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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349785/a-novel-mlph-variant-in-dogs-with-coat-colour-dilution
#1
A Bauer, A Kehl, V Jagannathan, T Leeb
Coat colour dilution may be the result of altered melanosome transport in melanocytes. Loss-of-function variants in the melanophilin gene (MLPH) cause a recessively inherited form of coat colour dilution in many mammalian and avian species including the dog. MLPH corresponds to the D locus in many domestic animals, and recessive alleles at this locus are frequently denoted with d. In this study, we investigated dilute coloured Chow Chows whose coat colour could not be explained by their genotype at the previously known MLPH:c...
January 19, 2018: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346277/vaccinia-virus-in-blood-samples-of-humans-domestic-and-wild-mammals-in-brazil
#2
Marina G Peres, Thais S Bacchiega, Camila M Appolinário, Acácia F Vicente, Mateus de Souza Ribeiro Mioni, Bruna L D Ribeiro, Clóvis R S Fonseca, Vanessa C Pelícia, Fernando Ferreira, Graziele P Oliveira, Jonatas S Abrahão, Jane Megid
Outbreaks of Vaccinia virus (VACV) affecting cattle and humans have been reported in Brazil in the last 15 years, but the origin of outbreaks remains unknown. Although VACV DNA have been already detected in mice (Mus musculus), opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and dogs during VACV zoonotic outbreaks, no transmission to cattle or humans from any of these were reported during Brazilian outbreaks. In this work, we assessed the PCR positivity to VACV in blood samples of cows and other domestic mammals, wild rodents and other wild mammals, and humans from areas with or without VACV infection reports...
January 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340453/seroprevalence-and-spatial-distribution-dynamics-of-yersinia-pestis-antibodies-in-dogs-and-cats-from-plague-foci-in-the-state-of-cear%C3%A3-northeastern-brazil
#3
Larissa Leão Ferrer de Sousa, Carlos Henrique Morais de Alencar, Alzira Maria Paiva de Almeida, Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti
INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, the plague is established in several foci located mainly in the northeastern part of the country, where it alternates between active and quiescent periods. These foci in the State of Ceará have high epidemiological importance. In addition to other plague detection activities, plague areas can be monitored through serological surveys of dogs and cats (domestic carnivores), which, following feeding on plague-infected rodents, can develop mild to severe forms of the disease and produce long-lasting antibodies...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336116/the-retina-of-the-collared-peccary-pecari-tajacu-structure-and-function
#4
Raaya Ezra-Elia, Maya Ross, Nili Avni-Magen, Asaf Berkowitz, Ron Ofri
OBJECTIVE: To study retinal morphology and function in the collared peccary, an ungulate species distantly related to the domestic pig. ANIMAL STUDIES: Twenty captive peccaries anesthetized for routine health examinations. Procedures No abnormalities were noted on a complete ophthalmic examination. Fundi were examined ophthalmoscopically and photographed. The eyes of an individual that died of unrelated, nonocular reasons were studied histologically and by immunohistochemistry...
January 16, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332229/sociability-modifies-dogs-sensitivity-to-biological-motion-of-different-social-relevance
#5
Yuko Ishikawa, Daniel Mills, Alexander Willmott, David Mullineaux, Kun Guo
Preferential attention to living creatures is believed to be an intrinsic capacity of the visual system of several species, with perception of biological motion often studied and, in humans, it correlates with social cognitive performance. Although domestic dogs are exceptionally attentive to human social cues, it is unknown whether their sociability is associated with sensitivity to conspecific and heterospecific biological motion cues of different social relevance. We recorded video clips of point-light displays depicting a human or dog walking in either frontal or lateral view...
January 13, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325820/an-assessment-of-shedding-with-the-oral-rabies-virus-vaccine-strain-spbn-gasgas-in-target-and-non-target-species
#6
Ad Vos, Conrad Freuling, Steffen Ortmann, Antje Kretzschmar, Dietmar Mayer, Annette Schliephake, Thomas Müller
A safety requirement for live vaccines is investigating possible shedding in recipients since the presence of replication competent vaccine in secretions could result in direct and indirect horizontal transmission. This is especially relevant for oral rabies vaccine baits that are deliberately distributed into the environment. In the current study, survival of an oral rabies virus vaccine, SPBN GASGAS, was examined in excretions from different target and non-target species; red fox, raccoon dog, small Indian mongoose, raccoon, striped skunk, domestic dog, domestic cat and domestic pig...
January 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325102/elevated-proportions-of-deleterious-genetic-variation-in-domestic-animals-and-plants
#7
Takashi Makino, Carl-Johan Rubin, Miguel Carneiro, Erik Axelsson, Leif Andersson, Matthew T Webster
A fraction of genetic variants segregating in any population are deleterious, which negatively impacts individual fitness. The domestication of animals and plants is associated with population bottlenecks and artificial selection, which are predicted to increase the proportion of deleterious variants. However, the extent to which this is a general feature of domestic species is unclear. Here we examine the effects of domestication on the prevalence of deleterious variation using pooled whole-genome resequencing data from five domestic animal species (dog, pig, rabbit, chicken and silkworm) and two domestic plant species (rice and soybean) compared to their wild ancestors...
