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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440890/fluorescence-and-autoradiographic-evaluation-of-tau-pet-ligand-pbb3-to-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology
#1
Shunsuke Koga, Maiko Ono, Naruhiko Sahara, Makoto Higuchi, Dennis W Dickson
BACKGROUND: The tau PET ligand 2-((1E,3E)-4-(6-([(11) C]methylamino)pyridin-3-yl)buta-1,3-dienyl)benzo[d]thiazol-6-ol ([(11) C]PBB3) binds to a wide range of tau pathology; however, binding property of PBB3 to non-tau inclusions remains unknown. To clarify whether [(11) C]PBB3 binds to α-synuclein pathology, reactivity of PBB3 was assessed by in vitro fluorescence and autoradiographic labeling of brain sections from α-synucleinopathies patients. METHOD: Of 10 pure Lewy body disease and 120 multiple system atrophy (MSA) cases in the Mayo Clinic brain bank, we selected 3 Lewy body disease and 4 MSA cases with a range of α-synuclein severity based on the quantitative analysis of α-synuclein burden...
April 25, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439942/assessment-of-motion-of-colonic-contents-in-the-human-colon-using-mri-tagging
#2
S E Pritchard, J Paul, G Major, L Marciani, P A Gowland, R C Spiller, C L Hoad
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a non-invasive, semi-automated technique to assess motility of the wall of the ascending colon (AC) using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. This study investigated the feasibility of using a tagged MRI technique to visualize and assess the degree of flow within the human ascending colon in healthy subjects and those suffering from constipation. METHODS: An open-labeled study of 11 subjects with constipation and 11 subjects without bowel disorders was performed...
April 25, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439075/switch-from-ambient-to-focal-processing-mode-explains-the-dynamics-of-free-viewing-eye-movements
#3
Junji Ito, Yukako Yamane, Mika Suzuki, Pedro Maldonado, Ichiro Fujita, Hiroshi Tamura, Sonja Grün
Previous studies have reported that humans employ ambient and focal modes of visual exploration while they freely view natural scenes. These two modes have been characterized based on eye movement parameters such as saccade amplitude and fixation duration, but not by any visual features of the viewed scenes. Here we propose a new characterization of eye movements during free viewing based on how eyes are moved from and to objects in a visual scene. We applied this characterization to data obtained from freely-viewing macaque monkeys...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438914/does-deforestation-promote-or-inhibit-malaria-transmission-in-the-amazon-a-systematic-literature-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-current-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Joanna M Tucker Lima, Amy Vittor, Sami Rifai, Denis Valle
Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437350/biomechanical-effects-of-a-dynamic-topping-off-instrumentation-in-a-long-rigid-pedicle-screw-construct
#5
Michael Reichl, Rebecca A Kueny, Reza Danyali, Peter Obid, Hüseyin Übeyli, Klaus Püschel, Michael M Morlock, Gerd Huber, Thomas Niemeyer, Alexander Richter
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical ex vivo study. OBJECTIVE: To determine if topping off instrumentation can reduce the hypermobility in the adjacent segments when compared with the classic rigid spinal instrumentation. SUMMARY OF THE BACKGROUND DATA: Long rigid instrumentation might increase the mechanical load in the adjacent segments, the resulting hypermobility, and the risk for adjacent segment disease. Topping off instrumentation intends to reduce the hypermobility at the adjacent level by more evenly distributing segmental motion and, thereby, potentially mitigating adjacent level disease...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435870/nanoparticles-that-do-not-adhere-to-mucus-provide-uniform-and-long-lasting-drug-delivery-to-airways-following-inhalation
#6
Craig S Schneider, Qingguo Xu, Nicholas J Boylan, Jane Chisholm, Benjamin C Tang, Benjamin S Schuster, Andreas Henning, Laura M Ensign, Ethan Lee, Pichet Adstamongkonkul, Brian W Simons, Sho-Yu S Wang, Xiaoqun Gong, Tao Yu, Michael P Boyle, Jung Soo Suk, Justin Hanes
Mucoadhesive particles (MAP) have been widely explored for pulmonary drug delivery because of their perceived benefits in improving particle residence in the lungs. However, retention of particles adhesively trapped in airway mucus may be limited by physiologic mucus clearance mechanisms. In contrast, particles that avoid mucoadhesion and have diameters smaller than mucus mesh spacings rapidly penetrate mucus layers [mucus-penetrating particles (MPP)], which we hypothesized would provide prolonged lung retention compared to MAP...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435670/type-1-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-signaling-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Masanobu Kano, Takaki Watanabe
The cerebellum is a brain structure involved in coordination, control, and learning of movements, as well as certain aspects of cognitive function. Purkinje cells are the sole output neurons from the cerebellar cortex and therefore play crucial roles in the overall function of the cerebellum. The type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) is a key "hub" molecule that is critically involved in the regulation of synaptic wiring, excitability, synaptic response, and synaptic plasticity of Purkinje cells. In this review, we aim to highlight how mGluR1 controls these events in Purkinje cells...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434862/consequences-of-the-oculomotor-cycle-for-the-dynamics-of-perception
#8
Marco Boi, Martina Poletti, Jonathan D Victor, Michele Rucci
Much evidence indicates that humans and other species process large-scale visual information before fine spatial detail. Neurophysiological data obtained with paralyzed eyes suggest that this coarse-to-fine sequence results from spatiotemporal filtering by neurons in the early visual pathway. However, the eyes are normally never stationary: rapid gaze shifts (saccades) incessantly alternate with slow fixational movements. To investigate the consequences of this oculomotor cycle on the dynamics of perception, we combined spectral analysis of visual input signals, neural modeling, and gaze-contingent control of retinal stimulation in humans...
