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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548099/conformational-dynamics-of-dynamin-like-mxa-revealed-by-single-molecule-fret
#1
Yang Chen, Lei Zhang, Laura Graf, Bing Yu, Yue Liu, Georg Kochs, Yongfang Zhao, Song Gao
Human myxovirus resistance protein 1 (MxA) restricts a wide range of viruses and is closely related to the membrane-remodelling GTPase dynamin. The functions of MxA rely on domain rearrangements coupled with GTP hydrolysis cycles. To gain insight into this process, we studied real-time domain dynamics of MxA by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. We find that the GTPase domain-bundle-signalling-element (BSE) region can adopt either an 'open' or a 'closed' conformation in all nucleotide-loading conditions...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546307/the-right-lateral-cerebellum-represents-linguistic-predictability
#2
Elise Lesage, Peter C Hansen, R Chris Miall
Mounting evidence indicates that posterolateral portions of the cerebellum (right Crus I/II) contribute to language processing, but the nature of this role remains unclear. Based on a well-supported theory of cerebellar motor function, which ascribes to the cerebellum a role in short-term prediction through internal modeling, we hypothesize that right cerebellar Crus I/II supports prediction of upcoming sentence content.We tested this hypothesis using event-related fMRI in human subjects by manipulating the predictability of written sentences...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545432/the-impact-of-migratory-flyways-on-the-spread-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-north-america
#3
Mathieu Fourment, Aaron E Darling, Edward C Holmes
BACKGROUND: Wild birds are the major reservoir hosts for influenza A viruses (AIVs) and have been implicated in the emergence of pandemic events in livestock and human populations. Understanding how AIVs spread within and across continents is therefore critical to the development of successful strategies to manage and reduce the impact of influenza outbreaks. In North America many bird species undergo seasonal migratory movements along a North-South axis, thereby providing opportunities for viruses to spread over long distances...
May 25, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545123/predictability-of-arousal-in-mouse-slow-wave-sleep-by-accelerometer-data
#4
Gustavo Zampier Dos Santos Lima, Sergio Roberto Lopes, Thiago Lima Prado, Bruno Lobao-Soares, George C do Nascimento, John Fontenele-Araujo, Gilberto Corso
Arousals can be roughly characterized by punctual intrusions of wakefulness into sleep. In a standard perspective, using human electroencephalography (EEG) data, arousals are associated to slow-wave rhythms and K-complex brain activity. The physiological mechanisms that give rise to arousals during sleep are not yet fully understood. Moreover, subtle body movement patterns, which may characterize arousals both in human and in animals, are usually not detectable by eye perception and are not in general present in sleep studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544929/rem-sleep-and-memory
#5
REVIEW
Richard Boyce, Sylvain Williams, Antoine Adamantidis
Memory consolidation, a process which stabilizes recently acquired information into long-term storage, is thought to be optimized during sleep. Although recent evidence indicates that non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMs) is directly involved in memory consolidation, the role of rapid-eye movement sleep (REMs) in this process has remained controversial due to the extreme difficulty in experimentally isolating neural activity during REMs. Using a combination of electrophysiological recording and optogenetic techniques, recent work demonstrated for the first time that neural activity occurring specifically during REMs is required for spatial and contextual memory consolidation...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544892/facial-expression-movement-enhances-the-measurement-of-temporal-dynamics-of-attentional-bias-in-the-dot-probe-task
#6
Corrado Caudek, Francesco Ceccarini, Claudio Sica
The facial dot-probe task is one of the most common experimental paradigms used to assess attentional bias toward emotional information. In recent years, however, the psychometric properties of this paradigm have been questioned. In the present study, attentional bias to emotional face stimuli was measured with dynamic and static images of realistic human faces in 97 college students (63 women) who underwent either a positive or a negative mood-induction prior to the experiment. We controlled the bottom-up salience of the stimuli in order to dissociate the top-down orienting of attention from the effects of the bottom-up physical properties of the stimuli...
May 10, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544679/sima-a-simplified-migration-assay-for-analyzing-neutrophil-migration
#7
Markus Weckmann, Tim Becker, Gyde Nissen, Martin Pech, Matthias V Kopp
In lung inflammation, neutrophils are the first leukocytes migrating to an inflammatory site, eliminating pathogens by multiple mechanisms. The term "migration" describes several stages of neutrophil movement to reach the site of inflammation, of which the passage of the interstitium and basal membrane of the airway are necessary to reach the site of bronchial inflammation. Currently, several methods exist (e.g., Boyden Chamber, under-agarose assay, or microfluidic systems) to assess neutrophil mobility. However, these methods do not allow for parameterization on single cell level, that is, the individual neutrophil pathway analysis is still considered challenging...
