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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750259/impact-of-series-length-on-statistical-precision-and-sensitivity-of-autocorrelation-assessment-in-human-locomotion
#1
T B Warlop, B Bollens, Ch Detrembleur, G Stoquart, T Lejeune, F Crevecoeur
Long-range autocorrelations (LRA) are a robust feature of rhythmic movements, which may provide important information about neural control and potentially constitute a powerful marker of dysfunction. A clear difficulty associated with the assessment of LRA is that it requires a large number of cycles to generate reliable results. Here we investigate how series length impacts the reliability of LRA assessment. A total of 94 time series extracted from walking or cycling tasks were re-assessed with series length varying from 64 to 512 data points...
July 24, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748916/conformation-and-dynamics-of-the-c-terminal-region-in-human-phosphoglycerate-mutase-1
#2
Shi-En Liu, Jun-Chi Hu, Hao Zhang, Pan Xu, Wei Wan, Ming-Yue Zheng, Kun-Qian Yu, Hong Ding, Hua-Liang Jiang, Lu Zhou, Cheng Luo
Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), an important enzyme in glycolysis, is overexpressed in a number of human cancers, thus has been proposed as a promising metabolic target for cancer treatments. The C-terminal portion of the available crystal structures of PGAM1 and its homologous proteins is partially disordered, as evidenced by weak electron density. In this study, we identified the conformational behavior of the C-terminal region of PGAM1 as well as its role during the catalytic cycle. Using the PONDR-FIT server, we demonstrated that the C-terminal region was intrinsically disordered...
July 27, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748830/a-neural-network-with-central-pattern-generators-entrained-by-sensory-feedback-controls-walking-of-a-bipedal-model
#3
Wei Li, Nicholas Stephen Szczecinski, Roger D Quinn
A neuromechanical simulation of a planar, bipedal walking robot has been developed. It is constructed as a simplified, planar musculoskeletal model of the biomechanics of the human lower body. The controller consists of a dynamic neural network with central pattern generators (CPGs) entrained by force and movement sensory feedback to generate appropriate muscle forces for walking. The CPG model is a two-level architecture, which consists of separate rhythm generator (RG) and pattern formation (PF) networks...
July 27, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748383/is-ambient-heat-exposure-levels-associated-with-miscarriage-or-stillbirths-in-hot-regions-a-cross-sectional-study-using-survey-data-from-the-ghana-maternal-health-survey-2007
#4
Benedict Asamoah, Tord Kjellstrom, Per-Olof Östergren
It is well established that high ambient heat could cause congenital abnormalities resulting in miscarriage or stillbirth among certain species of mammals. However, this has not been systematically studied in real field settings among humans, despite the potential value of such knowledge for estimating the impact of global warming on the human species. This study sought to test the hypothesis that maternal heat exposure during pregnancy in hot regions is associated with increased prevalence of spontaneous abortions or stillbirths and to develop an analytical strategy to use existing data from maternal health surveys and existing data on historical heat levels at a geographic grid cell level...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748371/acute-effects-of-heated-resistance-exercise-in-female-and-male-power-athletes
#5
Julia R Casadio, Adam G Storey, Fabrice Merien, Andrew E Kilding, James D Cotter, Paul B Laursen
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of heated resistance exercise on thermal strain, neuromuscular function and hormonal responses in power athletes. METHODS: Sixteen (n = 8 female; 8 male) highly trained power athletes completed a combined strength and power resistance exercise session in hot (HOT ~30 °C) and temperate (CON ~20 °C) conditions. Human growth hormone (hGH), cortisol and testosterone concentrations in plasma, peak power (counter-movement jump, CMJ) and peak force (isometric mid-thigh pull) were measured before and after each training session; thermoregulatory responses were monitored during training...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748303/a-mean-field-model-for-movement-induced-changes-in-the-beta-rhythm
#6
Áine Byrne, Matthew J Brookes, Stephen Coombes
In electrophysiological recordings of the brain, the transition from high amplitude to low amplitude signals are most likely caused by a change in the synchrony of underlying neuronal population firing patterns. Classic examples of such modulations are the strong stimulus-related oscillatory phenomena known as the movement related beta decrease (MRBD) and post-movement beta rebound (PMBR). A sharp decrease in neural oscillatory power is observed during movement (MRBD) followed by an increase above baseline on movement cessation (PMBR)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747880/strong-functional-connectivity-among-homotopic-brain-areas-is-vital-for-motor-control-in-unilateral-limb-movement
#7
Pengxu Wei, Zuting Zhang, Zeping Lv, Bin Jing
The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR) scanning...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746814/probabilistic-computations-for-attention-eye-movements-and-search
#8
Miguel P Eckstein
The term visual attention immediately evokes the idea of limited resources, serial processing, or a zoom metaphor. But evidence has slowly accumulated that computations that take into account probabilistic relationships among visual forms and the target contribute to optimizing decisions in biological and artificial organisms, even without considering these limited-capacity processes in covert attention or even foveation. The benefits from such computations can be formalized within the framework of an ideal Bayesian observer and can be related to the classic theory of sensory cue combination in vision science and context-driven approaches to object detection in computer vision...
