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Human movement

Federica Cavalera, Mario Zanoni, Valeria Merico, Thi Thu Hien Bui, Martina Belli, Lorenzo Fassina, Silvia Garagna, Maurizio Zuccotti
Infertility clinics would benefit from the ability to select developmentally competent vs. incompetent oocytes using non-invasive procedures, thus improving the overall pregnancy outcome. We recently developed a classification method based on microscopic live observations of mouse oocytes during their in vitro maturation from the germinal vesicle (GV) to the metaphase II stage, followed by the analysis of the cytoplasmic movements occurring during this time-lapse period. Here, we present detailed protocols of this procedure...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jacey L Janz Vernoski, Jack R Bjorkland, Talia J Kramer, Steven T Oczak, Alexandra L Borstad
Proprioception may be the least well measured of all contributors to the neural control of movement. New precise, reliable measures of proprioception are needed for clinical diagnosis of impairment, and to measure outcomes of proprioceptive training. The purpose of this simple, non-invasive method is to temporarily knockdown upper limb proprioception in healthy adults, to an extent that would be useful in the development and testing of upper limb proprioception measures. Knockdown models have two main advantages over studying humans with impaired proprioception: participant availability and the ability to control the extent of impairment across participants...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Pragati Chengappa, Kimheak Sao, Tia M Jones, Ryan J Petrie
Intracellular pressure, generated by actomyosin contractility and the directional flow of water across the plasma membrane, can rapidly reprogram cell shape and behavior. Recent work demonstrates that cells can generate intracellular pressure with a range spanning at least two orders of magnitude; significantly, pressure is implicated as an important regulator of cell dynamics, such as cell division and migration. Changes to intracellular pressure can dictate the mechanisms by which single human cells move through three-dimensional environments...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Navneet Ammal Kaidery, Bobby Thomas
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by preferential loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of Lewy bodies containing α-synuclein. Although the cause of PD remains elusive, remarkable advances have been made in understanding the possible causative mechanisms of PD pathogenesis. An explosion of discoveries during the past two decades has led to the identification of several autosomal dominant and recessive genes that cause familial forms of PD...
March 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Yuta Ogata, Masaya Anan, Makoto Takahashi, Takuya Takeda, Kenji Tanimoto, Tomonori Sawada, Koichi Shinkoda
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate between movement patterns of trunk extension from full unloaded flexion and lifting techniques, which could provide valuable information to physical therapists, doctors of chiropractic, and other manual therapists. METHODS: A within-participant study design was used. Whole-body kinematic and kinetic data during lifting and full trunk flexion were collected from 16 healthy male participants using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system (Vicon Motion Systems)...
March 2018: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Stephen Gikonyo, Tabitha Kimani, Joseph Matere, Joshua Kimutai, Stella G Kiambi, Austine O Bitek, K J Z Juma Ngeiywa, Yilma J Makonnen, Astrid Tripodi, Subhash Morzaria, Juan Lubroth, Gabriel Rugalema, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
Dromedary camels have been implicated consistently as the source of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) human infections and attention to prevent and control it has focused on camels. To understanding the epidemiological role of camels in the transmission of MERS-CoV, we utilized an iterative empirical process in Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify and qualify potential hotspots for maintenance and circulation of MERS-CoV, and produced risk-based surveillance sites in Kenya. Data on camel population and distribution were used to develop camel density map, while camel farming system was defined using multi-factorial criteria including the agro-ecological zones (AEZs), production and marketing practices...
March 16, 2018: EcoHealth
A M De Nunzio, U S Yavuz, E Martinez-Valdes, D Farina, D Falla
Sensory information conveyed along afferent fibers from muscle and joint proprioceptors play an important role in the control of posture and gait in humans. In particular, proprioceptive information from the neck is fundamental in supplying the central nervous system with information about the orientation and movement of the head relative to the rest of the body. The previous studies have confirmed that proprioceptive afferences originating from the neck region, evoked via muscle vibration, lead to strong body-orienting effects during static conditions (e...
March 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Emanuele Strano, Matheus P Viana, Alessandro Sorichetta, Andrew J Tatem
Human mobility is increasing in its volume, speed and reach, leading to the movement and introduction of pathogens through infected travelers. An understanding of how areas are connected, the strength of these connections and how this translates into disease spread is valuable for planning surveillance and designing control and elimination strategies. While analyses have been undertaken to identify and map connectivity in global air, shipping and migration networks, such analyses have yet to be undertaken on the road networks that carry the vast majority of travellers in low and middle income settings...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna Vera Cuppone, Marianna Semprini, Jürgen Konczak
Sensorimotor learning is a bidirectional process associated with concurrent neuroplastic changes in the motor and somatosensory system. While motor memory consolidation and retention have been extensively studied during skill acquisition, little is known about the formation and consolidation of somatosensory memory associated with motor learning. Using a robotic exoskeleton, we tracked markers of somatosensory and motor learning while healthy participants trained to make goal-directed wrist reaching movements over five days and evaluated retention for up to 10 days after practice...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Latifah Alazmi, Grace E Gadsby, Nicola R Heneghan, T David Punt
BACKGROUND: Left/right judgment tasks (LRJTs) are used in the management of chronic pain. This use is predicated on their ability to elicit the simulation of movements (i.e. motor imagery), including those where the execution of the same movements induces pain. While established for limb-based LRJTs, the ability of trunk-based LRJTs to elicit motor imagery of trunk movements has not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether data from a trunk-based LRJT are indicative of motor imagery being elicited for the specific lateralised trunk postures presented...