January 9, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320512/killing-wolves-to-prevent-predation-on-livestock-may-protect-one-farm-but-harm-neighbors
#8
Francisco J Santiago-Avila, Ari M Cornman, Adrian Treves
Large carnivores, such as gray wolves, Canis lupus, are difficult to protect in mixed-use landscapes because some people perceive them as dangerous and because they sometimes threaten human property and safety. Governments may respond by killing carnivores in an effort to prevent repeated conflicts or threats, although the functional effectiveness of lethal methods has long been questioned. We evaluated two methods of government intervention following independent events of verified wolf predation on domestic animals (depredation) in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA between 1998-2014, at three spatial scales...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317872/transmission-of-leishmania-infantum-by-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-acari-ixodidae-in-dogs
#9
Alaleh Rakhshanpour, Abdolali Malmasi, Mehdi Mohebali, Sedigheh Nabian, Hossein Mirhendi, Zabihollah Zarei, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Anita Mohammadiha, Behnaz Akhoundi, Amrollah Azarm
Background: Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the most widely distributed tick in the world, which is partly due to its biological flexibility and the global distribution of its major host, the domestic dog. In Mediterranean region it could be principal reservoir host for Leishmania infantum, usually transmitted by the phlebotomine sand flies. In this study, we evaluated the vector potential of R. sanguineus in transmitting L. infantum to uninfected dogs. Methods: During 2014, five dogs with clinical manifestations of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), high anti-Leishmania antibody titers and tick infestation, were selected from CVL endemic areas (Tehran and Alborz provinces)...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312813/domestic-carnivore-interactions-with-wildlife-in-the-cape-horn-biosphere-reserve-chile-husbandry-and-perceptions-of-impact-from-a-community-perspective
#10
Elke Schüttler, Lorena Saavedra-Aracena, Jaime E Jiménez
Background: Hundreds of millions of domestic carnivores worldwide have diverse positive affiliations with humans, but can provoke serious socio-ecological impacts when free-roaming. Unconfined dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) interact with wildlife as predators, competitors, and disease-transmitters; their access to wildlife depends on husbandry, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of pet owners and non-owners. Methods: To better understand husbandry and perceptions of impacts by unconfined, domestic carnivores, we administered questionnaires (n = 244) to pet owners and non-owners living in one of the last wilderness areas of the world, the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, located in southern Chile...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297815/serologic-response-to-canine-distemper-vaccination-in-captive-linnaeus-s-two-toed-sloths-choloepus-didactylus-after-a-fatal-canine-distemper-virus-outbreak
#11
Julie D Sheldon, Andrew C Cushing, Rebecca P Wilkes, Eman Anis, Edward J Dubovi
Canine distemper virus (CDV) affects many wild and captive, nondomestic species worldwide but has not been previously reported in Xenarthra. Paucity of information on vaccination safety and efficacy presents challenges for disease prevention in captive collections. CDV infections and subsequent mortalities in five captive Linnaeus's two-toed sloths ( Choloepus didactylus) in eastern Tennessee are reported. Clinical signs included oculonasal discharge, oral ulcerations, and diarrhea, and the diagnosis was confirmed by necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, and polymerase chain reaction...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297813/prevalence-of-cystinuria-in-servals-leptailurus-serval-in-the-united-states
#12
Sarah A Cannizzo, Mindy Stinner, Suzanne Kennedy-Stoskopf
Cystinuria is a condition caused by defects in amino acid transport within the kidneys and small intestines. It has been reported in humans, dogs, domestic cats, ferrets, nondomestic canids, and nondomestic felids, including servals ( Leptailurus serval). Genetic mutations have been identified in dogs, humans, and domestic cats. Cystinuria usually follows an autosomal recessive inheritance, although it can be autosomal dominant and sex linked. The primary objective of this study was to screen urine samples dried on filter paper from captive servals in the United States for cystinuria by using the cyanide-nitroprusside screening test...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295708/epidemiological-characteristics-and-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-human-rabies-in-chongqing-china-2007-2016
#13
Li Qi, Kun Su, Tao Shen, Wenge Tang, Bangzhong Xiao, Jiang Long, Han Zhao, Xi Chen, Yu Xia, Yu Xiong, Dayong Xiao, Liangui Feng, Qin Li
BACKGROUND: According to the global framework of eliminating human rabies, China is responding to achieve the target of zero human death from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. Chongqing is the largest municipality directly under central government in China. We described the epidemiological characteristics and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of human rabies in this area, in order to provide a reliable epidemiology basis for further control and prevention of human rabies. METHODS: The most updated epidemiological data for human rabies cases from 2007 to 2016 in Chongqing were collected from the National Disease Reporting Information System...
