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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143674/the-role-of-human-rights-litigation-in-improving-access-to-reproductive-health-care-and-achieving-reductions-in-maternal-mortality
#1
Jennifer Templeton Dunn, Katherine Lesyna, Anna Zaret
BACKGROUND: Improving maternal health, reducing global maternal mortality, and working toward universal access to reproductive health care are global priorities for United Nations agencies, national governments, and civil society organizations. Human rights lawyers have joined this global movement, using international law and domestic constitutions to hold nations accountable for preventable maternal death and for failing to provide access to reproductive health care services. CASE PRESENTATION: This article discusses three decisions in which international treaty bodies find the nations of Brazil and Peru responsible for violations of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and also two domestic decisions alleging constitutional violations in India and Uganda...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143094/the-application-of-a-performance-based-self-administered-intra-procedural-checklist-on-surgical-trainees-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#2
Michael El Boghdady, Afshin Alijani
INTRODUCTION: Surgical checklists are in use to reduce errors for safer surgery. We aimed to study the effect of a previously designed performance-based self-administered intra-procedural checklist on the performance of trainees during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Twenty-four laparoscopic cholecystectomies were enrolled into the study. Six surgical trainees each performed four procedures, two without the checklist and directly followed by two procedures with the checklist...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142255/a-nonredundant-role-for-the-trpm6-channel-in-neural-tube-closure
#3
Yuko Komiya, Zhiyong Bai, Na Cai, Liping Lou, Namariq Al-Saadi, Courtney Mezzacappa, Raymond Habas, Loren W Runnels
In humans, germline mutations in Trpm6 cause autosomal dominant hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia disorder. Loss of Trpm6 in mice also perturbs cellular magnesium homeostasis but additionally results in early embryonic lethality and neural tube closure defects. To define the mechanisms by which TRPM6 influences neural tube closure, we functionally characterized the role of TRPM6 during early embryogenesis in Xenopus laevis. The expression of Xenopus TRPM6 (XTRPM6) is elevated at the onset of gastrulation and is concentrated in the lateral mesoderm and ectoderm at the neurula stage...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142237/inner-ear-otolith-asymmetry-in-late-larval-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus-perciformes-showing-kinetotic-behaviour-under-diminished-gravity
#4
Ralf Anken, Miriam Knie, Reinhard Hilbig
The inner ears of all vertebrates are designed to perceive auditory and vestibular inputs. Although a tremendous diversity in the inner ear can be found even among bony fishes, the morphologies of the utricle and of the semicircular canals are rather conservative among vertebrates. Fish show kinetoses under reduced gravity (spinning movements and looping responses) and are regarded model organisms concerning the performance of the otolithic organs. Otoliths can be analysed easily because they are compact, in contrast to the otoconial masses of other vertebrates...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142222/human-atg3-binding-to-lipid-bilayers-role-of-lipid-geometry-and-electric-charge
#5
Javier H Hervás, Ane Landajuela, Zuriñe Antón, Anna V Shnyrova, Felix M Goñi, Alicia Alonso
Specific protein-lipid interactions lead to a gradual recruitment of AuTophaGy-related (ATG) proteins to the nascent membrane during autophagosome (AP) formation. ATG3, a key protein in the movement of LC3 towards the isolation membrane, has been proposed to facilitate LC3/GABARAP lipidation in highly curved membranes. In this work we have performed a biophysical study of human ATG3 interaction with membranes containing phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and anionic phospholipids. We have found that ATG3 interacts more strongly with negatively-charged phospholipid vesicles or nanotubes than with electrically neutral model membranes, cone-shaped anionic phospholipids (cardiolipin and phosphatidic acid) being particularly active in promoting binding...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142092/response-of-supra-oculomotor-area-neurons-during-combined-saccade-vergence-movements
#6
Adam C Pallus, Mark M G Walton, Michael J Mustari
Combined saccade-vergence movements allow humans and other primates to align their eyes with objects of interest in three-dimensions. In the absence of saccades, vergence movements are typically slow, symmetrical movements of the two eyes in opposite directions. However, combined saccade-vergence movements produce vergence velocities that exceed values observed during vergence alone. This phenomenon is often called "vergence enhancement", or "saccade-facilitated vergence," though it is important to consider that rapid vergence changes, known as "vergence transients," are also observed during conjugate saccades...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141506/triathlon-transition-study-quantifying-differences-in-running-movement-pattern-and-precision-after-bike-run-transition
#7
Christian Weich, Randall L Jensen, Manfred Vieten
Various publications discuss the discrepancies of running in triathlons and stand-alone runs. However, those methods, such as analysing step-characteristics or ground-contact time, lack the ability to quantitatively discriminate between subtle running differences. The attractor method can be applied to overcome those shortcomings. The purpose was to detect differences in athletes' running patterns (δM) and movement precision (δD) by comparing a 5,000 m run after a prior cycling session (TRun) with an isolated run over the same distance (IRun)...
