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Domestic dogs

Shuai Wang, Lingjuan Li, Yi Lu, Haizhu Zhang, Qing Xie, Zhenchao Zhang
This study aimed to determine the frequency of antibodies to Neospora caninum in domestic sheep raised in Henan province, central China. Serum samples from 779 domestic sheep were collected from March 2015 to May 2016, and antibodies to N. caninum were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed an overall IgG positive rate of 7.32% (57/779). The risk factors significantly related to seropositivity to N. caninum in sheep were the age, the presence of dogs, and the rearing system...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Martin O Andersson, Conny Tolf, Paula Tamba, Mircea Stefanache, Gabriel Radbea, Dimitrios Frangoulidis, Herbert Tomaso, Jonas Waldenström, Gerhard Dobler, Lidia Chitimia-Dobler
BACKGROUND: Ticks are transmitting a wide range of bacterial pathogens that cause substantial morbidity and mortality in domestic animals. The full pathogen burden transmitted by tick vectors is incompletely studied in many geographical areas, and extensive studies are required to fully understand the diversity and distribution of pathogens transmitted by ticks. RESULTS: We sampled 824 ticks of 11 species collected in 19 counties in Romania. Ticks were collected mainly from dogs, but also from other domestic and wild animals, and were subjected to molecular screening for pathogens...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Barend L Penzhorn, Edward C Netherlands, Courtney A Cook, Nico J Smit, Ilse Vorster, Robert F Harrison-White, Marinda C Oosthuizen
BACKGROUND: Domestic dogs are not native to sub-Saharan Africa, which may account for their susceptibility to Babesia rossi, of which endemic black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) are natural reservoirs. There is virtually no information on the occurrence of potentially pathogenic haemogregarines (e.g. Hepatozoon canis) or even rickettsial bacteria (e.g. Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp.) in indigenous canids in sub-Saharan Africa. Such organisms could pose a risk to domestic dogs, as well as to populations of endangered indigenous canid species...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Melissa S Howse, Rita E Anderson, Carolyn J Walsh
This study examines the activity budgets and social behaviours initiated and received by 69 focal dogs in an off-leash dog park for 400 seconds after entry, a time of high activity about which little is known. Using motivationally-neutral labels for social behaviour categories, we describe the frequency of behaviours, and correlations among them. We then examine these relationships in the context of proposed functions for some behaviours in dogs, in terms of information gathering and communication, including visual and tactile signalling...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Gustavo F Paz, Jeronimo M N Rugani, Andreza P Marcelino, Célia M F Gontijo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between naturally occurring Leishmania spp. infections in dogs (Canis familiaris) and the practical implications of the use of serological and molecular methods to confirm diagnoses. The study population consisted of 96 domestic dogs in southeastern Brazil. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using four commercial canine visceral leishmaniasis kits. Dogs confirmed positive by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were culled and samples from mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen border, bone marrow and ear skin were taken and submitted to DNA extraction...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Elizabeth W Uhl
Although vitamin D is critical to calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, bone formation and remodeling, there is evolution-based variation between species in vitamin D metabolism and susceptibility to rickets and osteomalacia. Most herbivores produce vitamin D3 in response to sunlight, but dogs and cats have generally lost the ability as carnivore diets are rich in vitamin D. Nutritional deficiencies and/or poor exposure to sunlight can induce rickets in birds, swine, cattle and sheep, but horses are less susceptible as they have evolved a calcium homeostasis that is quite different than other animals...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Nisar Ahmed, Adeel Riaz, Zahra Zubair, Muhammad Saqib, Sehrish Ijaz, Muhammad Shah Nawaz-Ul-Rehman, Ahmed Al-Qahtani, Muhammad Mubin
BACKGROUND: The infection in dogs due to canine parvovirus (CPV), is a highly contagious one with high mortality rate. The present study was undertaken for a detailed genetic analysis of partial VP2 gene i.e., 630 bp isolated from rectal swab samples of infected domestic and stray dogs from all areas of district Faisalabad. Monitoring of viruses is important, as continuous prevalence of viral infection might be associated with emergence of new virulent strains. METHODS: In the present study, 40 rectal swab samples were collected from diarrheic dogs from different areas of district Faisalabad, Pakistan, in 2014-15 and screened for the presence of CPV by immunochromatography...
