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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781673/rabies-of-canid-biotype-in-wild-dog-lycaon-pictus-and-spotted-hyaena-crocuta-crocuta-in-madikwe-game-reserve-south-africa-in-2014-2015-diagnosis-possible-origins-and-implications-for-control
#1
Claude T Sabeta, Drienie Janse van Rensburg, Baby Phahladira, Debra Mohale, Robert F Harrison-White, Carlien Esterhuyzen, June H Williams
Both domestic and wild carnivore species are commonly diagnosed with rabies virus (RABV) infection in South Africa. Although the majority of confirmed rabies cases in wild carnivore species are reported from the yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata), the rest are from other wild carnivores including the highly endangered wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Lyssavirus infection was confirmed in two wild dogs and a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Madikwe Game Reserve, North West province in South Africa, in 2014 and 2015, using a direct fluorescent antibody test and immunohistochemistry...
April 26, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781422/spirocerca-vulpis-sp-nov-spiruridae-spirocercidae-description-of-a-new-nematode-species-of-the-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes-carnivora-canidae
#2
Alicia Rojas, Gloria Sanchis-Monsonís, Amer Alić, Adnan Hodžić, Domenico Otranto, Daniel Yasur-Landau, Carlos Martínez-Carrasco, Gad Baneth
Previous studies have reported nematodes of the Spirocercidae family in the stomach nodules of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) described as Spirocerca sp. or Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi, 1819). We characterized spirurid worms collected from red foxes and compared them to S. lupi from domestic dogs by morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Nematodes from red foxes differed from S. lupi by the presence of six triangular teeth-like buccal capsule structures, which are absent in the latter. Additionally, in female worms from red foxes, the distance of the vulva opening to the anterior end and the ratio of the glandular-to-muscular oesophagus lengths were larger than those of S...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778974/metabolic-plasticity-during-transition-to-na%C3%A3-ve-like-pluripotency-in-canine-embryo-derived-stem-cells
#3
I C Tobias, R R Isaac, J G Dierolf, R Khazaee, R C Cumming, D H Betts
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been described in naïve or primed pluripotent states. Domestic dogs are useful translational models in regenerative medicine, but their embryonic stem cells (cESCs) remain narrowly investigated. Primed-like cESCs expanded in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 (LIF-FGF2) acquire features of naïve pluripotency when exposed to chemical inhibitors and LIF (2iL). However, proliferation of cESCs is influenced by the pluripotent state and is comparatively slower than human or mouse PSCs...
May 16, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776375/range-wide-genetic-analysis-of-dermacentor-variabilis-and-its-francisella-like-endosymbionts-demonstrates-phylogeographic-concordance-between-both-taxa
#4
Emily L Kaufman, Nathan E Stone, Glen A Scoles, Crystal M Hepp, Joseph D Busch, David M Wagner
BACKGROUND: The American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, is an important vector of pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals in North America. Although this tick species is widely distributed in the USA and Canada, knowledge of its range-wide phylogeographic patterns remains incomplete. METHODS: We carried out a phylogenetic analysis of D. variabilis using samples collected from 26 USA states and five Canadian provinces. Tick samples (n = 1053 in total) originated from two main sources: existing archives (2000-2011), and new collections made from 2012 to 2013...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774849/zooanthroponotic-transmission-of-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-brazil
#5
Miriam R Fernandes, Fábio P Sellera, Quézia Moura, Marcelo P N Carvalho, Paula N Rosato, Louise Cerdeira, Nilton Lincopan
We recovered VIM-2 carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from an infected dog, its owner, and the domestic environment. Genomic investigation revealed household transmission of the high-risk hospital clone sequence type 233 in the human-animal-environment interface. Results suggest zooanthroponotic transmission of VIM-2-producing P. aeruginosa in the household following the patient's hospital discharge.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773136/molecular-characterization-of-echinococcus-species-in-dogs-from-four-regions-of-kenya
#6
Erastus Mulinge, Japhet Magambo, David Odongo, Sammy Njenga, Eberhard Zeyhle, Cecilia Mbae, Dorothy Kagendo, Francis Addy, Dennis Ebi, Marion Wassermann, Peter Kern, Thomas Romig
Cystic echinococcosis is endemic both in livestock and humans in many parts of Kenya. However, very little data exists on Echinococcus infections in dogs, and therefore their role in maintaining the transmission cycles and environmental contamination with eggs of Echinococcus species is unknown. The study aimed to establish the prevalence and distribution of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato causing infection in dogs in Kenya. A total of 1621 dog faecal samples were collected from the environment in four different regions and examined microscopically for the presence of taeniid eggs...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773132/leishmania-in-wolves-in-northern-spain-a-spreading-zoonosis-evidenced-by-wildlife-sanitary-surveillance