March 7, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
Manon Auffret, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin
Apomorphine is now recognized as the oldest antiparkinsonian drug on the market. Though still underused, it is increasingly prescribed in Europe for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with motor fluctuations. However, its history is far from being limited to movement disorders. This paper traces the history of apomorphine, from its earliest empirical use, to its synthesis, pharmacological development, and numerous indications in human and veterinary medicine, in light of its most recent uses and newest challenges...
March 15, 2018: Drugs in R&D
Cheng-Han Wu, Bang-Hung Yang, Yuan-Hwa Chou, Shyh-Jen Wang, Jyh-Cheng Chen
99mTc-TRODAT-1 is a type of drug that can bind to dopamine transporters in living organisms and is often used in SPCT imaging for observation of changes in the activity uptake of dopamine in the striatum. Therefore, it is currently widely used in studies on clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and movement-related disorders. In conventional 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT image evaluation, visual inspection or manual selection of ROI for semiquantitative analysis is mainly used to observe and evaluate the degree of striatal defects...
2018: PloS One
Han Sun, Xiong Zhang, Yacong Zhao, Yu Zhang, Xuefei Zhong, Zhaowen Fan
The novel human-computer interface (HCI) using bioelectrical signals as input is a valuable tool to improve the lives of people with disabilities. In this paper, surface electromyography (sEMG) signals induced by four classes of wrist movements were acquired from four sites on the lower arm with our designed system. Forty-two features were extracted from the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Optimal channels were determined from single-channel classification performance rank. The optimal-feature selection was according to a modified entropy criteria (EC) and Fisher discrimination (FD) criteria...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Jingxin Zhang, Eike Langbehn, Dennis Krupke, Nicholas Katzakis, Frank Steinicke
Telepresence systems have the potential to overcome limits and distance constraints of the real-world by enabling people to remotely visit and interact with each other. However, current telepresence systems usually lack natural ways of supporting interaction and exploration of remote environments (REs). In particular, single webcams for capturing the RE provide only a limited illusion of spatial presence, and movement control of mobile platforms in today's telepresence systems are often restricted to simple interaction devices...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Chris Brogden, Kelly Marrin, Richard Page, Matt Greig
CONTEXT: Clinical and functional assessments are performed regularly in sporting environments to screen for performance deficits and injury risk. Circadian rhythms have been demonstrated to affect human performance, however the influence of time of day on a battery of multiple ankle injury risk factors has yet to be established within athletic populations. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of circadian variation on a battery of tests, used to screen for ankle aetiological risk factors...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Yasmine Mosleh, Martin Cajka, Bart Depreitere, Jos Vander Sloten, Jan Ivens
Oblique impact is the most common accident situation that occupants in traffic accidents or athletes in professional sports experience. During oblique impact, the human head is subjected to a combination of linear and rotational accelerations. Rotational movement is known to be responsible for traumatic brain injuries. In this article, composite foam with a column/matrix composite configuration is proposed for head protection applications to replace single-layer uniform foam, to better attenuate rotational movement of the head during oblique impacts...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Jennifer A Bunn, James W Navalta, Charles J Fountaine, Joel D Reece
Wearable physical activity trackers are a popular and useful method to collect biometric information at rest and during exercise. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize recent findings of wearable devices for biometric information related to steps, heart rate, and caloric expenditure for several devices that hold a large portion of the market share. Searches were conducted in both PubMed and SPORTdiscus. Filters included: humans, within the last 5 years, English, full-text, and adult 19+ years...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Victor Feliz Pedrinha, Juliana Melo da Silva Brandão, Oscar Faciola Pessoa, Patrícia de Almeida Rodrigues
Advances in endodontics have enabled the evolution of file manufacturing processes, improving performance beyond that of conventional files. In the present study, systems manufactured using state of the art methods and possessing special properties related to NiTi alloys ( i.e ., CM-Wire, M-Wire and R-Phase) were selected. The aim of this review was to provide a detailed analysis of the literature about the relationship between recently introduced NiTi files with different movement kinematics and shaping ability, apical extrusion of debris and dentin defects in root canal preparations...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
Christopher McCrum, Pamela Leow, Gaspar Epro, Matthias König, Kenneth Meijer, Kiros Karamanidis
Tendons transfer forces produced by muscle to the skeletal system and can therefore have a large influence on movement effectiveness and safety. Tendons are mechanosensitive, meaning that they adapt their material, morphological and hence their mechanical properties in response to mechanical loading. Therefore, unloading due to immobilization or inactivity could lead to changes in tendon mechanical properties. Additionally, ageing may influence tendon biomechanical properties directly, as a result of biological changes in the tendon, and indirectly, due to reduced muscle strength and physical activity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Paul D Marasco, Jacqueline S Hebert, Jon W Sensinger, Courtney E Shell, Jonathon S Schofield, Zachary C Thumser, Raviraj Nataraj, Dylan T Beckler, Michael R Dawson, Dan H Blustein, Satinder Gill, Brett D Mensh, Rafael Granja-Vazquez, Madeline D Newcomb, Jason P Carey, Beth M Orzell
To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement's progress. This largely nonconscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. We report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
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