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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755779/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-gastrointestinal-malignancies
#1
REVIEW
Vishal Jindal
Gastrointestinal (GIT) tumors are extremely fatal and lethal tumors with limited therapeutic options. Antitumor immunity is new line of research in management of solid tumors. Immune check points are negative regulators of immune system and control the immune response. These checkpoints are exploited by cancer cells. Cancer cells causes early activation of checkpoints and suppress the immune response, and therefore have unchecked growth and metastasis of malignant cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), downregulates these checkpoints and activate the proliferation of cytotoxic T cells which helps in lysis of tumor cells...
April 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738475/identifying-cancer-specific-driver-modules-using-a-network-based-method
#2
Feng Li, Lin Gao, Peizhuo Wang, Yuxuan Hu
Detecting driver modules is a key challenge for understanding the mechanisms of carcinogenesis at the pathway level. Identifying cancer specific driver modules is helpful for interpreting the different principles of different cancer types. However, most methods are proposed to identify driver modules in one cancer, but few methods are introduced to detect cancer specific driver modules. We propose a network-based method to detect cancer specific driver modules (CSDM) in a certain cancer type to other cancer types...
May 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700911/alarmins-as-biomarkers-of-gastrointestinal-surgical-injury-a-pilot-study
#3
Jan Maca, Michal Holub, Filip Bursa, Peter Ihnat, Petr Reimer, Zdenek Svagera, Michal Burda, Pavel Sevcik
The dysregulation of inflammatory response to surgical injury affects outcomes. Alarmins, the earliest bioactive substances from damaged cells, play a crucial role in initiating the inflammation. We analyzed serum levels of alarmins (S100A8, S100A12, high mobility group box, and heat shock protein 70) after major abdominal surgery (MAS) in surgical (S) (n = 82) and nonsurgical (NS) groups (n = 35). The main objective was determining a role of selected alarmins in host response to MAS. The secondary objectives were (i) evaluation of the relationship among alarmins and selected biomarkers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), (ii) influence of the place of gastrointestinal resection, and (iii) role of alarmins in MAS for cancer...
February 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692760/the-road-to-infection-host-microbe-interactions-defining-the-pathogenicity-of-streptococcus-bovis-streptococcus-equinus-complex-members
#4
REVIEW
Christoph Jans, Annemarie Boleij
The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) comprises several species inhabiting the animal and human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). They match the pathobiont description, are potential zoonotic agents and technological organisms in fermented foods. SBSEC members are associated with multiple diseases in humans and animals including ruminal acidosis, infective endocarditis (IE) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, this review aims to re-evaluate adhesion and colonization abilities of SBSEC members of animal, human and food origin paired with genomic and functional host-microbe interaction data on their road from colonization to infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659317/multiple-response-optimization-of-processing-and-formulation-parameters-of-ph-sensitive-sustained-release-pellets-of-capecitabine-for-targeting-colon
#5
Sonia Pandey, Vijayendra Swamy, Arti Gupta, Akshay Koli, Swagat Patel, Furqan Maulvi, Bhavin Vyas
Purpose To optimize the Eudragit/Surelease® coated pH-sensitive pellets for controlled and target drug delivery to the colon tissue and to avoid frequent high dosing and associated side effects which restrict its use in the colorectal-cancer therapy. Methods The pellets were prepared using extrusion-spheronization technique. Box-Behnken and 32 full factorial designs were applied to optimize the process parameters [extruder sieve size, spheronizer-speed and spheronizer-time] and the coating levels [%w/v of Eudragit S100/Eudragit-L100 and Surelease® ] respectively, to achieve the smooth optimized size pellets with sustained drug delivery without prior drug release in upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573336/the-impact-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-lower-gastrointestinal-tract-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Christina Parvinder Kaur, Jamuna Vadivelu, Samudi Chandramathi
The 2016 Global Burden of Disease report by WHO revealed that diseases of the gastrointestinal tract had one of the highest incidence rates worldwide. The plethora of factors that contribute to the development of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) related illnesses can be divided into genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Apart from that, the role that infectious agents play in the development of GIT diseases has piqued the interest of researchers worldwide. The human gut harbours approximately 101 to 1012 cfu/ml bacteria in it with increasing concentration towards the lower GIT...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552209/gastric-cancer-with-brain-metastasis-and-the-role-of-human-epidermal-growth-factor-2-status
#7
Luigi Cavanna, Pietro Seghini, Camilla Di Nunzio, Elena Orlandi, Emanuele Michieletti, Elisa Maria Stroppa, Patrizia Mordenti, Chiara Citterio, Stefano Vecchia, Adriano Zangrandi
Central nervous system (CNS) metastases from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are rare, and occur in 0.16-0.69% of patients with gastric or gastro-esophageal (GE) junction cancer. Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER-2) is associated with poor prognosis in the absence of HER-2-targeted therapy, and with an increased incidence of CNS metastases in patients with breast cancer. The role of HER-2 overexpression in CNS metastases is not well known in gastric adenocarcinoma. The purpose of the present retrospective study was to assess the incidence of CNS metastases and to evaluate the associations between the CNS and HER-2 status in a series of consecutive patients with gastric or GE junction cancer...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519853/cooperative-regulation-of-intestinal-udp-glucuronosyltransferases-1a8-1a9-and-1a10-by-cdx2-and-hnf4-%C3%AE-is-mediated-by-a-novel-composite-regulatory-element
#8
Nurul Mubarokah, Julie-Ann Hulin, Peter I Mackenzie, Ross A McKinnon, Alex Z Haines, Dong Gui Hu, Robyn Meech
The gastrointestinal tract expresses several UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) that act as a first line of defense against dietary toxins and contribute to the metabolism of orally administered drugs. The expression of UGT1A8 , UGT1A9 , and UGT1A10 in gastrointestinal tissues is known to be at least partly directed by the caudal homeodomain transcription factor, CDX2. We sought to further define the factors involved in regulation of the UGT1A8-1A10 genes and identified a novel composite element located within the proximal promoters of these three genes that binds to both CDX2 and the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4 α , and mediates synergistic activation by these factors...