April 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432771/a-rare-variant-in-tor1a-exon-5-associated-with-isolated-dystonia-in-southwestern-chinese
#9
Yuzhou Long, Yang Chen, Yuan Qian, Jianlin Wang, Lihua Luo, Xiaoqin Huang, Li Li, Jiayou Chu, Zhaoqing Yang, Hao Sun
BACKGROUND: TOR1A has been proposed as an important genetic factor in early-onset isolated dystonia. Variants located in the 3' untranslated region of TOR1A are of particular importance because they may influence gene expression, although related studies are limited. The objectives of the present study focused on variants in the TOR1A 3' untranslated region. METHODS: The last exon of TOR1A was sequenced in 229 cases with isolated dystonia and in 210 controls. In addition, 471 controls were tested to determine the frequency of the variants in the 3' untranslated region...
April 22, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432478/the-arabidopsis-splicing-factors-atu2af65-atu2af35-and-atsf1-shuttle-between-nuclei-and-cytoplasms
#10
Hyo-Young Park, Keh Chien Lee, Yun Hee Jang, Soon-Kap Kim, May Phyo Thu, Jeong Hwan Lee, Jeong-Kook Kim
The Arabidopsis splicing factors, AtU2AF65, AtU2AF35, and AtSF1 shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms. These proteins also move rapidly and continuously in the nuclei, and their movements are affected by ATP depletion. The U2AF65 proteins are splicing factors that interact with SF1 and U2AF35 proteins to promote U2snRNP for the recognition of the pre-mRNA 3' splice site during early spliceosome assembly. We have determined the subcellular localization and movement of these proteins' Arabidopsis homologs. It was found that Arabidopsis U2AF65 homologs, AtU2AF65a, and AtU2AF65b proteins interact with AtU2AF35a and AtU2AF35b, which are Arabidopsis U2AF35 homologs...
April 21, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431748/a-benchtop-biorobotic-platform-for-in-vitro-observation-of-muscle-tendon-dynamics-with-parallel-mechanical-assistance-from-an-elastic-exoskeleton
#11
Benjamin D Robertson, Siddarth Vadakkeveedu, Gregory S Sawicki
We present a novel biorobotic framework comprised of a biological muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanically coupled to a feedback controlled robotic environment simulation that mimics in vivo inertial/gravitational loading and mechanical assistance from a parallel elastic exoskeleton. Using this system, we applied select combinations of biological muscle activation (modulated with rate-coded direct neural stimulation) and parallel elastic assistance (applied via closed-loop mechanical environment simulation) hypothesized to mimic human behavior based on previously published modeling studies...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431740/getting-a-grip-on-reality-grasping-movements-directed-to-real-objects-and-images-rely-on-dissociable-neural-representations
#12
Erez Freud, Scott N Macdonald, Juan Chen, Derek J Quinlan, Melvyn A Goodale, Jody C Culham
In the current era of touchscreen technology, humans commonly execute visually guided actions directed to two-dimensional (2D) images of objects. Although real, three-dimensional (3D), objects and images of the same objects share high degree of visual similarity, they differ fundamentally in the actions that can be performed on them. Indeed, previous behavioral studies have suggested that simulated grasping of images relies on different representations than actual grasping of real 3D objects. Yet the neural underpinnings of this phenomena have not been investigated...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431265/nucleolar-reorganization-in-response-to-rdna-damage
#13
REVIEW
Marjolein van Sluis, Brian McStay
Nucleoli, sites of ribosome biogenesis, form around nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) comprising rDNA arrays, located on human acrocentric chromosome p-arms. NORs provide an opportunity to investigate the DNA double strand break (DSB) response at highly transcribed, repetitive, essential loci. Targeted introduction of DSBs into rDNA results in ATM-dependent inhibition of RNA-polymerase I transcription, coupled with movement of rDNA from the nucleolar interior to anchoring points at the periphery. Reorganization renders rDNA accessible to repair factors, normally excluded from nucleoli...
