in older adults which might be reduced by pharmacist interventions. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a pharmacist intervention, consisting of the application of the Rationalization of home medication by an Adjusted STOPP in older Patients (RASP) list and a pharmacist-led medication review on polypharmacy, the quality of prescribing, and clinical outcome in geriatric inpatients...
December 3, 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915456/use-of-iron-sucrose-and-red-blood-cell-transfusions-in-anaemic-cancer-patients-in-france-oncofer-study
#4
Elisabeth Luporsi, Alain Toledano, Dominique Spaeth, Florian Scotté, Marc Espié, Stéphanie Perot, Ladan Duvillié, Isabelle Pithois Merli, Roland Bugat
PURPOSE: This report describes the results of an observational, retrospective cohort study, evaluating the use of iron sucrose (IS) and red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in patients with cancer in routine clinical practice in France. A parallel investigated cohort treated with ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) has been reported earlier. METHODS: Data of patients with a solid tumour or haematological malignancy who have received IS or an RBC transfusion during 2010 from 3 months prior (M-3) to 3 months post first treatment (M+3) were analysed...
December 3, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915452/chronic-enalapril-treatment-increases-transient-outward-potassium-current-in-cardiomyocytes-isolated-from-right-ventricle-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#5
Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Junior, Ana Carolina de Azevedo Carvalho, Enildo Broetto Pimentel, José Geraldo Mill, José Hamilton Matheus Nascimento
It has been well established that chronic pressure overload resulting from hypertension leads to ventricular hypertrophy and electrophysiological remodeling. The transient outward potassium current (I to) reduction described in hypertensive animals delays ventricular repolarization, leading to complex ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Antihypertensive drugs, as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), can restore I to and reduce the incidence of arrhythmic events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential effects of long-term treatment with ACEi or direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant on the I to of left and right ventricle myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...
December 3, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915448/bone-mineral-content-and-areal-density-but-not-bone-area-predict-an-incident-fracture-risk-a-comparative-study-in-a-uk-prospective-cohort
#6
E M Curtis, N C Harvey, S D'Angelo, C S Cooper, K A Ward, P Taylor, G Pearson, C Cooper
: We studied a prospective UK cohort of women aged 20 to 80 years, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline. Bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD), but not bone area (BA), at femoral neck, lumbar spine and the whole body sites were similarly predictive of incident fractures. BACKGROUND: Low aBMD, measured by DXA, is a well-established risk factor for future fracture, but little is known about the performance characteristics of other DXA measures such as BA and BMC in fracture prediction...
December 2016: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915445/granisetron-extended-release-injection-a-review-in-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting
#7
Emma D Deeks
An extended-release (ER) subcutaneously injectable formulation of the first-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron is now available in the USA (Sustol(®)), where it is indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or anthracycline and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy regimens in adults. Granisetron ER is administered as a single subcutaneous injection and uses an erosion-controlled drug-delivery system to allow prolonged granisetron release...
December 3, 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915435/bone-remodeling-and-regulating-biomarkers-in-women-at-the-time-of-breast-cancer-diagnosis
#8
Song Yao, Yali Zhang, Li Tang, Janise M Roh, Cecile A Laurent, Chi-Chen Hong, Theresa Hahn, Joan C Lo, Christine B Ambrosone, Lawrence H Kushi, Marilyn L Kwan
PURPOSE: The majority of breast cancer patients receive endocrine therapy, including aromatase inhibitors known to cause increased bone resorption. Bone-related biomarkers at the time of breast cancer diagnosis may predict future risk of osteoporosis and fracture after endocrine therapy. METHODS: In a large population of 2,401 female breast cancer patients who later underwent endocrine therapy, we measured two bone remodeling biomarkers, TRAP5b and BAP, and two bone regulating biomarkers, RANKL and OPG, in serum samples collected at the time of breast cancer diagnosis...
