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crystal methamphetamine

Sarah MacLean, Ross Hengsen, Raelene Stephens
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This article identifies factors that participants in a study based in an Australian regional centre believed to be critical to understanding and responding to crystal methamphetamine (ice) use among Aboriginal people. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study entailed a participatory methodology involving a university and an Aboriginal community controlled organisation. Semi-structured interviews conducted with ice users (n = 14), family members (n = 6) and workers (n = 6) were analysed thematically...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Murray G Tucker, Sebastian Kekulawala, Michelle Kent, Sam Mostafa, Richard Harvey
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of comorbid illicit drug use in persons with chronic psychotic illness represents a strong determinant of psychotic relapse and rehospitalization. Epidemiological studies indicate changing patterns of illicit drug use in Australia, which are concerning because of increased use of crystal methamphetamine, also known as "ice." An important complication of habitual use of crystal methamphetamine is the development of a dose-dependent acute psychotic reaction...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Nadia Fairbairn, Evan Wood, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
While risky sexual behaviours related to illicit drug use among street youth have been explored, the impacts of alcohol use have received less attention. This longitudinal study examined hazardous alcohol use among a population of street-involved youth, with particular attention to sexual and drug-related risk behaviours. Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. The outcome of interest was hazardous alcohol use defined by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...
August 18, 2016: AIDS Care
P Weatherburn, F Hickson, D Reid, S Torres-Rueda, A Bourne
OBJECTIVES: There is considerable public health concern about the combining of sex and illicit drugs (chemsex) among gay men. With a view to inform supportive therapeutic and clinical interventions, we sought to examine the motivations for engaging in chemsex among gay men living in South London. METHODS: Community advertising recruited 30 gay men for qualitative semi-structured interview. Aged between 21 and 53 years, all lived in South London in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham and all had combined crystal methamphetamine, mephedrone and/or γ-hydroxybutyric acid/γ-butyrolactone with sex in the past 12 months...
August 12, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
G J Melendez-Torres, Chris Bonell, Ford Hickson, Adam Bourne, David Reid, Peter Weatherburn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kirk Hepburn, Brittany Barker, Paul Nguyen, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth who use drugs may have limited income-generation options and are known to commonly become immersed in illicit drug markets to generate funds. However, little attention has been given to factors that may drive drug dealing initiation among this vulnerable population. OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal study examines drug dealing initiation among street-involved youth. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study from September 2005 to November 2014; a prospective cohort of 194 street-involved youth who use drugs aged 14-26, in Vancouver, Canada...
June 17, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Claudio Vidal Giné, Mireia Ventura Vilamala, Iván Fornís Espinosa, Cristina Gil Lladanosa, Nú Calzada Álvarez, Ariadna Fitó Fruitós, Joan Rodríguez Rodríguez, Antonia Domíngo Salvany, Rafael de la Torre Fornell
BACKGROUND: Although 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has a long history in recreational settings, research on its composition (purity and adulteration) has focused only on tablets even though crystal format is readily available for users. METHODS: Drug specimens collected between January 2000 and December 2014 were analyzed at Energy Control's facilities. All samples were voluntarily provided by drug users. Sample identification was made with thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and quantification with ultraviolet spectrophotometry (only in unadulterated samples)...
June 2016: Forensic Science International
Ali Nikfarjam, Mostafa Shokoohi, Armita Shahesmaeili, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Saiedeh Haji-Maghsoudi, Azam Rastegari, Abbas Ali Nasehi, Nadereh Memaryan, Termeh Tarjoman
BACKGROUND: For a better understanding of the current situation of drug use in Iran, we utilized the network scale-up approach to estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use in the entire country. METHODS: We implemented a self-administered, street-based questionnaire to 7535 passersby from the general public over 18 years of age by street based random walk quota sampling (based on gender, age and socio-economic status) from 31 provinces in Iran. The sample size in each province was approximately 400, ranging from 200 to 1000...