#7
Alvaro Oleaga, Stefania Zanet, Alberto Espí, Marcia Raquel Pegoraro de Macedo, Christian Gortázar, Ezio Ferroglio
Leishmaniosis is, to date, considered the second most important emerging vector-borne protozoal disease in the world after malaria. The form of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis found in the Mediterranean basin is caused by Leishmania infantum, and its life cycle includes the domestic dog and a phlebotomine sandfly vector. This complex epidemiological cycle and its high prevalence of subclinical infection, hinder the surveillance and control of L. infantum, and allows it to go unnoticed at the geographical endemicity limits of the parasite or in recently colonized areas...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773127/taeniid-metacestodes-in-rangeland-goats-in-australia
#8
D J Jenkins, B Cowled, V Brookes
Data on several infections of sheep and goats, including parasite infections, are routinely collected during inspection of harvested rangeland goats after slaughter. This is an important role of the Australian National Sheep Health Monitoring Program (NSHMP). Our study investigated the presence of metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena, T. ovis and Echinococcus granulosus in slaughtered goats from Queensland, New South Wales and Western Australia. During the period of the study (2007-2013) 374,580 goats were slaughtered and inspected by trained abattoir meat inspectors as part of the NSHMP...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771960/the-great-indian-joint-families-of-free-ranging-dogs
#9
Manabi Paul, Anindita Bhadra
Cooperative breeding is an excellent example of cooperation in social groups. Domestic dogs have evolved from cooperatively hunting and breeding ancestors but have adapted to a facultatively social scavenging lifestyle on streets, and solitary living in human homes. Pets typically breed and reproduce under human supervision, but free-ranging dogs can provide insights into the natural breeding ecology of dogs. We conducted a five year-long field based behavioural study on parental care of free-ranging dogs in India...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768563/occurrence-of-blastocystis-spp-in-domestic-animals-in-tri%C3%A3-ngulo-mineiro-area-of-brazil
#10
Renata Gregório Franco Moura, Márcia Benedita de Oliveira-Silva, André Luiz Pedrosa, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira Nascentes, Marlene Cabrine-Santos
INTRODUCTION: Currently, there are few studies regarding Blastocystis epidemiology. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Blastocystis in animals in Uberaba, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were examined by parasitological methods and screened for Blastocystis by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Blastocystis spp. were observed in pigs, sheep, cattle, and dogs. Blastocystis polymerase chain reaction was positive in 14/22 samples positive by parasitological methods...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768552/natural-infection-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-triatomines-and-seropositivity-for-chagas-disease-of-dogs-in-rural-areas-of-rio-grande-do-norte-brazil
#11
Yannara Barbosa Nogueira Freitas, Celeste da Silva Freitas de Souza, Jamille Maia E Magalhães, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo de Sousa, Luiz Ney d'Escoffier, Tânia Zaverucha do Valle, Teresa Cristina Monte Gonçalves, Hélcio Reinaldo Gil-Santana, Thais Aaparecida Kazimoto, Sthenia Santos Albano Amora
INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi. Its main reservoir is the domestic dog, especially in rural areas with favorable characteristics for vector establishment and proliferation. The aims of this study were to collect data, survey and map the fauna, and identify T. cruzi infection in triatomines, as well as to assess the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies in dogs in rural areas of the municipality of Mossoró, Brazil. METHODS: An active entomologic research was conducted to identify adult specimens through an external morphology dichotomous key...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768103/efficacy-of-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-to-diagnose-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-dogs-with-cardiac-alterations-from-an-endemic-area-of-mexico
#12
Matilde Jimenez-Coello, Thomas Shelite, Alejandro Castellanos-Gonzalez, Omar Saldarriaga, Rocio Rivero, Antonio Ortega-Pacheco, Carlos Acevedo-Arcique, Karla Amaya-Guardia, Nisha Garg, Peter Melby, Bruno L Travi
Chagas disease is a lingering Public Health problem in Latin America with ∼5.7 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Transmission is still taking place in most countries of the Americas, including the United States. Dogs are frequently infected with T. cruzi and its high infection prevalence is associated with increased risk of Chagas disease in humans. The city of Mérida in the Yucatan peninsula is endemic for Chagas disease and canines are frequently infected with T. cruzi. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a qualitative point of care (POC) molecular test (RPA-LF, recombinase polymerase amplification-lateral flow) developed in our laboratory for identifying infected dogs...