December 3, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915432/social-learning-in-a-longitudinal-integrated-clinical-placement
#9
Chris Roberts, Michele Daly, Fabian Held, David Lyle
Recent research has demonstrated that longitudinal integrated placements (LICs) are an alternative mode of clinical education to traditional placements. Extended student engagement in community settings provide the advantages of educational continuity as well as increased service provision in underserved areas. Developing and maintaining LICs require a differing approach to student learning than that for traditional placements. There has been little theoretically informed empirical research that has offered explanations of which are the important factors that promote student learning in LICs and the relationships between those factors...
December 3, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915431/time-dependent-postmortem-redistribution-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-in-blood-and-alternative-matrices-application-of-ct-guided-biopsy-sampling
#10
Sandra N Staeheli, Dominic Gascho, Lars C Ebert, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Interpretation of postmortem morphine concentrations in forensic toxicology provides several pitfalls such as missing information on tolerance, analyte stability, or postmortem redistribution (PMR). Recently, it had been shown that computed tomography (CT)-guided collection of biopsies using a robotic arm (virtobot) provides a valuable strategy for systematic studies on time-dependent PMR. Using this technique, time-dependent PMR of morphine and its metabolites was investigated in 12 cases. At admission to the institute (t1), femoral and heart blood (right ventricle) as well as biopsies from the right lung, the right kidney, liver, spleen, and muscle tissue were collected...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915430/protection-zone-in-a-diffusive-predator-prey-model-with-beddington-deangelis-functional-response
#11
Xiao He, Sining Zheng
In any reaction-diffusion system of predator-prey models, the population densities of species are determined by the interactions between them, together with the influences from the spatial environments surrounding them. Generally, the prey species would die out when their birth rate is too low, the habitat size is too small, the predator grows too fast, or the predation pressure is too high. To save the endangered prey species, some human interference is useful, such as creating a protection zone where the prey could cross the boundary freely but the predator is prohibited from entering...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915422/state-of-the-art-review-of-the-right-ventricle-in-copd-patients-it-is-time-to-look-closer
#12
REVIEW
Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus-Silva, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi
Since the first description of pulmonary circulation in the 16th century, the knowledge of the complex interaction between the heart and lungs has greatly improved. Hypoxemia plays a classical role in the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and right ventricle (RV) dysfunction in patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, more recent results have revealed the presence of RV vascular structural and functional changes even in patients with mild COPD, without hypoxemia or pulmonary hypertension at rest...
December 3, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915421/the-frequency-and-treatment-of-pneumothorax-associated-with-pulmonary-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection
#13
Masaki Ikeda, Koji Takahashi, Teruya Komatsu, Toru Tanaka, Tatsuo Kato, Takuji Fujinaga
OBJECTIVES: Characteristics of pneumothorax associated with nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) infection are rarely reported, especially in terms of surgical treatments. Our objectives were to show the tendency and clinical courses of pneumothorax due to NTM and discuss the way of therapy in our hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 557 patients with NTM infection over a period of 5 years at the Nagara Medical Center. RESULTS: A total of 12 out of the 557 patients (2...
December 3, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915417/retrospective-analysis-of-10-000-implants-from-insertion-up-to-20%C3%A2-years-analysis-of-implantations-using-augmentative-procedures
#14
Wolfram Knöfler, Thomas Barth, Reinhard Graul, Dietmar Krampe
BACKGROUND: A sufficient amount of bone is essential to ensure long-term stability of dental implants. To support the bone regeneration process, different techniques and materials are available. It has been questioned whether these techniques and materials may compromise implant survival compared to pristine bone. To properly answer this question, long-term stability up to 20.2 years after insertion of implants placed in augmented or non-augmented sites was retrospectively analysed. METHODS: Retrospective analysis included 10,158 implants from 3095 patients in three private practices who underwent implant therapy with or without bone augmentation procedures...
December 2016: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915415/exendin-4-protects-huvecs-from-tunicamycin-induced-apoptosis-via-inhibiting-the-ire1a-jnk-caspase-3-pathway
#15
Li Wu, XiaoYing Liu, LinXi Wang, YanPing Wang, LiJing Wang, BinBin Guan, Zhou Chen, LiBin Liu
PURPOSE: The abnormal increase of apoptosis of endothelial cells induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress is a significant factor for vascular disease, especially for atherosclerosis. Protecting endothelial cells from endoplasmic reticulum stress is a crucial strategies to combate these diseases. The goal of this study was to explore the effect of Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, on tunicamycin-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. METHODS: All studies were performed in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with tunicamycin with or without Exendin-4 pretreatment...