May 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543651/the-past-present-and-future-of-mexico-s-national-bioethics-commission
#8
Manuel Ruiz de Chavez, Aidee Orozco, Gustavo Olaiz
The establishment of Mexico's National Bioethics Commission (Comisión Nacional de Bioética), in 1992, was conceived within the context of a global movement aimed at raising awareness of the ethical implications of technological and scientific development, especially in biomedicine. In 2005, a new decree put the commission under the scope of the Secretariat of Health and granted it technical and operational autonomy, allowing it to become a regulatory agency aimed at promoting a culture of bioethics, encouraging reflection on human health, and developing guidelines for health care, research, and education, through a global, secular, and democratic perspective...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543518/green-discolouration-of-urine-following-propofol-infusion-in-a-dog
#9
D Flaherty, A Auckburally
A three-year-old, female neutered Weimaraner was presented with a history of neck pain and tetraparesis. MRI revealed an extradural mass at the level of C3 vertebra, which was thought to be a spinal abscess, and the dog was scheduled for surgical exploration the following morning. Overnight the dog developed an exaggerated ventilatory pattern, with paradoxical inward movement of the thorax on inspiration. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed respiratory acidosis and ventilator support was initiated to prevent excessive respiratory fatigue...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543091/intraoperative-localized-constrained-registration-in-navigated-bronchoscopy
#10
Erlend Fagertun Hofstad, Hanne Sorger, Janne Beate Lervik Bakeng, Lucian Gruionu, Håkon Olav Leira, Tore Amundsen, Thomas Langø
PURPOSE: One of the major challenges in electromagnetic navigated bronchoscopy is the navigation accuracy. An initial rigid image-to-patient registration may not be optimal for the entire lung volume, as the lung tissue anatomy is likely to have shifted since the time of computer tomography (CT) acquisition. The accuracy of the initial rigid registration will also be affected throughout the procedure by breathing, coughing, patient movement and tissue displacements due to pressure from bronchoscopy tools...
May 25, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542104/reduced-spinal-cord-movement-with-the-straight-leg-raise-test-in-patients-with-lumbar-intervertebral-disc-herniation
#11
Marinko Rade, Janne Pesonen, Mervi Könönen, Jarkko Marttila, Michael Shacklock, Ritva Vanninen, Markku Kankaanpää, Olavi Airaksinen
STUDY DESIGN: Controlled radiological study. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether impairment of neural excursion during the straight leg raise test occurs in patients with sciatic symptoms secondary to lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LIDH). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Earlier studies have shown that during the SLR test in asymptomatic volunteers tensile forces are consistently transmitted throughout the neural system and the thoracolumbar spinal cord slides distally...
May 25, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541901/changes-of-shoulder-elbow-and-wrist-stiffness-matrix-post-stroke
#12
Li-Qun Zhang, Jongsang Son, Hyung-Soon Park, Sang Hoon Kang, Yunju Lee, Yupeng Ren
Stroke affects multiple joints in the arm with stereotypical patterns of arm deformity involving the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand and with disrupted coordination of multiple joints in active movements. However, there is a lack of systematic methods to evaluate multi-joints and multi-degree of freedoms (DOF) neuromechanical changes, especially for complex systems with three or more joints/DOFs involved. This study used a novel systematic method to characterize dynamics and control of the shoulder, elbow and wrist of the human arm individually and simultaneously, including the couplings across the multiple joints during controlled movements...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539609/manipulation-of-rat-movement-via-nigrostriatal-stimulation-controlled-by-human-visually-evoked-potentials
#13
Bonkon Koo, Chin Su Koh, Hae-Yong Park, Hwan-Gon Lee, Jin Woo Chang, Seungjin Choi, Hyung-Cheul Shin
Here, we report that the development of a brain-to-brain interface (BBI) system that enables a human user to manipulate rat movement without any previous training. In our model, the remotely-guided rats (known as ratbots) successfully navigated a T-maze via contralateral turning behaviour induced by electrical stimulation of the nigrostriatal (NS) pathway by a brain- computer interface (BCI) based on the human controller's steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs). The system allowed human participants to manipulate rat movement with an average success rate of 82...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539087/artificial-intelligence-methodologies-and-their-application-to-diabetes
#14
Mercedes Rigla, Gema García-Sáez, Belén Pons, Maria Elena Hernando
In the past decade diabetes management has been transformed by the addition of continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pump data. More recently, a wide variety of functions and physiologic variables, such as heart rate, hours of sleep, number of steps walked and movement, have been available through wristbands or watches. New data, hydration, geolocation, and barometric pressure, among others, will be incorporated in the future. All these parameters, when analyzed, can be helpful for patients and doctors' decision support...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538104/wnt5a-regulates-the-expression-of-ror2-tyrosine-kinase-receptor-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#15
Ghamartaj Hossein, Somayeh Arabzadeh, Zahra Salehi-Doulabi, Zeynab Dehghani-Ghobadi, Yasaman Heidarian, Maryam Talebi-Juybari
Wnt5A and Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) proteins both regulate developmental processes, cell movement, and cell polarity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a possible regulatory role of Wnt5A on ROR2 expression in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Moreover, the expression of Wnt5A and ROR2 mRNA and protein levels were assessed in human epithelial serous ovarian cancer (HSOC) specimens. ROR2 was strongly decreased in cells treated with siRNA against Wnt5A compared to scramble-treated or lipofectamine-treated cells (P<0...
