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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912242/deciphering-the-origin-of-dogs-from-fossils-to-genomes
#1
Adam H Freedman, Robert K Wayne
Understanding the timing and geographic context of dog origins is a crucial component for understanding human history, as well as the evolutionary context in which the morphological and behavioral divergence of dogs from wolves occurred. A substantial challenge to understanding domestication is that dogs have experienced a complicated demographic history. An initial severe bottleneck was associated with domestication followed by postdivergence gene flow between dogs and wolves, as well as population expansions, contractions, and replacements...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911041/impact-of-rabies-vaccination-history-on-attainment-of-an-adequate-antibody-titre-among-dogs-tested-for-international-travel-certification-israel-2010-2014
#2
B Yakobson, N Taylor, N Dveres, S Rotblat, Ż Spero, E W Lankau, J Maki
Rabies is endemic in wildlife or domestic carnivore populations globally. Infection of domestic dogs is of particular concern in many areas. In regions where domestic animals are at risk of exposure to rabies virus, dogs should be routinely vaccinated against rabies to protect both pet and human populations. Many countries require demonstration of an adequate level of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies to permit entry of dogs during international travel. We analysed rabies titres of dogs seeking travel certification in Israel to assess demographic and vaccine history factors associated with antibody titres below the acceptable threshold for travel certification...
December 2, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903288/untangling-the-transmission-dynamics-of-primary-and-secondary-vectors-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-colombia-parasite-infection-feeding-sources-and-discrete-typing-units
#3
Carolina Hernández, Camilo Salazar, Helena Brochero, Aníbal Teherán, Luz Stella Buitrago, Mauricio Vera, Hugo Soto, Zulibeth Florez-Rivadeneira, Sussane Ardila, Gabriel Parra-Henao, Juan David Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. Due to its genetic diversity has been classified into six Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) in association with transmission cycles. In Colombia, natural T. cruzi infection has been detected in 15 triatomine species. There is scarce information regarding the infection rates, DTUs and feeding preferences of secondary vectors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine T. cruzi infection rates, parasite DTU, ecotopes, insect stages, geographical location and bug feeding preferences across six different triatomine species...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902345/advances-in-canine-distemper-virus-cdv-pathogenesis-research-a-wildlife-perspective
#4
Angelika Katrin Loots, Emily Mitchell, Desiré Lee Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Estelle H Venter
Canine distemper virus (CDV) has emerged as a significant disease of wildlife, is highly contagious and readily transmitted between susceptible hosts. Initially described as an infectious disease of domestic dogs, it is now recognised as a global multi-host pathogen, infecting and causing mass mortalities in a wide range of carnivore species. The last decade has seen the effect of numerous CDV outbreaks in various wildlife populations. Prevention of CDV requires a clear understanding of the potential hosts in danger of infection as well as the dynamic pathways CDV uses to gain entry to its host cells and its ability to initiate viral shedding and disease transmission...
November 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898670/gray-wolf-exposure-to-emerging-vector-borne-diseases-in-wisconsin-with-comparison-to-domestic-dogs-and-humans
#5
Rocio F Jara, Adrian P Wydeven, Michael D Samuel
World-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. In the United Sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. Of these diseases, Lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) recolonized Wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of exposure to these four vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin as the population expanded between 1985 and 2011...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896194/osteomyelitis-following-domestic-animal-bites-to-the-hand-two-case-reports-and-practical-guidelines
#6
Jung Soo Lim, Jin Hwan Byun, Kyung Hee Min, Hye Kyung Lee, Yun Sun Choi
Recently, the number of cases of animal bite wounds has increased significantly in concordance with an increase in the pet population around the world. The authors report two rare cases of osteomyelitis of the phalanx following cat and dog bites. On initial physical examination, signs of a severe infection were observed. Radiographs of both patients showed the presence of osteomyelitis, and in one of the patients, the diagnosis was confirmed with a bone biopsy. After use of empirical antibiotics, intravenous antibiotic therapy that matched the identified bacterium's sensitivity was initiated, and at the same time, secure dressing including debridement was performed to induce secondary healing...
November 2016: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894907/seroprevalence-and-spatial-distribution-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-cats-dogs-pigs-and-equines-of-the-fernando-de-noronha-island-brazil
#7
Fernando J R Magalhães, Müller Ribeiro-Andrade, Fátima M Souza, Carlos D F Lima Filho, Alexander Welker Biondo, Odilon Vidotto, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, Rinaldo A Mota
Little is known about toxoplasmosis in animals of the Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the total population of pet cats (n=348), dogs (n=320), pigs (n=27), equines (n=101), as well as a significant portion of the population of feral cats (n=247) of the Island by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 71.26%, 54.74%, 48.75%, 51.85% and 22.7%, of the pet and feral cats, dogs, pigs and equines, respectively, demonstrating a high prevalence of T...