April 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428010/a-strategy-of-faster-movements-used-by-elderly-humans-to-lift-objects-of-increasing-weight-in-ecological-context
#14
Thomas Hoellinger, Joseph McIntyre, Lena Jami, Sylvain Hanneton, Guy Cheron, Agnes Roby-Brami
It is not known whether, during the course of ageing, changes occur in the motor strategies used by the CNS for lifting objects of different weights. Here, we analysed the kinematics of object-lifting in two different healthy groups (young and elderly people) plus one well known deafferented patient (GL). The task was to reach and lift onto a shelf an opaque cylindrical object with changing weight. The movements of the hand and object were recorded with electromagnetic sensors. In an ecological context (i.e...
April 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427535/pathogens-of-food-animals-sources-characteristics-human-risk-and-methods-of-detection
#15
Catherine M Logue, Nicolle L Barbieri, Daniel W Nielsen
Pathogens associated with food production (livestock) animals come in many forms causing a multitude of disease for humans. For the purpose of this review, these infectious agents can be divided into three broad categories: those that are associated with bacterial disease, those that are associated with viruses, and those that are parasitic in nature. The goal of this chapter is to provide the reader with an overview of the most common pathogens that cause disease in humans through exposure via the food chain and the consequence of this exposure as well as risk and detection methods...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426763/individual-based-modelling-of-population-growth-and-diffusion-in-discrete-time
#16
Natalie Tkachenko, John D Weissmann, Wesley P Petersen, George Lake, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Simone Callegari
Individual-based models (IBMs) of human populations capture spatio-temporal dynamics using rules that govern the birth, behavior, and death of individuals. We explore a stochastic IBM of logistic growth-diffusion with constant time steps and independent, simultaneous actions of birth, death, and movement that approaches the Fisher-Kolmogorov model in the continuum limit. This model is well-suited to parallelization on high-performance computers. We explore its emergent properties with analytical approximations and numerical simulations in parameter ranges relevant to human population dynamics and ecology, and reproduce continuous-time results in the limit of small transition probabilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424657/magnetic-vestibular-stimulation-mvs-as-a-technique-for-understanding-the-normal-and-diseased-labyrinth
#17
REVIEW
Bryan K Ward, Jorge Otero-Millan, Prem Jareonsettasin, Michael C Schubert, Dale C Roberts, David S Zee
Humans often experience dizziness and vertigo around strong static magnetic fields such as those present in an MRI scanner. Recent evidence supports the idea that this effect is the result of inner ear vestibular stimulation and that the mechanism is a magnetohydrodynamic force (Lorentz force) that is generated by the interactions between normal ionic currents in the inner ear endolymph and the strong static magnetic field of MRI machines. While in the MRI, the Lorentz force displaces the cupula of the lateral and anterior semicircular canals, as if the head was rotating with a constant acceleration...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#18
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424635/preferential-processing-of-social-features-and-their-interplay-with-physical-saliency-in-complex-naturalistic-scenes
#19
Albert End, Matthias Gamer
According to so-called saliency-based attention models, attention during free viewing of visual scenes is particularly allocated to physically salient image regions. In the present study, we assumed that social features in complex naturalistic scenes would be processed preferentially irrespective of their physical saliency. Therefore, we expected worse prediction of gazing behavior by saliency-based attention models when social information is present in the visual field. To test this hypothesis, participants freely viewed color photographs of complex naturalistic social (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424626/a-rat-immobilization-model-based-on-cage-volume-reduction-a-physiological-model-for-bed-rest
#20
Enrica Marmonti, Sílvia Busquets, Míriam Toledo, Marina Ricci, Marc Beltrà, Victòria Gudiño, Francesc Oliva, José M López-Pedrosa, Manuel Manzano, Ricardo Rueda, Francisco J López-Soriano, Josep M Argilés
Bed rest has been an established treatment in the past prescribed for critically illness or convalescing patients, in order to preserve their body metabolic resource, to prevent serious complications and to support their rapid path to recovery. However, it has been reported that prolonged bed rest can have detrimental consequences that may delay or prevent the recovery from clinical illness. In order to study disuse-induced changes in muscle and bone, as observed during prolonged bed rest in humans, an innovative new model of muscle disuse for rodents is presented...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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