November 15, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141275/roles-of-the-declive-folium-and-tuber-cerebellar-vermian-lobules-in-sportspeople
#8
In Sung Park, Nam Joon Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
The cerebellum plays vital roles in balance control and motor learning, including in saccadic adaptation and coordination. It consists of the vermis and two hemispheres and is anatomically separated into ten lobules that are designated as I-X. Although neuroimaging and clinical studies suggest that functions are compartmentalized within the cerebellum, the function of each cerebellar lobule is not fully understood. Electrophysiological and lesion studies in animals as well as neuroimaging and lesion studies in humans have revealed that vermian lobules VI and VII (declive, folium, and tuber) are critical for controlling postural balance, saccadic eye movements, and coordination...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140527/functional-organization-of-face-processing-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus-a-7t-high-resolution-fmri-study
#9
Anne-Kathrin Schobert, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Sascha Frühholz, Wietske van der Zwaag, Patrik Vuilleumier
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a major component of the human face perception network, implicated in processing dynamic changeable aspects of faces. However, it remains unknown whether STS holds functionally segregated subdivisions for different categories of facial movements. We used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7T in 16 volunteers to compare STS activation to faces displaying angry or happy expressions, eye-gaze shifts, and lip-speech movements. Combining univariate and multivariate analyses, we show a systematic topological organization within STS, with gaze-related activity predominating in the most posterior and superior sector, speech-related activity in the anterior sector, and emotional expressions represented in the intermediate middle STS...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140281/non-contact-sensor-for-long-term-continuous-vital-signs-monitoring-a-review-on-intelligent-phased-array-doppler-sensor-design
#10
REVIEW
Travis Hall, Donald Y C Lie, Tam Q Nguyen, Jill C Mayeda, Paul E Lie, Jerry Lopez, Ron E Banister
It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients' long-term vital signs data is available...
November 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140262/influence-of-professional-affiliation-on-expert-s-view-on-welfare-measures
#11
Nina Dam Otten, Tine Rousing, Björn Forkman
The present study seeks to investigate the influence of expert affiliation in the weighing procedures within animal welfare assessments. Experts are often gathered with different backgrounds with differing approaches to animal welfare posing a potential pitfall if affiliation groups are not balanced in numbers of experts. At two time points (2012 and 2016), dairy cattle and swine experts from four different stakeholder groups, namely researchers (RES), production advisors (CONS), practicing veterinarians (VET) and animal welfare control officers (AWC) were asked to weigh eight different welfare criteria: Hunger, Thirst, Resting comfort, Ease of movement, Injuries, Disease, Human-animal bond and Emotional state...
November 15, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139642/matrilineal-heritage-in-southern-iberia-reveals-deep-genetic-links-between-continents
#12
Candela L Hernández, Rosario Calderón
Within the Mediterranean Basin, the Iberian Peninsula has been a focus of attraction for several cultures and civilizations from its prehistory and history, making it a target territory for studying human migration patterns and peopling processes using a wide and heterogeneous spectrum of genomic markers. While its Cantabrian fringe represents the most regularly analysed area in terms of its mitochondrial diversity, the absence of monographic surveys on the maternal genetic composition of southern Iberians (i...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138812/expression-and-regulation-of-the-erk1-2-and-p38-mapk-signaling-pathways-in-periodontal-tissue-remodeling-of-orthodontic-tooth-movement
#13
Liping Jiang, Zhen Tang
The present study aimed to investigate the expression and regulation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in periodontal tissue remodeling of orthodontic tooth movement. Sprague Dawley rats with orthodontic tooth movement were generated. After tension stress for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days, the protein and mRNA expression levels of ERK1/2 and p38 in periodontal tissue were determined by western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR), respectively...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138393/dogs-and-humans-respond-to-emotionally-competent-stimuli-by-producing-different-facial-actions
#14
Caeiro Cátia, Guo Kun, Mills Daniel
The commonality of facial expressions of emotion has been studied in different species since Darwin, with most of the research focusing on closely related primate species. However, it is unclear to what extent there exists common facial expression in species more phylogenetically distant, but sharing a need for common interspecific emotional understanding. Here we used the objective, anatomically-based tools, FACS and DogFACS (Facial Action Coding Systems), to quantify and compare human and domestic dog facial expressions in response to emotionally-competent stimuli associated with different categories of emotional arousal...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138097/gastric-microbiota-an-emerging-player-in-helicobacter-pylori-induced-gastric-malignancies
#15
J Luis Espinoza, Ayumi Matsumoto, Hirokazu Tanaka, Itaru Matsumura
The complex diversity of nonpathogenic microbes that colonize the human body, known as microbiota, exert considerable effects on physiological homeostasis, and immune regulation. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterium that frequently colonizes human stomach and is a major pathogenic agent for peptic ulcer diseases, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Due to its acidic pH and peristaltic movements, the stomach has been considered a hostile environment for most microorganisms, however various commensal microorganisms are capable of colonizing the stomach to form a stomach niche...