May 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766489/phenotypic-disparity-of-the-elbow-joint-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-carnivores
#13
Borja Figueirido
In this article, I use geometric morphometrics in 2D from a sample of 366 elbow joints to quantify phenotypic disparity in domestic dog breeds, in wild canids, and across the order Carnivora. The elbow joint is a well-established morphological indicator of forearm motion and, by extension, of functional adaptations towards locomotor or predatory behavior in living carnivores. The study of the elbow joint in domestic dogs allows the exploration of potential convergences between (i) pursuit predators and fast-running dogs, and (ii) ambush predators and fighting breeds...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764339/determination-of-plasma-concentrations-of-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-pet-cats-and-dogs
#14
Oguzhan Yavuz, Handan Hilal Arslan, Cagatay Esin, Yavuz Kursad Das, Abdurrahman Aksoy
The aim of this study was the determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cats and dogs and evaluation of their prevalence and possible effects. The concentrations of nine OCPs, such as α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT), 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE) and 4,4'-DDE and 16 PCBs (PCB-28, -52, -70, -74, -81, -99, -101, -118, -138, -153, -156, -170, -180, -183, -187 and -208) were evaluated in the plasma samples of pet cats ( n = 15) and dogs ( n = 21)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761492/c7-vertebra-homeotic-transformation-in-domestic-dogs-are-pug-dogs-breaking-mammalian-evolutionary-constraints
#15
J Brocal, S De Decker, R José-López, E G Manzanilla, J Penderis, C Stalin, S Bertram, J J Schoenebeck, C Rusbridge, N Fitzpatrick, R Gutierrez-Quintana
The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is almost constant at seven, regardless of their neck length, implying that there is selection against variation in this number. Homebox (Hox) genes are involved in this evolutionary mammalian conservation, and homeotic transformation of cervical into thoracic vertebrae (cervical ribs) is a common phenotypic abnormality when Hox gene expression is altered. This relatively benign phenotypic change can be associated with fatal traits in humans. Mutations in genes upstream of Hox, inbreeding and stressors during organogenesis can also cause cervical ribs...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757430/genome-wide-analysis-of-snps-is-consistent-with-no-domestic-dog-ancestry-in-the-endangered-mexican-wolf-canis-lupus-baileyi
#16
Robert R Fitak, Sarah E Rinkevich, Melanie Culver
The Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was historically distributed throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Extensive predator removal campaigns during the early 20th century, however, resulted in its eventual extirpation by the mid 1980s. At this time, the Mexican wolf existed only in 3 separate captive lineages (McBride, Ghost Ranch, and Aragón) descended from 3, 2, and 2 founders, respectively. These lineages were merged in 1995 to increase the available genetic variation, and Mexican wolves were reintroduced into Arizona and New Mexico in 1998...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755988/bite-forces-and-their-measurement-in-dogs-and-cats
#17
REVIEW
Se Eun Kim, Boaz Arzi, Tanya C Garcia, Frank J M Verstraete
Bite force is generated by the interaction of the masticatory muscles, the mandibles and maxillae, the temporomandibular joints (TMJs), and the teeth. Several methods to measure bite forces in dogs and cats have been described. Direct in vivo measurement of a bite in dogs has been done; however, bite forces were highly variable due to animal volition, situation, or specific measurement technique. Bite force has been measured in vivo from anesthetized dogs by electrical stimulation of jaw adductor muscles, but this may not be reflective of volitional bite force during natural activity...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752143/evaluation-of-the-vector-competence-of-six-ixodid-tick-species-for-rangelia-vitalii-apicomplexa-piroplasmorida-the-agent-of-canine-rangeliosis
#18
João F Soares, Francisco B Costa, Aline Girotto-Soares, Aleksandro S Da Silva, Raqueli T França, Sueli A Taniwaki, Bruno Dall'Agnol, José Reck, Mitika K Hagiwara, Marcelo B Labruna
Rangelia vitalii is the etiologic agent of canine rangeliosis, a severe piroplasmosis that affects domestic dogs in Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. While R. vitalii is one of the most pathogenic tick-borne pathogens for dogs in the world, its tick vector has remained unknown. The present study evaluated the vector competence of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (both tropical and temperate species), Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma tigrinum, and Amblyomma sculptum for R. vitalii. These six tick species were selected for the study because they comprise the main tick species infesting dogs within the distribution area of canine rangeliosis in South America...
May 4, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747566/analysis-of-the-canid-y-chromosome-phylogeny-using-short-read-sequencing-data-reveals-the-presence-of-distinct-haplogroups-among-neolithic-european-dogs
#19
Matthew T Oetjens, Axel Martin, Krishna R Veeramah, Jeffrey M Kidd
BACKGROUND: Most genetic analyses of ancient and modern dogs have focused on variation in the autosomes or on the mitochondria. Mitochondrial DNA is more easily obtained from ancient samples than nuclear DNA and mitochondrial analyses have revealed important insights into the evolutionary history of canids. Utilizing a recently published dog Y-chromosome reference, we analyzed Y-chromosome sequence across a diverse collection of canids and determined the Y haplogroup of three ancient European dogs...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740679/analysis-of-rabies-diagnosis-in-dogs-and-cats-in-the-state-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#20
Juliana Galera Castilho, Samira Maria Achkar, Rafael de Novaes Oliveira, Enio Mori, Pedro Carnieli, Carla Isabel Macedo
The genetic lineage of rabies virus (RABV) associated with dogs has not been found in the state of São Paulo since 1998, and all cases of rabies in domestic animals reported since then have involved the RABV lineage that circulates in bats. As there has been a change in the rabies transmission cycle in cats and dogs, we decided to analyze the tests used to diagnose rabies in these animals in the 15-year period from 2002 to 2016 in the state of São Paulo. During this period, 85,508 central nervous system (CNS) samples from dogs and cats were submitted to the Rabies Diagnosis Section at the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo for testing...
May 8, 2018: Archives of Virology
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