December 3, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915412/formation-of-indigoidine-derived-pigments-contributes-to-the-adaptation-of-vogesella-sp-strain-eb-to-cold-aquatic-iron-oxidizing-environments
#16
Paula Arrúa Day, María S Villalba, O Marisa Herrero, Luz Alejandra Arancibia, Héctor M Alvarez
We investigated previously under explored cold aquatic environments of Andean Patagonia, Argentina. Oily sheens similar to an oil spill are frequently observed at the surface of water in creeks and small ponds in these places. Chemical analysis of a water sample revealed the occurrence of high concentrations of iron and the presence of a free insoluble indigoidine-derived pigment. A blue pigment-producing bacterium (strain EB) was isolated from the water sample and identified as Vogesella sp. by molecular analysis...
December 3, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915410/the-properties-and-potential-metabolic-role-of-glucokinase-in-halotolerant-obligate-methanotroph-methylomicrobium-alcaliphilum-20z
#17
Ildar I Mustakhimov, Olga N Rozova, Natalia P Solntseva, Valentina N Khmelenina, Alexander S Reshetnikov, Yuri A Trotsenko
Aerobic bacteria utilizing methane as the carbon and energy source do not use sugars as growth substrates but possess the gene coding for glucokinase (Glk), an enzyme converting glucose into glucose 6-phosphate. Here we demonstrate the functionality and properties of Glk from an obligate methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z. The recombinant Glk obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli was found to be close in biochemical properties to other prokaryotic Glks. The homodimeric enzyme (2 × 35 kDa) catalyzed ATP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose and glucosamine with nearly equal activity, being inhibited by ADP (K i = 2...
December 3, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915408/a-phase-i-study-of-intravenous-pi3k-inhibitor-copanlisib-in-japanese-patients-with-advanced-or-refractory-solid-tumors
#18
Toshihiko Doi, Nozomu Fuse, Takayuki Yoshino, Takashi Kojima, Hideaki Bando, Hideaki Miyamoto, Masato Kaneko, Motonobu Osada, Atsushi Ohtsu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of the intravenously administered pan-PI3K inhibitor copanlisib in Japanese patients with advanced or refractory solid tumors. METHODS: A Phase I open-label study in Japanese patients with advanced or refractory solid tumors was carried out. Patients received a single intravenous dose of either copanlisib 0.4 mg/kg or copanlisib 0.8 mg/kg, dosed intermittently on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle...
December 3, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915400/the-pathophysiological-role-of-nox2-in-hypertension-and-organ-damage
#19
REVIEW
Maurizio Forte, Cristina Nocella, Elena De Falco, Silvia Palmerio, Leonardo Schirone, Valentina Valenti, Giacomo Frati, Roberto Carnevale, Sebastiano Sciarretta
NADPH oxidases (NOXs) represent one of the major sources of reactive oxygen species in the vascular district. Reactive oxygen species are responsible for vascular damage that leads to several cardiovascular pathological conditions. Among NOX isoforms, NOX2 is widely expressed in many cells types, such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, confirming its pivotal role in vascular pathophysiology. Studies in mice models with systemic deletion of NOX2, as well as in transgenic mice overexpressing NOX2, have demonstrated the undeniable involvement of NOX2 in the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cardiac hypertrophy, platelet aggregation, and aging...
December 3, 2016: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915396/accurate-stone-analysis-the-impact-on-disease-diagnosis-and-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Neil S Mandel, Ian C Mandel, Ann M Kolbach-Mandel
This manuscript reviews the requirements for acceptable compositional analysis of kidney stones using various biophysical methods. High-resolution X-ray powder diffraction crystallography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are the only acceptable methods in our labs for kidney stone analysis. The use of well-constructed spectral reference libraries is the basis for accurate and complete stone analysis. The literature included in this manuscript identify errors in most commercial laboratories and in some academic centers...
December 3, 2016: Urolithiasis
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