May 24, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536868/caffeine-increases-the-velocity-of-rapid-eye-movements-in-unfatigued-humans
#16
Charlotte J W Connell, Benjamin Thompson, Jason Turuwhenua, Robert F Hess, Nicholas Gant
BACKGROUND: Caffeine is a widely used dietary stimulant that can reverse the effects of fatigue on cognitive, motor and oculomotor function. However, few studies have examined the effect of caffeine on the oculomotor system when homeostasis has not been disrupted by physical fatigue. This study examined the influence of a moderate dose of caffeine on oculomotor control and visual perception in participants who were not fatigued. METHODS: Within a placebo-controlled crossover design, 13 healthy adults ingested caffeine (5 mg·kg(-1) body mass) and were tested over 3 h...
May 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536517/differential-recruitment-of-parietal-cortex-during-spatial-and-non-spatial-reach-planning
#17
Pierre-Michel Bernier, Kevin Whittingstall, Scott T Grafton
The planning of goal-directed arm reaching movements is associated with activity in the dorsal parieto-frontal cortex, within which multiple regions subserve the integration of arm- and target-related sensory signals to encode a motor goal. Surprisingly, many of these regions show sustained activity during reach preparation even when target location is not specified, i.e., when a motor goal cannot be unambiguously formed. The functional role of these non-spatial preparatory signals remains unresolved. Here this process was investigated in humans by comparing reach preparatory activity in the presence or absence of information regarding upcoming target location...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535377/mechanism-of-ska-recruitment-by-ndc80-complexes-to-kinetochores
#18
Paweł Ł Janczyk, Katarzyna A Skorupka, John G Tooley, Daniel R Matson, Cortney A Kestner, Thomas West, Owen Pornillos, P Todd Stukenberg
Yeast use the ring-shaped Dam1 complex to slide down depolymerizing microtubules to move chromosomes, but current models suggest that other eukaryotes do not have a sliding ring. We visualized Ndc80 and Ska complexes on microtubules by electron microscopic tomography to identify the structure of the human kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Ndc80 recruits the Ska complex so that the V shape of the Ska dimer interacts along protofilaments. We identify a mutant of the Ndc80 tail that is deficient in Ska recruitment to kinetochores and in orienting Ska along protofilaments in vitro...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533739/improving-the-test-retest-reliability-of-resting-state-fmri-by-removing-the-impact-of-sleep
#19
Jiahui Wang, Junwei Han, Vinh T Nguyen, Lei Guo, Christine C Guo
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) provides a powerful tool to examine large-scale neural networks in the human brain and their disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Thanks to its low demand and high tolerance, resting state paradigms can be easily acquired from clinical population. However, due to the unconstrained nature, resting state paradigm is associated with excessive head movement and proneness to sleep. Consequently, the test-retest reliability of rs-fMRI measures is moderate at best, falling short of widespread use in the clinic...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532988/molecular-and-serological-detection-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris-suggests-potential-transmission-risk-in-areas-of-recent-acute-chagas-disease-outbreaks-in-colombia
#20
Jeiczon Jaimes-Dueñez, Omar Triana-Chávez, Omar Cantillo-Barraza, Carolina Hernández, Juan David Ramírez, Agustín Góngora-Orjuela
Chagas disease is a zoonotic infection widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of America, including more than 50% of the Colombian territory. In the last years, an increase of outbreaks of acute Chagas disease has been observed in the east of the country due to environmental changes and mammal movements toward human settlements. Given the importance of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as reservoir hosts and sentinels of Trypanosoma cruzi infection across different regions of America, in this study we reported a serological and molecular detection of T...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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