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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434151/cbf2a-cbf4b-genomic-region-copy-numbers-alongside-the-circadian-clock-play-key-regulatory-mechanisms-driving-expression-of-fr-h2-cbfs
#1
Taniya Dhillon, Kengo Morohashi, Eric J Stockinger
The C-Repeat Binding Factors (CBFs) are DNA-binding transcriptional activators that were identified using Arabidopsis thaliana. In barley, Hordeum vulgare, a cluster of CBF genes reside at FROST RESISTANCE-H2, one of two loci having major effects on winter-hardiness. FR-H2 was revealed in a population derived from the winter barley 'Nure' and the spring barley 'Trèmois'. 'Nure' harbors two to three copies of CBF2A and CBF4B as a consequence of tandem iteration of the genomic region encompassing these genes whereas 'Trèmois' harbors single copies, and these copy number differences are associated with their transcript level differences...
April 22, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434148/advancing-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-with-crispr-cas9
#2
REVIEW
Jiangtao Ren, Yangbing Zhao
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, an RNA-guided DNA targeting technology, is triggering a revolution in the field of biology. CRISPR/Cas9 has demonstrated great potential for genetic manipulation. In this review, we discuss the current development of CRISPR/Cas9 technologies for therapeutic applications, especially chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell-based adoptive immunotherapy. Different methods used to facilitate efficient CRISPR delivery and gene editing in T cells are compared...
April 22, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434129/phage-displayed-peptides-that-mimic-epitopes-of-hepatitis-e-virus-capsid
#3
Osmany Larralde, Juraj Petrik
Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic infection of increasing public health threat for the UK, especially for immunosuppressed individuals. A human recombinant vaccine has been licensed only in China and is not clear whether it protects against hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3, the most prevalent in Europe. The aim of this study was to use phage display technology as a tool to identify peptides that mimic epitopes of HEV capsid (mimotopes). We identified putative linear and conformational mimotopes using sera from Scottish blood donors that have the immunological imprint of past HEV infection...
April 22, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434092/cyberbullying-victimization-and-adolescent-mental-health-evidence-of-differential-effects-by-sex-and-mental-health-problem-type
#4
Soyeon Kim, Scott R Colwell, Anna Kata, Michael H Boyle, Katholiki Georgiades
The use of electronic communication technologies has become a core method for adolescent communication. While there are many benefits to such technologies, cyberbullying has emerged as a potential harm. This study examines the association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health problems and the extent to which this association differs by sex and mental health problem type. A clustered sample of 31,148 students in grades 6-12 (Female = 51.9%; 56.5% Caucasian, 10.2% South Asian) completed an anonymous survey asking their frequency of exposure to traditional forms of bullying, cyberbullying, and experiences of mental health problems over the past 6 months...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434058/medical-conditions-in-the-first-years-of-life-associated-with-future-diagnosis-of-asd-in-children
#5
Stacey E Alexeeff, Vincent Yau, Yinge Qian, Meghan Davignon, Frances Lynch, Phillip Crawford, Robert Davis, Lisa A Croen
This study examines medical conditions diagnosed prior to the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a matched case control design with 3911 ASD cases and 38,609 controls, we found that 38 out of 79 medical conditions were associated with increased ASD risk. Developmental delay, mental health, and neurology conditions had the strongest associations (ORs 2.0-23.3). Moderately strong associations were observed for nutrition, genetic, ear nose and throat, and sleep conditions (ORs 2.1-3.2). Using machine learning methods, we clustered children based on their medical conditions prior to ASD diagnosis and demonstrated ASD risk stratification...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433928/child-disability-and-siblings-healthcare-expenditures-in-a-context-of-child-fostering
#6
REVIEW
Arlette Simo Fotso
Many studies have assessed the impact of disability on healthcare expenditures for the disabled child, but practically none has considered the externalities of a child's disability in terms of healthcare expenditures for his/her siblings. This study therefore seeks to measure the impact of a child's disability on the allocation of healthcare expenditures among children of a household. It uses data from the 2011 Demographic Health and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (DHS-MICS) conducted in Cameroon by the National Statistics Institute (INS), with support from UNFPA, UNICEF, the World Bank and USAID...
April 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433926/discredited-legacy-stigma-and-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy-in-northwestern-portugal
#7
Álvaro Mendes, Liliana Sousa, Jorge Sequeiros, Angus Clarke
RATIONALE: Genetic inherited conditions may result in feelings of stigmatisation, mainly because of visible physical appearance and its transmissibility to offspring. OBJECTIVE: This article reports accounts of stigmatisation from Portuguese patients affected by the inherited neurodegenerative disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), living in the largest cluster of patients worldwide. METHOD: We draw on semi-structured interviews conducted with individuals at-risk or affected by FAP, recruited through the national patients' association, about their experiences of stigmatisation related to the illness...