November 25, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893866/ecology-and-demography-of-free-roaming-domestic-dogs-in-rural-villages-near-serengeti-national-park-in-tanzania
#8
Anna M Czupryna, Joel S Brown, Machunde A Bigambo, Christopher J Whelan, Supriya D Mehta, Rachel M Santymire, Felix J Lankester, Lisa J Faust
Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. For four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in Tanzania: two villages with and two without a rabies vaccination campaign...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891241/no-evidence-of-prenatal-diversifying-selection-at-locus-or-supertype-levels-in-the-dog-mhc-class-ii-loci
#9
Alina K Niskanen, Lorna J Kennedy, Hannes Lohi, Jouni Aspi, Tanja Pyhäjärvi
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of studying, the mechanisms maintaining high diversity in the genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are still puzzling scientists. In addition to pathogen recognition and other functions, MHC molecules may act prenatally in mate choice and in maternal-foetal interactions. These interactions are potential selective mechanisms that increase genetic diversity in the MHC. During pregnancy, immune response has a dual role: the foetus represents foreign tissue compared to mother, but histo-incompatibility is required for successful pregnancy...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889225/cost-estimate-and-proposal-for-a-development-impact-bond-for-canine-rabies-elimination-by-mass-vaccination-in-chad
#10
Franziska Anyiam, Monique Lechenne, Rolande Mindekem, Assandi Oussigéré, Service Naissengar, Idriss Oumar Alfaroukh, Celine Mbilo, Daugla Doumagoum Moto, Paul G Coleman, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Jakob Zinsstag
Close to 960,000 humans humans die of rabies each year, most of them in Africa and Asia. Clinical rabies can be prevented by post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, PEP is commonly not available or not affordable in developing countries. Another strategy besides treating exposed humans is the vaccination of vector species. In developing countries, 8.36 vector is the domestic canine, that, once infected, is a serious threat to humans. After a successful mass vaccination of 70% of the dogs in N'Djaména, we report here a cost-estimate for a national rabies elimination campaign for Chad...
November 23, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885519/domestic-horses-send-signals-to-humans-when-they-face-with-an-unsolvable-task
#11
Monamie Ringhofer, Shinya Yamamoto
Some domestic animals are thought to be skilled at social communication with humans due to the process of domestication. Horses, being in close relationship with humans, similar to dogs, might be skilled at communication with humans. Previous studies have indicated that they are sensitive to bodily signals and the attentional state of humans; however, there are few studies that investigate communication with humans and responses to the knowledge state of humans. Our first question was whether and how horses send signals to their potentially helpful but ignorant caretakers in a problem-solving situation where a food item was hidden in a bucket that was accessible only to the caretakers...
November 24, 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880877/association-of-the-occurrence-of-brazilian-spotted-fever-and-atlantic-rain-forest-fragmentation-in-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-metropolitan-region-brazil
#12
Claudia A Scinachi, Gabriela A C G Takeda, Luís Filipe Mucci, Adriano Pinter
Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. In the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR) it is transmitted by Amblyomma aureolatum ticks. In this region, annual lethality of the disease can reach 80% and spatial occurrence depends on environmental factors and more particularly on the presence and interaction of domestic and wild carnivores as well as the presence and characteristics of the remnant Atlantic Rain Forest patches. This study analyzed the association between forest fragmentation and its influence on the risk of occurrence of the disease in the human population...
November 20, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880753/notes-from-the-field-community-based-prevention-of-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-sonora-mexico-2016
#13
Anne Straily, Naomi Drexler, Denica Cruz-Loustaunau, Christopher D Paddock, Gerardo Alvarez-Hernandez
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a life-threatening tickborne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a reemerging disease in Mexico (1,2). R. rickettsii is an intracellular bacterium that infects vascular endothelium and can cause multisystem organ failure and death in the absence of timely administration of a tetracycline-class antibiotic, typically doxycycline. Epidemic RMSF, as described in parts of Arizona and Mexico, is associated with massive local infestations of the brown dog tick (Rhiphicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on domestic dogs and in peridomestic settings that result in high rates of human exposure; for example, during 2003-2012, in Arizona the incidence of RMSF in the three most highly affected communities was 150 times the U...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878870/epidermolysis-bullosa-simplex-in-sibling-eurasier-dogs-is-caused-by-a-plec-non-sense-variant
#14
Elizabeth A Mauldin, Ping Wang, Thierry Olivry, Paula S Henthorn, Margret L Casal
BACKGROUND: Plectin, a large linker protein found in many tissues, acts to connect components of the cytoskeleton to each other. In the epidermis, plectin binds keratin intermediate filaments to hemidesmosomes. A deficiency of plectin in the skin leads to blister formation in the basal layer and the disease epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To describe a novel blistering disease that arose spontaneously in a litter of puppies. ANIMALS: Two female and one male 20-day-old Eurasier puppies, from a litter of six, were presented for evaluation of failure to thrive and then euthanized due to poor prognosis...