May 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476848/secondary-tumors-of-the-gi-tract-origin-histology-and-endoscopic-findings
#9
Magdalena M Gilg, Hans-Peter Gröchenig, Andrea Schlemmer, Andreas Eherer, Christoph Högenauer, Cord Langner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The GI tract is rarely affected by secondary tumors. Patients often present at an advanced stage of the disease, and prognosis is dismal. This study aimed to analyze the clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic features of secondary tumors that had been diagnosed endoscopically. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective database analysis of 217 patients with secondary tumors of the GI tract. Endoscopic findings and histologic diagnoses were systematically re-evaluated...
February 22, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476768/a-viral-map-of-gastrointestinal-cancers
#10
REVIEW
Natália R Costa, Rui M Gil da Costa, Rui Medeiros
Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are expected to account for approximately 20% of all cancers in 2017. Apart from their high incidence, GIT cancers show high mortality rates, placing these malignancies among the most prominent public health issues of our time. Cancers of the GIT are the result of a complex interplay between host genetic factors and environmental factors and frequently arise in the context of a continued active inflammatory response. Several tumor viruses are able to elicit such chronic inflammatory responses...
April 15, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307989/gene-mutations-in-stool-from-gastric-and-colorectal-neoplasia-patients-by-next-generation-sequencing
#11
Omar Youssef, Virinder Sarhadi, Homa Ehsan, Tom Böhling, Monika Carpelan-Holmström, Selja Koskensalo, Pauli Puolakkainen, Arto Kokkola, Sakari Knuutila
AIM: To study cancer hotspot mutations by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in stool DNA from patients with different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) neoplasms. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 87 Finnish patients diagnosed with various gastric and colorectal neoplasms, including benign tumors, and from 14 healthy controls. DNA was isolated from stools by using the PSP® Spin Stool DNA Plus Kit. For each sample, 20 ng of DNA was used to construct sequencing libraries using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 or Ion AmpliSeq Colon and Lung Cancer panel v2...
December 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305719/factors-associated-with-palliative-care-referral-among-patients-with-advanced-cancers-a-retrospective-analysis-of-a-large-brazilian-cohort
#12
Talita Caroline de Oliveira Valentino, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro Paiva, Marco Antonio de Oliveira, David Hui, Carlos Eduardo Paiva
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to estimate the proportion of patients who had access to palliative care (PC) and to identify the timing and factors associated with this access. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal study that included patients who died of advanced cancer between the years of 2010 and 2014 was conducted. The proportion of patients who received PC consultations was compared during those years. Sociodemographic and clinical factors, the timing between first PC consultation and death (early, ≥ 3 months; late, < 3 months), and first PC consultation were assessed...
January 5, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234525/invasive-candida-infection-after-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-surgery-for-gastric-cancer
#13
Evgeni Brotfain, Gilbert Sebbag, Michael Friger, Boris Kirshtein, Abraham Borer, Leonid Koyfman, Dmitry Frank, Yoav Bichovsky, Jochanan G Peiser, Moti Klein
Upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) surgical procedures are more likely to cause nosocomial Candida peritonitis than lower GIT procedures and they thus constitute an independent risk factor for mortality. Because of the severity of postsurgical fungal infections complications, intensivists and surgeons need to be extremely aware of their clinical importance in critically ill postsurgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We analyzed the clinical and microbiological data of 149 oncologic patients who were hospitalized in the ICU at Soroka Medical Center between January 2010 and January 2015 after undergoing upper GIT surgery for gastric cancer...