January 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281057/detection-of-leishmania-dna-and-blood-meal-identification-in-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-from-len%C3%A3-ois-maranhenses-national-park-region-brazil
#14
Raquel Silva Fonteles, Adalberto Alves Pereira Filho, Jorge Luiz Pinto Moraes, Silma Regina Ferreira Pereira, Bruno Leite Rodrigues, José Manuel Macário Rebêlo
To elucidate portions of the transmission cycles of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occurring in the region surrounding the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important tourist center in Brazil, the present study objectives were to determine the rate of natural infection by Leishmania spp. and the blood meal in caught sand flies species in the region. Sand flies were captured over 36 mo in 62 locations of the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão with notifications of disease incidence...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279785/leptospira-seroprevalence-in-domestic-dogs-and-cats-on-the-caribbean-island-of-saint-kitts
#15
Nicola Pratt, Anne Conan, Sreekumari Rajeev
Leptospirosis is an important bacterial zoonotic disease that affects humans and many animal species. Knowledge of prevalence of Leptospira in a given geographic region supports the implementation of effective control/prevention programmes and thus reduces the transmission risks. This study provides Leptospira seroprevalence and serovar distribution in dogs and cats on the Caribbean island of Saint Kitts. Convenient serum samples from domestic dogs (n = 101) and cats (n = 50) were tested by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using 21 Leptospira serovars belonging to 17 serogroups...
2017: Veterinary Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279086/giardia-in-a-selected-population-of-dogs-and-cats-in-germany-diagnostics-coinfections-and-assemblages
#16
M F Sommer, P Rupp, M Pietsch, A Kaspar, P Beelitz
Infections with the zoonotic endoparasite Giardia duodenalis are widely spread among dogs and cats worldwide. Since the question whether the infection might be transmitted from domestic animals to their owners is still an important topic, a reliable detection of patent Giardia infections and the determination of the associated Giardia assemblages is of major concern. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of Giardia infections in dogs and cats living in Germany using different diagnostic tests and to identify the Giardia assemblages of infected animals...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274762/the-olfactory-mirror-and-other-recent-attempts-to-demonstrate-self-recognition-in-non-primate-species
#17
REVIEW
Gordon G Gallup
The recent attempt by Horowitz (2017) to develop an "olfactory mirror" test of self-recognition in domestic dogs raises some important questions about the kind of data that are required to provide definitive evidence for self-recognition in dogs and other species. We conclude that the "olfactory mirror" constitutes a compelling analog to the mark test for mirror self-recognition in primates, but despite claims to the contrary neither dogs, elephants, dolphins, magpies, horses, manta rays, squid, or ants have shown compelling, reproducible evidence for self-recognition in any modality...
December 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274171/landscape-attributes-governing-local-transmission-of-an-endemic-zoonosis-rabies-virus-in-domestic-dogs
#18
Kirstyn Brunker, Philippe Lemey, Denise A Marston, Anthony R Fooks, Ahmed Lugelo, Chanasa Ngeleja, Katie Hampson, Roman Biek
Landscape heterogeneity plays an important role in disease spread and persistence but quantifying landscape influences and their scale-dependence is challenging. Studies have focused on how environmental features or global transport networks influence pathogen invasion and spread, but their influence on local transmission dynamics that underpin the persistence of endemic diseases remains unexplored. Bayesian phylogeographic frameworks that incorporate spatial heterogeneities are promising tools for analysing linked epidemiological, environmental and genetic data...
December 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274056/documenting-the-absence-of-brucellosis-in-cattle-goats-and-dogs-in-a-one-health-interface-in-the-mnisi-community-limpopo-south-africa
#19
Gregory Simpson, Tanguy Marcotty, Elodie Rouille, Nelson Matekwe, Jean-Jacques Letesson, Jacques Godfroid
This study shows the absence of the world's most common bacterial zoonoses caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in cattle, goats and dogs in an agro-pastoral community in South Africa, where heifer vaccination against brucellosis with the live Strain 19 vaccine is compulsory. The study site is bordering wildlife reserves with multiple wildlife species infected with brucellosis. The results showed a low seroprevalence (1.4%) in cattle. Seroprevalence in cattle decreased with age after 4 years in females, males were less positive than females and a tissue culture from a brucellin skin test-positive male was negative...
December 23, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261481/genetic-structure-of-trypanosoma-congolense-forest-type-circulating-in-domestic-animals-and-tsetse-flies-in-the-south-west-region-of-cameroon
#20
Pythagore Soubgwi Fogue, Flobert Njiokou, Gustave Simo
Despite the economic impact of trypanosome infections, few investigations have been undertaken on the population genetics and transmission dynamics of animal trypanosomes. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to investigate the population genetics of Trypanosoma congolense "forest type", with the ultimate goal of understanding its transmission dynamics between tsetse flies and domestic animals. Blood samples were collected from pigs, sheep, goats and dogs in five villages in Fontem, South-West region of Cameroon...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
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