November 7, 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876957/diagnosis-of-cystic-echinococcosis-in-buffaloes-by-native-8%C3%A2-kda-antigen-using-latex-agglutination-test-lat
#15
A Sheeba, A Sangaran, B R Latha
The dog tapeworm Echinococcusgranulosus is the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease in domestic/wild herbivores animals and man. Accurate immunodiagnosis of the infection requires highly specific and sensitive antigens. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate immunoassays with principles of precipitation, agglutination for the identification of buffaloes infected with hydatid cyst which would allow the monitoring of animals from endemic areas and identifying infected animals prior to slaughter...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876930/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-domestic-dogs-in-an-area-from-northwest-of-iran-a-cross-sectional-study-using-immunodominant-surface-antigen-1-sag1
#16
M Sharifdini, M Mohebali, H Keshavarz, M Hosseininejad, H Hajjaran, B Akhoundi, A Rahimi Foroushani, Z Zarei
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects humans and animals. T. gondii surface antigen 1 (SAG1) is an appropriate antigen with high specificity and sensitivity for the detection of T. gondii infection in humans and animal hosts. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection using SAG1 antigen (P30) in ownership dogs in Meshkin-Shahr district in the northwestern Iran. The sera samples were collected from 171 domestic dogs and tested using indirect ELISA (SAG1 antigen)...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876612/lethal-distemper-in-badgers-meles-meles-following-epidemic-in-dogs-and-wolves
#17
Daria Di Sabatino, Gabriella Di Francesco, Guendalina Zaccaria, Daniela Malatesta, Luca Brugnola, Maurilia Marcacci, Ottavio Portanti, Fabrizio De Massis, Giovanni Savini, Liana Teodori, Enzo Ruggieri, Iolanda Mangone, Pietro Badagliacca, Alessio Lorusso
Canine distemper virus (CDV) represents an important conservation threat to many wild carnivores. A large distemper epidemic sustained by an Arctic-lineage strain occurred in Italy in 2013, mainly in the Abruzzi region, causing overt disease in domestic and shepherd dogs, Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) and other wild carnivores. Two badgers were collected by the end of September 2015 in a rural area of the Abruzzi region and were demonstrated to be CDV-positive by real time RT-PCR and IHC in several tissues...
October 27, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876455/multiple-morbidities-in-companion-dogs-a-novel-model-for-investigating-age-related-disease
#18
Kelly Jin, Jessica M Hoffman, Kate E Creevy, Dan G O'Neill, Daniel E L Promislow
The proportion of men and women surviving over 65 years has been steadily increasing over the last century. In their later years, many of these individuals are afflicted with multiple chronic conditions, placing increasing pressure on healthcare systems. The accumulation of multiple health problems with advanced age is well documented, yet the causes are poorly understood. Animal models have long been employed in attempts to elucidate these complex mechanisms with limited success. Recently, the domestic dog has been proposed as a promising model of human aging for several reasons...
2016: Pathobiology of Aging & Age related Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876073/multiple-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-potentially-reveals-the-existence-of-two-groups-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-circulating-in-cattle-in-france-with-different-wild-reservoirs
#19
Thibaud Dugat, Gina Zanella, Luc Véran, Céline Lesage, Guillaume Girault, Benoît Durand, Anne-Claire Lagrée, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Nadia Haddad
BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of tick-borne fever, a disease with high economic impact for domestic ruminants in Europe. Epidemiological cycles of this species are complex, and involve different ecotypes circulating in various host species. To date, these epidemiological cycles are poorly understood, especially in Europe, as European reservoir hosts (i.e. vertebrate hosts enabling long-term maintenance of the bacterium in the ecosystem), of the bacterium have not yet been clearly identified...
November 22, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874836/whole-genome-sequence-snp-chips-and-pedigree-structure-building-demographic-profiles-in-domestic-dog-breeds-to-optimize-genetic-trait-mapping
#20
Dayna L Dreger, Maud Rimbault, Brian W Davis, Adrienne Bhatnagar, Heidi G Parker, Elaine A Ostrander
In the decade following publication of the draft genome sequence of the domestic dog, extraordinary advances with application to several fields have been credited to the canine genetic system. Taking advantage of closed breeding populations and the subsequent selection for aesthetic and behavioral characteristics, researchers have leveraged the dog as an effective natural model for the study of complex traits, such as disease susceptibility, behavior, and morphology, generating unique contributions to human health and biology...
November 17, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
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