July 26, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746484/obesity-and-orthodontic-treatment-is-there-any-direct-relationship
#9
Alberto Consolaro
Obesity is a wide-spread condition directly or indirectly connected with an increase in the prevalence of a variety of human diseases. It affects over 50% of the western overall population. In 2017, a thorough analysis of 204 studies on obesity and cancer revealed that the condition increases the risk of the following types of cancer: stomach, colon, rectal, bile duct, pancreatic, esophagus, breast, endometrial, ovarian, kidney and multiple myeloma. The first study aiming at establishing a connection between obesity and the rate of induced orthodontic tooth movement was conducted by Saloom et al; however, it could not effectively nor significantly reveal any direct influence or effect...
May 2017: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746437/the-art-and-neurology-of-paul-richer
#10
Péricles Maranhão-Filho
In the 1890s, one of Charcot's most important protégés, Dr. Paul Richer (1849-1933), drew and sculpted a series of representations of the main types of nerve pathology. That series included drawings of pleomorphic hysterical crises and sculptures depicting patients suffering from labio-glosso-laryngeal paralysis and myopathy, as well as Parkinson's disease. Richer was a resident at La Salpêtrière and, in 1882, became head of the Charcot museum. Early in his career, despite having no formal artistic training, he could represent masterfully, in drawings and sculptures, people's tragic suffering from neurological diseases...
July 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746407/prehistoric-mitochondrial-dna-of-domesticate-animals-supports-a-13th-century-exodus-from-the-northern-us-southwest
#11
Brian M Kemp, Kathleen Judd, Cara Monroe, Jelmer W Eerkens, Lindsay Hilldorfer, Connor Cordray, Rebecca Schad, Erin Reams, Scott G Ortman, Timothy A Kohler
The 13th century Puebloan depopulation of the Four Corners region of the US Southwest is an iconic episode in world prehistory. Studies of its causes, as well as its consequences, have a bearing not only on archaeological method and theory, but also social responses to climate change, the sociology of social movements, and contemporary patterns of cultural diversity. Previous research has debated the demographic scale, destinations, and impacts of Four Corners migrants. Much of this uncertainty stems from the substantial differences in material culture between the Four Corners vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746367/high-resolution-isotopic-evidence-of-specialised-cattle-herding-in-the-european-neolithic
#12
Claudia Gerling, Thomas Doppler, Volker Heyd, Corina Knipper, Thomas Kuhn, Moritz F Lehmann, Alistair W G Pike, Jörg Schibler
Reconstructing stock herding strategies and land use is key to comprehending past human social organization and economy. We present laser-ablation strontium and carbon isotope data from 25 cattle (Bos taurus) to reconstruct mobility and infer herding management at the Swiss lakeside settlement of Arbon Bleiche 3, occupied for only 15 years (3384-3370 BC). Our results reveal three distinct isotopic patterns that likely reflect different herding strategies: 1) localized cattle herding, 2) seasonal movement, and 3) herding away from the site year-round...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744755/resveratrol-protects-against-vacuous-chewing-movements-induced-by-chronic-treatment-with-fluphenazine
#13
Alcindo Busanello, Caroline Queiroz Leal, Luis Ricardo Peroza, Jivago Röpke, Elizete de Moraes Reis, Catiuscia Molz de Freitas, Milena Libardoni, Nilda Berenice de Vargas Barbosa, Roselei Fachinetto
Typical antipsychotics, which are commonly used to treat schizophrenia, cause motor disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) in humans and orofacial dyskinesia (OD) in rodents. The disease mechanisms as well as treatment effectiveness are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol, a polyphenol with neuroprotective properties, on behavioral changes induced by chronic treatment with fluphenazine in rats and the possible relationship between monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and vacuous chewing movements (VCMs)...
