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Tariq Ismail, Nighat Fatima, Syed Aun Muhammad, Syed Saoud Zaidi, Nisar Rehman, Izhar Hussain, Najam Us Sahr Tariq, Imran Amirzada, Abdul Mannan
Candida albicans (Candida albicans) is one of the major sources of nosocomial infections in humans which may prove fatal in 30% of cases. The hospital acquired infection is very difficult to treat affectively due to the presence of drug resistant pathogenic strains, therefore there is a need to find alternative drug targets to cure this infection. In silico and computational level frame work was used to prioritize and establish antifungal drug targets of Candida albicans. The identification of putative drug targets was based on acquiring 5090 completely annotated genes of Candida albicans from available databases which were categorized into essential and non-essential genes...
2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
M Sherry McDonald, Melanie Neumeier, Mark E Olver
Linear care plans have traditionally been used in nursing education to support nursing students in identifying potential and actual health care problems, and to follow up on those issues with nursing interventions. However, the linear care plan does not support the nursing student with learning in-depth critical thinking, clinical reasoning, creative thinking, and other ways of thinking. Concept mapping was introduced as a way to support the nursing student to improve upon critical thinking and clinical reasoning and to identify relationships among the patient's health care problems...
May 26, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Xiu-Wen Wu, You-Bo Zhang, Lei Zhang, Xiu-Wei Yang
A method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 33 active components including 26 coumarins and 7 phenolic acid esters in Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix (NRR). Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kinetex® C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d.; 2.6 μm) with a gradient elution in 18 min. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted in the positive and negative ionization modes with multiple reaction monitoring...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Abhijit Shukla, Danwei Huangfu
Large portions of the human genome harbor functional noncoding elements, which can regulate a variety of biological processes and have important implications for disease risk and therapeutic outcomes. However, assigning specific functions to noncoding sequences remains a major challenge. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) systems have emerged as a powerful approach for targeted genome and epigenome perturbation. CRISPR systems are now harnessed for high-throughput screening of the noncoding genome to uncover functional regulatory elements and to define their precise functions with superior speed...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Laura Lagourgue, Nicolas Puillandre, Claude Payri
The Udoteaceae family (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) is known to be highly diverse morphologically in the Caribbean region, but only few studies have studied its genetic diversity. Using an integrative taxonomic approach, this study aimed at (1) exploring the Udoteaceae species diversity using a combination of five DNA-based species delimitation methods and morpho-anatomical data for confirmation; (2) estimating the discriminatory power of traditional diagnostic characters using a morphology-based clustering method and statistical analyses focused on the genus Udotea; and (3) reconstructing the phylogeny of the family based on a multilocus analysis (tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA)...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Yvonne G Ellis, Dylan P Cliff, Steven J Howard, Anthony D Okely
The aim of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a childcare-based intervention to reduce total and prolonged sitting time in pre-schoolers. Four centres and 115 pre-schoolers (44 % boys; 4.1y) participated in a 3-month, 2-arm pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through observations and semi-structured interviews. Sitting time, and breaks and bouts of sitting during childcare were assessed using an activPAL accelerometer over a one-week period at pre- and post-test (12wks)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Nikki Rommers, Mireille Mostaert, Lennert Goossens, Roel Vaeyens, Erik Witvrouw, Matthieu Lenoir, Eva D'Hondt
This study investigated differences in generic and soccer specific motor coordination, as well as speed and agility depending on age and maturity in elite youth soccer players (U10-U15, N = 619). Measurements included body height, body weight and sitting height to estimate age at peak height velocity (APHV); three Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder subtests (i.e. jumping sideways (JS), moving sideways (MS), balancing backwards (BB)) to assess generic motor coordination; the UGent dribbling test for soccer specific motor coordination; a 5m/30m sprint and T-test for speed and agility, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Derick Akompab Akoku, Mbah Abena Tihnje, Thomas Achombwom Vukugah, Elvis Enowbeyang Tarkang, Robinson Enow Mbu
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, risky sexual behaviour, alcohol use and transactional sex among female bar workers in Yaounde, Cameroon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a representative sample of 410 female bar workers, recruited through a modified version of venue-based cluster sampling technique from May to June 2017. Transactional sex was defined as having received money/gifts in exchange for sex with any sexual partner in the past 12 months...
2018: PloS One
Kristy Hackett, Curtis Lafleur, Peter Nyella, Ophira Ginsburg, Wendy Lou, Daniel Sellen
BACKGROUND: About half of births in rural Tanzania are assisted by skilled providers. Point-of-care mobile phone applications hold promise in boosting job support for community health workers aiming to ensure safe motherhood through increased facility delivery awareness, access and uptake. We conducted a controlled comparison to evaluate a smartphone-based application designed to assist community health workers with data collection, education delivery, gestational danger sign identification, and referrals...
2018: PloS One
Janet Ong, Xu Liu, Jayanthi Rajarethinam, Suet Yheng Kok, Shaohong Liang, Choon Siang Tang, Alex R Cook, Lee Ching Ng, Grace Yap
BACKGROUND: Singapore experiences endemic dengue, with 2013 being the largest outbreak year known to date, culminating in 22,170 cases. Given the limited resources available, and that vector control is the key approach for prevention in Singapore, it is important that public health professionals know where resources should be invested in. This study aims to stratify the spatial risk of dengue transmission in Singapore for effective deployment of resources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Random Forest was used to predict the risk rank of dengue transmission in 1km2 grids, with dengue, population, entomological and environmental data...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Anna Bugge, Sören Möller, Daniel R Westfall, Jakob Tarp, Anne K Gejl, Niels Wedderkopp, Charles H Hillman
The main objective of this study was to investigate the associations between waist circumference, metabolic risk factors, and executive function in adolescents. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional and included 558 adolescents (mean age 14.2 years). Anthropometrics and systolic blood pressure (sysBP) were measured and fasting blood samples were analyzed for metabolic risk factors. A metabolic risk factor cluster score (MetS-cluster score) was computed from the sum of standardized sysBP, triglycerides (TG), inverse high-density lipid cholesterol (HDLc) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment)...