November 11, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137378/trastuzumab-distribution-in-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-model-of-brain-metastases-of-breast-cancer
#16
Tori B Terrell-Hall, Mohamed Ismail Nounou, Fatema El-Amrawy, Jessica I G Griffith, Paul R Lockman
Background: Drug and antibody delivery to brain metastases has been highly debated in the literature. The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) is more permeable than the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and has shown to have highly functioning efflux transporters and barrier properties, which limits delivery of targeted therapies. Methods: We characterized the permeability of (125)I-trastuzumab in an in-vivo, and fluorescent trastuzumab-Rhodamine123 (t-Rho123) in a novel microfluidic in-vitro, BBB and BTB brain metastases of breast cancer model...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135975/transcriptomic-profiling-of-human-breast-and-melanoma-cells-selected-by-migration-through-narrow-constraints
#17
Dominika A Rudzka, William Clark, Ann Hedley, Gabriela Kalna, Michael F Olson
The metastatic spread of cancer cells is a step-wise process that starts with dissociation from primary tumours and local invasion of adjacent tissues. The ability to invade local tissues is the product of several processes, including degradation of extracellular matrices (ECM) and movement of tumour cells through physically-restricting gaps. To identify properties contributing to tumour cells squeezing through narrow gaps, invasive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer and MDA-MB-435 human melanoma cells were subjected to three successive rounds of selection using cell culture inserts with highly constraining 3 μm pores...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134576/comparing-speech-and-nonspeech-context-effects-across-timescales-in-coarticulatory-contexts
#18
Navin Viswanathan, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
Context effects are ubiquitous in speech perception and reflect the ability of human listeners to successfully perceive highly variable speech signals. In the study of how listeners compensate for coarticulatory variability, past studies have used similar effects speech and tone analogues of speech as strong support for speech-neutral, general auditory mechanisms for compensation for coarticulation. In this manuscript, we revisit compensation for coarticulation by replacing standard button-press responses with mouse-tracking responses and examining both standard geometric measures of uncertainty as well as newer information-theoretic measures that separate fast from slow mouse movements...
November 13, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133484/loss-of-e-cadherin-provides-tolerance-to-centrosome-amplification-in-epithelial-cancer-cells
#19
Alexander D Rhys, Pedro Monteiro, Christopher Smith, Malti Vaghela, Teresa Arnandis, Takuya Kato, Birgit Leitinger, Erik Sahai, Andrew McAinsh, Guillaume Charras, Susana A Godinho
Centrosome amplification is a common feature of human tumors. To survive, cancer cells cluster extra centrosomes during mitosis, avoiding the detrimental effects of multipolar divisions. However, it is unclear whether clustering requires adaptation or is inherent to all cells. Here, we show that cells have varied abilities to cluster extra centrosomes. Epithelial cells are innately inefficient at clustering even in the presence of HSET/KIFC1, which is essential but not sufficient to promote clustering. The presence of E-cadherin decreases cortical contractility during mitosis through a signaling cascade leading to multipolar divisions, and its knockout promotes clustering and survival of cells with multiple centrosomes...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133433/attention-priority-map-of-face-images-in-human-early-visual-cortex
#20
Ce Mo, Dongjun He, Fang Fang
Attention priority maps are topographic representations that are utilized for attention selection and guidance of task-related behavior during visual processing. Previous studies have identified attention priority maps of simple artificial stimuli in multiple cortical and subcortical areas, while investigating neural correlates of priority maps of natural stimuli is complicated by the complexity of their spatial structure and the difficulty of behaviorally characterizing their priority map. To overcome these challenges, we reconstructed the topographic representations of upright/invered face images from fMRI BOLD signals in human early visual areas V1-V3 based on a voxel-wise population receptive field model and behaviorally characterized the priority map as the first saccadic eye movement pattern when subjects performed a face matching task, relative to the condition in which subjects performed a phase-scrambled face matching task...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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