July 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744193/on-the-origin-of-the-1-000-hz-peak-in-the-spectrum-of-the-human-tympanic-electrical-noise
#14
Javiera Pardo-Jadue, Constantino D Dragicevic, Macarena Bowen, Paul H Delano
The spectral analysis of the spontaneous activity recorded with an electrode positioned near the round window of the guinea pig cochlea shows a broad energy peak between 800 and 1,000 Hz. This spontaneous electric activity is called round window noise or ensemble background activity. In guinea pigs, the proposed origin of this peak is the random sum of the extracellular field potentials generated by action potentials of auditory nerve neurons. In this study, we used a non-invasive method to record the tympanic electric noise (TEN) in humans by means of a tympanic wick electrode...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743912/structural-basis-for-dolichylphosphate-mannose-biosynthesis
#15
Rosaria Gandini, Tom Reichenbach, Tien-Chye Tan, Christina Divne
Protein glycosylation is a critical protein modification. In biogenic membranes of eukaryotes and archaea, these reactions require activated mannose in the form of the lipid conjugate dolichylphosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man). The membrane protein dolichylphosphate mannose synthase (DPMS) catalyzes the reaction whereby mannose is transferred from GDP-mannose to the dolichol carrier Dol-P, to yield Dol-P-Man. Failure to produce or utilize Dol-P-Man compromises organism viability, and in humans, several mutations in the human dpm1 gene lead to congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG)...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743752/thalamocortical-synchronization-during-induction-and-emergence-from-propofol-induced-unconsciousness
#16
Francisco J Flores, Katharine E Hartnack, Amanda B Fath, Seong-Eun Kim, Matthew A Wilson, Emery N Brown, Patrick L Purdon
General anesthesia (GA) is a reversible drug-induced state of altered arousal required for more than 60,000 surgical procedures each day in the United States alone. Sedation and unconsciousness under GA are associated with stereotyped electrophysiological oscillations that are thought to reflect profound disruptions of activity in neuronal circuits that mediate awareness and cognition. Computational models make specific predictions about the role of the cortex and thalamus in these oscillations. In this paper, we provide in vivo evidence in rats that alpha oscillations (10-15 Hz) induced by the commonly used anesthetic drug propofol are synchronized between the thalamus and the medial prefrontal cortex...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742873/orienting-towards-social-features-in-naturalistic-scenes-is-reflexive
#17
Lara Rösler, Albert End, Matthias Gamer
Saliency-based models of visual attention postulate that, when a scene is freely viewed, attention is predominantly allocated to those elements that stand out in terms of their physical properties. However, eye-tracking studies have shown that saliency models fail to predict gaze behavior accurately when social information is included in an image. Notably, gaze pattern analyses revealed that depictions of human beings are heavily prioritized independent of their low-level physical saliency. What remains unknown, however, is whether the prioritization of such social features is a reflexive or a voluntary process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742849/joint-action-aesthetics
#18
Staci Vicary, Matthias Sperling, Jorina von Zimmermann, Daniel C Richardson, Guido Orgs
Synchronized movement is a ubiquitous feature of dance and music performance. Much research into the evolutionary origins of these cultural practices has focused on why humans perform rather than watch or listen to dance and music. In this study, we show that movement synchrony among a group of performers predicts the aesthetic appreciation of live dance performances. We developed a choreography that continuously manipulated group synchronization using a defined movement vocabulary based on arm swinging, walking and running...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742834/contacts-in-the-last-90-000-years-over-the-strait-of-gibraltar-evidenced-by-genetic-analysis-of-wild-boar-sus-scrofa
#19
Carmen Soria-Boix, Maria P Donat-Torres, Vicente Urios
Contacts across the Strait of Gibraltar in the Pleistocene have been studied in different research papers, which have demonstrated that this apparent barrier has been permeable to human and fauna movements in both directions. Our study, based on the genetic analysis of wild boar (Sus scrofa), suggests that there has been contact between Africa and Europe through the Strait of Gibraltar in the Late Pleistocene (at least in the last 90,000 years), as shown by the partial analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Cytochrome b and the control region from North African wild boar indicate a close relationship with European wild boar, and even some specimens belong to a common haplotype in Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741099/spatial-specificity-of-tactile-enhancement-during-reaching
#20
Dimitris Voudouris, Katja Fiehler
Tactile signals on a hand that serves as movement goal are enhanced during movement planning and execution. Here, we examined how spatially specific tactile enhancement is when humans reach to their own static hand. Participants discriminated two brief and simultaneously presented tactile stimuli: a comparison stimulus on the left thumb or little finger from a reference stimulus on the sternum. Tactile stimuli were presented either during right-hand reaching towards the left thumb or little finger or while holding both hands still (baseline)...
July 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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