2018: PloS One
Reut Agam-Bitton, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, Moria Golan
BACKGROUND: Investigation of the optimal setting for body image prevention programmes is important to maximize the outcomes of such programmes. OBJECTIVES: We examined the preferred setting for a school-based wellness programme called "In Favour of Myself". METHODS: A total of 259 girls (mean 13.82±0.64 years) were divided into a girls-only intervention group, a mixed-gender intervention and a waiting list control group. The participants completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-intervention (2 months) and at follow-up (3 months) examining changes in self-esteem, media literacy, body image and risk factors for eating disorders...
2018: PloS One
Youhai Li, Natalia Lapina, Nina Weinzierl, Lothar Schilling
Focal brain ischemia markedly affects cerebrovascular reactivity. So far, these changes have mainly been related to alterations in the level of smooth muscle cell function while alterations of the endothelial lining have not yet been studied in detail. We have, therefore, investigated the effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury on bradykinin (BK)-induced relaxation since BK is an important mediator of tissue inflammation and affects vascular function in an endothelium-dependent manner. Focal brain ischemia was induced in rats by endovascular filament occlusion (2h) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)...
2018: PloS One
Tobias Otto, Fred R H Zijlstra, Rainer Goebel
Investing mental effort is costly, and the investment has to be matched by a reward to make a person engage in task performance. However, the neural structures underlying the continued management of mental effort are not known. Previous work has identified left-lateralized structures, most prominently the left anterior Insular Cortex (aIC) as regions implied in post-hoc evaluation and also anticipation of mental effort investment. We present a study aimed at identifying neural structures that are sensitive to changes in both task load and fatigue-induced state load...
2018: PloS One
Gregorio González-Alcaide, Alejandro Salinas, José M Ramos
BACKGROUND: Chagas cardiomyopathy is a serious and common complication of Chagas disease. METHODS: Through bibliometric and Social Network Analysis, we examined patterns of research on Chagas cardiomyopathy, identifying the main countries, authors, research clusters, and topics addressed; and measuring the contribution of different countries. RESULTS: We found 1932 documents on Chagas cardiomyopathy in the MEDLINE database. The most common document type was 'journal article', accounting for 79...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jacquelyn Horsington, Charles Nfon, Hilary Bittner, Peter A Durr, Nagendrakumar Singanallur, Soren Alexandersen, Wilna Vosloo
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals, caused by FMD virus (FMDV). An FMD outbreak can cause major production losses and have significant implications for trade. Vaccination can assist in controlling the disease, and emergency vaccination using high antigen payload vaccines (>6 PD50/dose) is considered an important control approach in the event of an outbreak. In recent years there has been a divergence of serotype A viruses in South East Asia (SEA) into several distinct genetic and antigenic clusters...
2018: PloS One
Kenneth D Harris, Hannah Hochgerner, Nathan G Skene, Lorenza Magno, Linda Katona, Carolina Bengtsson Gonzales, Peter Somogyi, Nicoletta Kessaris, Sten Linnarsson, Jens Hjerling-Leffler
Understanding any brain circuit will require a categorization of its constituent neurons. In hippocampal area CA1, at least 23 classes of GABAergic neuron have been proposed to date. However, this list may be incomplete; additionally, it is unclear whether discrete classes are sufficient to describe the diversity of cortical inhibitory neurons or whether continuous modes of variability are also required. We studied the transcriptomes of 3,663 CA1 inhibitory cells, revealing 10 major GABAergic groups that divided into 49 fine-scale clusters...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
Alexandra Dangel, Anja Berger, Regina Konrad, Heribert Bischoff, Andreas Sing
From 2016 through the middle of 2017, the German Consiliary Laboratory on Diphtheria noted an increase in nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates submitted from cities in northern Germany. Many patients for whom epidemiologic data were available were homeless, alcohol or drug abusers, or both. After performing routine diagnostics and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), we analyzed isolates of sequence type (ST) 8 and previously submitted isolates by whole-genome sequencing. Results were analyzed for phylogenetic relationship by core genome MLST (cg-MLST) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism profiles...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Augustin T Twabela, Georges M Tshilenge, Yoshiro Sakoda, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Ezekiel Bushu, Philippe Kone, Lidewij Wiersma, Gianpiero Zamperin, Alessandra Drago, Bianca Zecchin, Isabella Monne
In 2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus was detected in poultry in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Whole-genome phylogeny showed the virus clustered with H5N8 clade strains from birds in central and southern Asia. Emergence of this virus in central Africa represents a threat for animal health and food security.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Eric J Bylaska, Kevin M Rosso
An approach for modeling electron transfer in solids and at surfaces of iron - (oxyhydr)oxides and other redox active solids has been developed for electronic structure methods (i.e., plane-wave Density Functional Theory) capable of performing calculations with periodic cells and large system sizes efficiently while at the same time being accurate enough to be used in the estimation of the electron-transfer coupling matrix element, $V_{AB}$, and the electron transfer transmission factor, $\kappa_{el}$. This method is an extension of the valence bond theory electron transfer method for molecules and clusters, implemented by Dupuis and others and used extensively by Rosso and co-workers, in which scaled corresponding orbitals derived from the Bloch states are used to calculate the off-diagonal matrix elements $H_{AB}$ and $S_{AB}$...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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