April 15, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433820/effects-of-punctal-occlusion-on-global-tear-proteins-in-patients-with-dry-eye
#8
Louis Tong, Lei Zhou, Roger Beuerman, Susan Simonyi, David A Hollander, Michael E Stern
PURPOSE: To investigate effects of punctal occlusion on global tear protein levels in patients with dry eye. METHODS: In this prospective, longitudinal, single-center study, nonabsorbable punctal plugs were inserted bilaterally into the lower punctum of 30 patients with moderate dry eye. Dry eye symptoms, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time, and safety were assessed in the more severe eye. Tear proteins at weeks 1 and 3 were quantified by iTRAQ relative to baseline preocclusion levels...
April 19, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433796/genetic-diversity-and-virulence-genes-of-salmonella-enterica-subspecies-enterica-serotype-enteritidis-isolated-from-meats-and-eggs
#9
Fatemeh Fardsanei, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Masoumeh Douraghi, Taghi Zahraei Salehi, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Hamed Memariani, Farhad Nikkhahi
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated food products of animal origin. Little is known about the genetic diversity and virulence content of S. Enteritidis isolated from poultry meats and eggs in Iran. A total of 34 S. Enteritidis strains were collected from different food sources of animal origin in Tehran from May 2015 to July 2016. All of the S. Enteritidis strains were serotyped, antimicrobial susceptibility tested, and characterized for virulence genes...
April 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433788/regulation-of-human-nucleus-pulposus-cells-by-peptide-coupled-substrates
#10
Devin T Bridgen, Bailey V Fearing, Liufang Jing, Johannah Sanchez-Adams, Megan C Cohan, Farshid Guilak, Jun Chen, Lori A Setton
Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells are derived from the notochord and differ from neighboring cells of the intervertebral disc in phenotypic marker expression and morphology. Adult human NP cells lose this phenotype and morphology with age in a pattern that contributes to progressive disc degeneration and pathology. Select laminin-mimetic peptide ligands and substrate stiffnesses were examined for their ability to regulate human NP cell phenotype and biosynthesis through the expression of NP-specific markers aggrecan, N-cadherin, collagen types I and II, and GLUT1...
April 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433772/mesenchymal-stem-cells-induce-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-colon-cancer-cells-through-direct-cell-to-cell-contact
#11
Hidehiko Takigawa, Yasuhiko Kitadai, Kei Shinagawa, Ryo Yuge, Yukihito Higashi, Shinji Tanaka, Wataru Yasui, Kazuaki Chayama
We previously reported that in an orthotopic nude mouse model of human colon cancer, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrated to the tumor stroma and promoted tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we evaluated the proliferation and migration ability of cancer cells cocultured with MSCs to elucidate the mechanism of interaction between cancer cells and MSCs. Proliferation and migration of cancer cells increased following direct coculture with MSCs but not following indirect coculture. Thus, we hypothesized that direct contact between cancer cells and MSCs was important...
April 20, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433738/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-ticks-in-turkey-a-broad-range-tick-surveillance-study
#12
Ömer Orkun, Zafer Karaer, Ayşe Çakmak, Serpil Nalbantoğlu
In Turkey, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) outbreaks started in northern regions in 2002. Human cases still continue to increase and the disease spreads in many other provinces of Turkey. The ecological role of the vector tick species occurring in Turkey is not certain exactly. Therefore, we planned a broad range tick study in three different ecological and geographical areas extending from the West Black Sea regions down to the Central Anatolia. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize CCHFV molecularly in feeding-ticks collected from various wild and domestic animals and from humans as well as in questing and unfed ticks...
April 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433686/mitochatting-if-only-we-could-be-a-fly-on-the-cell-wall
#13
REVIEW
Michal Eisenberg-Bord, Maya Schuldiner
Mitochondria, cellular metabolic hubs, perform many essential processes and are required for the production of metabolites such as ATP, iron-sulfur clusters, heme, amino acids and nucleotides. To fulfill their multiple roles, mitochondria must communicate with all other organelles to exchange small molecules, ions and lipids. Since mitochondria are largely excluded from vesicular trafficking routes, they heavily rely on membrane contact sites. Contact sites are areas of close proximity between organelles that allow efficient transfer of molecules, saving the need for slow and untargeted diffusion through the cytosol...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433685/p62-mediated-mitochondrial-clustering-attenuates-apoptosis-induced-by-mitochondrial-depolarization
#14
Bin Xiao, Xiao Deng, Grace G Y Lim, Wei Zhou, Wuan-Ting Saw, Zhi Dong Zhou, Kah-Leong Lim, Eng-King Tan
Parkin/PINK1-mediated mitophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Prior to elimination of damaged mitochondria, Parkin translocates to mitochondria and induces mitochondrial clustering. While the mechanism of PINK1-dependent Parkin redistribution to mitochondria is now becoming clear, the role of mitochondrial clustering has been less well understood. In our study, we found that loss of p62 disrupted mitochondrial aggregation and specifically sensitized Parkin-expressing cells to apoptosis induced by mitochondrial depolarization...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433664/ovaries-of-the-white-worm-enchytraeus-albidus-annelida-clitellata-are-composed-of-16-celled-meroistic-germ-line-cysts
#15
Anna Z Urbisz, Łukasz Chajec, Agnieszka Brąszewska-Zalewska, Janusz Kubrakiewicz, Piotr Świątek
The paired ovaries of E. albidus are like a bunch of grapes and are composed of clearly separated units, syncytial germ cysts (clusters), which are surrounded by a thin layer of somatic cells. Each cyst maintains the connection with the ovary by an extended stalk that is composed of somatic cells. The spatial architecture of the germ-line cysts found in E. albidus is the same as in other clitellate annelids that have been studied to date. As a rule, germ cells are located at the cyst periphery and each has only one ring canal that connects it to the common and centrally located cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore...