2017: International Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115890/exploiting-bilosomes-for-delivering-bioactive-polysaccharide-isolated-from-enteromorpha-intestinalis-for-hacking-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Azza Abdelmageed Matloub, Alaa Hamed Salama, Hadeer Ahmed Aglan, Mona Mahmoud AbouSamra, Sahar Salah Mohamed ElSouda, Hanaa Hamdy Ahmed
Bile salts containing vesicles (bilosomes) represent a portentous vesicular carrier that showed prosperous results in delivering active moieties in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this study, bilosomes were exploited to deliver sulfated polysaccharide-protein complexes of Enteromorpha intestinalis (EHEM) and enhance its activity against hepatocellular carcinoma as well as resist harsh GIT conditions. Bilosomes were prepared using the sodium salt of three different bile acids (cholic, deoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic) and two different nonionic surfactants (Span 40 and 65)...
April 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083862/tethering-of-chemotherapeutic-drug-imaging-agent-to-bile-acid-phospholipid-increases-the-efficacy-and-bioavailability-with-reduced-hepatotoxicity
#15
Vedagopuram Sreekanth, Nihal Medatwal, Sandeep Kumar, Sanjay Pal, Malyla Vamshikrishna, Animesh Kar, Priyanshu Bhargava, Aaliya Naaz, Nitin Kumar, Sagar Sengupta, Avinash Bajaj
Weakly basic drugs display poor solubility and tend to precipitate in the stomach's acidic environment causing reduced oral bioavailability. Tracing of these orally delivered therapeutic agents using molecular probes is challenged due to their poor absorption in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Therefore, we designed a gastric pH stable bile acid derived amphiphile where Tamoxifen (as a model anticancer drug) is conjugated to lithocholic acid derived phospholipid (LCA-Tam-PC). In vitro studies suggested the selective nature of LCA-Tam-PC for cancer cells over normal cells as compared to the parent drug...
December 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074485/animal-models-of-chemotherapy-induced-mucositis-translational-relevance-and-challenges
#16
Per T Sangild, René Liang Shen, Peter Pontoppidan, Mathias Rathe
Chemotherapy for cancer patients induces damaging tissue reactions along the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This chemotherapy-induced mucositis (CIM) is a serious side effect of cytotoxic drugs, and several animal models of CIM have been developed, mainly in rodents and piglets, to help understand the progression of CIM and how to prevent it. Animal models allow highly controlled experimental conditions, detailed organ (e.g., GIT) insights, standardized, clinically relevant treatment regimens, and discovery of new biomarkers...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055048/adolescent-obesity-and-adult-male-breast-cancer-in-a-cohort-of-1-382-093-men
#17
Lital Keinan-Boker, Hagai Levine, Adi Leiba, Estela Derazne, Jeremy D Kark
Male breast cancer (MBC) accounts for 1% of all breast cancer. Adult obesity and tallness are risk factors for MBC, but the role of adolescent fatness is largely unknown. We aimed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) in adolescence and the incidence of MBC in a large cohort of 16- to 19-year-old Israeli males. 1,382,093 Jewish Israeli males aged 16-19 who underwent anthropometric measurements, a general intelligence test (GIT) and other examinations during 1967-2011, were followed up to December 31, 2012 for MBC incidence...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046389/the-antibody-repertoire-of-colorectal-cancer
#18
Seong Won Cha, Stefano Bonissone, Seungjin Na, Pavel A Pevzner, Vineet Bafna
Immunotherapy is becoming increasingly important in the fight against cancers, using and manipulating the body's immune response to treat tumors. Understanding the immune repertoire-the collection of immunological proteins-of treated and untreated cells is possible at the genomic, but technically difficult at the protein level. Standard protein databases do not include the highly divergent sequences of somatic rearranged immunoglobulin genes, and may lead to miss identifications in a mass spectrometry search...
December 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036627/using-uncertainty-to-link-and-rank-evidence-from-biomedical-literature-for-model-curation
#19
Chrysoula Zerva, Riza Batista-Navarro, Philip Day, Sophia Ananiadou
Motivation: In recent years, there has been great progress in the field of automated curation of biomedical networks and models, aided by text mining methods that provide evidence from literature. Such methods must not only extract snippets of text that relate to model interactions, but also be able to contextualize the evidence and provide additional confidence scores for the interaction in question. Although various approaches calculating confidence scores have focused primarily on the quality of the extracted information, there has been little work on exploring the textual uncertainty conveyed by the author...
December 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944115/demographics-and-incidence-of-histologically-confirmed-intracranial-tumors-a-five-year-two-center-prospective-study
#20
George S Stoyanov, Deyan L Dzhenkov, Martina Kitanova, Peter Ghenev, Anton B Tonchev
Introduction Intracranial tumors (ICTs) are a diverse group of malignancies that pose an immediate threat to patients' lives, no matter their local or metastatic origin, benign or malignant nature. These lesions have severe clinical courses and need to be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible, with pathological verification being the pivotal moment in the process of determining curative modalities. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of histologically confirmed ICTs in Eastern Bulgaria, based on their type (primary, metastatic, and non-volume occupying lesions (NVOL)), their respective subtypes, and incidence in a descriptive manner...
July 16, 2017: Curēus
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