March 15, 2018: Virology Journal
Almut Prkno, Matthias Kaiser, Daniela Goerigk, Martin Pfeffer, Thomas W Vahlenkamp, Donata Hoffmann, Martin Beer, Alexander Starke
Cowpox virus (CPXV) infection is a reportable and potentially zoonotic disease that occurs sporadically in a variety of animals. During the past six decades, CPXV infection has been extensively researched and described in both domestic (cat, dog, horse, cattle) and zoo animals (e. g. elephant, rhinoceros, okapi). Of note, a review of the literature produced only three reports of CPXV in individual or small groups of South American camelids. The goal of this review was to describe the current knowledge as it relates to clinical features of CPXV infection in South American camelids and to compare the clinical manifestations with those described in other animal species...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Linda Gerencsér, Nóra Bunford, Alexandra Moesta, Ádám Miklósi
Although there is ample data indicating that reward processing plays an important role in human psychopathologies and pharmaco- and psychotherapy treatment response, the corresponding animal-model research needs to be extended to models whose motivational and social dispositions are better generalizable than those of the traditional models. Accordingly, our aim was to develop and assess the reliability and validity of an owner-report rating scale of reward responsiveness in domestic dogs (N = 2149) and then to examine individual differences in reward responsiveness...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrea Talenti, Dayna L Dreger, Stefano Frattini, Michele Polli, Stefano Marelli, Alexander C Harris, Luigi Liotta, Raffaella Cocco, Andrew N Hogan, Daniele Bigi, Romolo Caniglia, Heidi G Parker, Giulio Pagnacco, Elaine A Ostrander, Paola Crepaldi
Through thousands of years of breeding and strong human selection, the dog ( Canis lupus familiaris ) exists today within hundreds of closed populations throughout the world, each with defined phenotypes. A singular geographic region with broad diversity in dog breeds presents an interesting opportunity to observe potential mechanisms of breed formation. Italy claims 14 internationally recognized dog breeds, with numerous additional local varieties. To determine the relationship among Italian dog populations, we integrated genetic data from 263 dogs representing 23 closed dog populations from Italy, seven Apennine gray wolves, and an established dataset of 161 globally recognized dog breeds, applying multiple genetic methods to characterize the modes by which breeds are formed within a single geographic region...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Katherine A J Daniels, J F Burn
It is generally accepted that animals move in a way that minimises energy use during regular gait and there is evidence that the principle might extend more generally to locomotor behaviour and manoeuvres. Jumping during locomotion is a useful manoeuvre that contributes to the versatility of legged locomotion and is within the repertoire of many terrestrial animals. We describe a simple ballistic model that can be used to identify a single unique trajectory of the body's centre of mass that minimises the mechanical work to initiate a jump, regardless of the approach velocity or take-off position...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Xinmiao Rong, Meng Fan, Xiangdong Sun, Youming Wang, Huaiping Zhu
Echinococcosis has been recognized as one of the most important helminth zoonosis in China. Available models always consider dogs as the mainly definitive hosts. However, such models ignore the distinctions between domestic dogs and stray dogs. In this study, we propose a 10-dimensional dynamic model distinguishing stray dogs from domestic dogs to explore the special role of stray dogs and potential effects of disposing stray dogs on the transmission of Echinococcosis. The basic reproduction number R0 , which measures the impact of both domestic dogs and stray dogs on the transmission, is determined to characterize the transmission dynamics...
March 8, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Anne-Claire Lagrée, Clotilde Rouxel, Maëllys Kevin, Thibaud Dugat, Guillaume Girault, Benoît Durand, Martin Pfeffer, Cornelia Silaghi, Marion Nieder, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Nadia Haddad
BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic tick-borne intracellular alpha-proteobacterium causing tick-borne fever, which leads to significant economic losses in domestic ruminants in Europe. Its epidemiological cycles are complex and reservoir host species of bovine strains have not yet been identified. Given that little genetic information is available on strains circulating within a defined bovine environment, our objective was to assess the genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum obtained from the same farms over time...