April 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433662/iron-and-thiol-redox-signaling-in-cancer-an-exquisite-balance-to-escape-ferroptosis
#16
REVIEW
Shinya Toyokuni, Fumiya Ito, Kyoko Yamashita, Yasumasa Okazaki, Shinya Akatsuka
Epidemiological data indicate a constant worldwide increase in cancer mortality, although the age of onset is increasing. Recent accumulation of genomic data on human cancer via next-generation sequencing confirmed that cancer is a disease of genome alteration. In many cancers, the Nrf2 transcription system is activated via mutations either in Nrf2 or Keap1 ubiquitin ligase, leading to persistent activation of the genes with antioxidative functions. Furthermore, deep sequencing of passenger mutations is clarifying responsible cancer causative agent(s) in each case, including aging, APOBEC activation, smoking and UV...
April 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433624/temporal-slice-registration-and-robust-diffusion-tensor-reconstruction-for-improved-fetal-brain-structural-connectivity-analysis
#17
Bahram Marami, Seyed Sadegh Mohseni Salehi, Onur Afacan, Benoit Scherrer, Caitlin K Rollins, Edward Yang, Judy A Estroff, Simon K Warfield, Ali Gholipour
Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, or DWI, is one of the most promising tools for the analysis of neural microstructure and the structural connectome of the human brain. The application of DWI to map early development of the human connectome in-utero, however, is challenged by intermittent fetal and maternal motion that disrupts the spatial correspondence of data acquired in the relatively long DWI acquisitions. Fetuses move continuously during DWI scans. Reliable and accurate analysis of the fetal brain structural connectome requires careful compensation of motion effects and robust reconstruction to avoid introducing bias based on the degree of fetal motion...
April 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433568/the-role-of-copulatory-plugs-in-the-mosquito-parasitic-nematode-strelkovimermis-spiculatus
#18
Yu-Han Lan, Yi Wang, Randy Gaugler
The mosquito-parasitic nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Mermithidae: Nematoda) emerges from hosts and aggregates to form mating clusters characterized by intense male-male competition for females. Successful males deposit an adhesive copulatory plug over the female vulva after insemination. In choice experiments, males strongly preferred virgin females, whereas plugged females were ignored. Males made no attempt to displace copulatory plugs deposited by previous males. Plugged females repelled males without the need for physical contact...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433527/characterization-of-leukocyte-subsets-in-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-with-cross-reactive-monoclonal-antibodies-specific-for-bovine-mhc-class-i-and-class-ii-molecules-and-leukocyte-differentiation-molecules
#19
Francesco Grandoni, Mahmoud M Elnaggar, Gaber S Abdellrazeq, Federica Signorelli, Lindsay M Fry, Cinzia Marchitelli, Victoria Hulubei, Samy A Khaliel, Helmy A Torky, William C Davis
Although buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are a major component of the livestock industry worldwide, limited progress has been made in the study of the mechanisms regulating the immune response to pathogens and parasites affecting their health and productivity. This has been, in part, attributable to the limited availability of reagents to study immune responses in buffalo. As reported here, a set of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), developed against bovine, ovine and caprine leukocyte differentiation molecules (LDM) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, were identified and used to compare expression of LDM in Italian and Egyptian buffalo...
April 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433521/determination-of-cyclopeptide-toxins-in-amanita-subpallidorosea-and-amanita-virosa-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#20
Jiahui Wei, Jianfeng Wu, Jia Chen, Bidong Wu, Zhengmi He, Ping Zhang, Haijiao Li, Chengye Sun, Chang Liu, Zuohong Chen, Jianwei Xie
Amanita subpallidorosea is a recently discovered lethal Amanita sect. Phalloideae species found in China that is clustered with A. virosa in the same clade based on molecular phylogenetic analysis. However, the cyclopeptide toxin contents of these lethal mushrooms remain poorly studied. In this study, the cyclopeptide toxins in A. subpallidorosea were reported for the first time and the cyclopeptide compositions of A. subpallidorosea and A. virosa species were systematically analyzed. Thirteen cyclopeptides and two unknown compounds were identified or observed from these two lethal mushrooms by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry...
April 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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