March 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Nicolize O'Dell, Luke Arnot, Chris Eric Janisch, Johan Ca Steyl
African horse sickness (AHS) is a fatal vector transmitted viral disease of horses caused by the African horse sickness virus (AHSV). This disease is characterised by circulatory and respiratory failure, resulting from vascular endothelial injury affecting many organs. The susceptibility of dogs to AHS has been demonstrated in the past following experimental infection through consumption of infected horse meat. clinical cases of AHS in dogs (cAHS) have been documented, without a history of ingesting infected horse meat, over a period of 12 years...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Record
Ιlias Chaligiannis, Isabel G Fernández de Mera, Anna Papa, Smaragda Sotiraki, José de la Fuente
Ticks are vectors for a variety of human and animal pathogens (bacteria, protozoa and viruses). In order to investigate the pathogens carried by ticks in Greece, a total of 179 adult ticks (114 female and 65 male) were collected from domestic animals (sheep, goats and dogs) from 14 prefectures of six regions of Greece. Among them, 40 were Dermacentor marginatus, 25 Haemaphysalis parva, 22 H. sulcata, one H. punctata, 13 Ixodes gibbosus, 77 Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and one R. bursa. All ticks were tested for the presence of DNA of Anaplasma spp...
March 7, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Eric Dumonteil, Maria-Jesus Ramirez-Sierra, Silvia Pérez-Carrillo, Christian Teh-Poot, Claudia Herrera, Sébastien Gourbière, Etienne Waleckx
Trypanosoma cruzi is the agent of Chagas disease, transmitted by hematophagous triatomine vectors. Establishing transmission cycles is key to understand the epidemiology of the disease, but integrative assessments of ecological interactions shaping parasite transmission are still limited. Current approaches also lack sensitivity to assess the full extent of this ecological diversity. Here we developed a metabarcoding approach based on next-generation sequencing to identify triatomine gut microbiome, vertebrate feeding hosts, and parasite diversity and their potential interactions...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Angela Toepp, Mandy Larson, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Carolyne Bennett, Michael Anderson, Molly Parrish, Hailie Fowler, Geneva Wilson, Radhika Gharpure, Caitlin Cotter, Christine Petersen
In Leishmania infantum -endemic countries, controlling infection within dogs, the domestic reservoir, is critical to public health. There is a need for safe vaccines that prevent canine progression with disease and transmission to others. Protective vaccination against Leishmania requires mounting a strong, inflammatory, Type 1 response. Three commercially available canine vaccines on the global veterinary market use saponin or inflammatory antigen components (Letifend) as a strong pro-inflammatory adjuvant...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Juliane Bräuer, Julia Belger
There has been a growing interest in the cognitive skills of domestic dogs, but most current knowledge about dogs' understanding of their environment is limited to the visual or auditory modality. Although it is well known that dogs have an excellent olfactory sense and that they rely on olfaction heavily when exploring the environment or recognizing individuals, it remains unclear whether dogs perceive odors as representing specific objects. In the current study, we examined this aspect of dogs' perception of the world...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Yaru Sun, Yuening Cheng, Peng Lin, Li Yi, Mingwei Tong, Zhigang Cao, Gaili Wang, Shuang Li, Shipeng Cheng, Wanzhe Yuan, Jianke Wang
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important pathogen in domestic dogs, and the original antigenic types CPV-2 and its variants, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c, are prevalent worldwide. A multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR method was developed for the detection and differentiation of four antigenic types of CPV. A set of primers and probes, CPV-305F/CPV-305R and CPV-2-305P (for CPV-2)/CPV-2a-305P (for CPV-2a, 2b and 2c), was able to differentiate CPV-2 and its variants (CPV-2a, 2b and 2c). Another set of primers and probes, CPV-426F/CPV-426R and CPV-2-426P (for CPV-2 and 2a)/CPV-2b-426P (for CPV-2b)/CPV-2c-426P (for CPV-2c), was able to differentiate CPV-2a (2), CPV-2b, and CPV-2c...
February 27, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
K Nithin Prabhu, Shrikrishna Isloor, B Hanchinal Veeresh, Doddamane Rathnamma, R Sharada, Lekshmi J Das, M L Satyanarayana, Nagendra R Hegde, Sira Abdul Rahman
Accurate and early diagnosis of animal rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures. Whereas the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) technique is the recommended test, the more convenient, direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT), as well as the more sensitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have recently been employed for the laboratory diagnosis of rabies. We compared the three methods on brain samples from domestic (dog, cat, cattle, buffalo, horse, pig and goat) and wild (leopard, wolf and jackal) animals from various parts of India...
February 28, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
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