May 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Margaret Hamilton, Adrian J Dunlop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Toby Lea, Limin Mao, Max Hopwood, Garrett Prestage, Iryna Zablotska, John de Wit, Martin Holt
BACKGROUND: Gay and bisexual men typically report high rates of illicit drug use, including methamphetamine use. This paper aimed to analyse trends in crystal methamphetamine ('crystal') and powder methamphetamine ('speed') use among gay and bisexual men in Australia, and characterise the sociodemographic, drug use, and sexual risk practices of men who reported crystal use. METHODS: The Gay Community Periodic Surveys, routinely conducted behavioural surveillance surveys of gay men in Australia, were analysed to examine trends in recent crystal and speed use during 2005-14 (any use in the previous 6 months), and trends in regular crystal and speed use during 2007-14 (at least monthly use in the previous 6 months)...
March 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Theodore K Gideonse
After being arrested for violating a restraining order against his husband, on November 24, 2013, Yale professor Samuel See died while in lockup at the Union Avenue Detention Center in New Haven, Connecticut. The death received media attention around the world, with readers arguing online about whether See's death was caused by police misconduct, as his friends and colleagues charged in interviews and during a well-publicised march and protest. When an autopsy revealed that he had died from a methamphetamine-induced heart attack, online commentary changed dramatically, with See's many supporters rhetorically abandoning him and others describing him as a stereotype of the gay meth addict who deserved his fate...
February 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Alicia Yolanda Harvey-Vera, Patricia González-Zúñiga, Adriana Carolina Vargas-Ojeda, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Carlos Leonardo Magis-Rodríguez, Karla Wagner, Steffanie Anne Strathdee, Daniel Werb
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexico reformed its health law to partially decriminalize drug possession considered for personal use and to increase mandatory referrals to certified drug rehabilitation centers in lieu of incarceration. Concurrently, news media reported violent attacks perpetrated by drug cartels against Mexican drug rehabilitation centers and instances of human rights violations by staff against people who inject drugs (PWID) in treatment. In many cases, these violent situations took place at "Peer Support" (Ayuda Mutua) drug rehabilitation centers that house a large number of drug-dependent PWID...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Tessa Cheng, Thomas Kerr, Will Small, Paul Nguyen, Evan Wood, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Previous research has found a range of barriers to mainstream employment among street-involved youth; however, less is known about the characteristics of street-involved youth who engage in risky income generation and the potential role of substance use in perpetuating engagement in these activities. METHODS: Data were collected between 2005 and 2012 from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), which is a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada...
February 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Lawrence A Palinkas, Angela Robertson Bazzi, Jennifer L Syvertsen, Monica D Ulibarri, Daniel Hernandez, M Gudelia Rangel, Gustavo Martinez, Steffanie A Strathdee
BACKGROUND: Self-reports are commonly used to assess prevalence and frequency of drug use, but it is unclear whether qualitative methods like semi-structured interviews are as useful at obtaining such information as quantitative surveys. OBJECTIVES: This study compared drug use occurrence and frequency using data collected from quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews. We also examined whether combining data from both sources could result in significant increases in percentages of current users and whether the concordance between the two sets of data was associated with the type of drug use, age, gender and socioeconomic status...
January 2, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Mark Phillips, Lindsey Richardson, Evan Wood, Paul Nguyen, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Addiction severity has been associated with numerous social- and health-related harms. This study sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of high-intensity drug use among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting with a focus on high-risk drug use practices and health service access. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study, a Vancouver-based prospective cohort of street-involved youth aged 14-26. We used generalized estimating equations to examine variables associated with high-intensity drug use, defined as daily use of crack cocaine, cocaine, heroin, or crystal methamphetamine...
2015: Substance Use & Misuse
Ashraf Amlani, Geoff McKee, Noren Khamis, Geetha Raghukumar, Erica Tsang, Jane A Buxton
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl-detected illicit drug overdose deaths in British Columbia (BC) recently increased dramatically from 13 deaths in 2012 to 90 deaths in 2014, signaling an emerging public health concern. Illicit fentanyl is sold as pills or powders, often mixed with other substances like heroin or oxycodone; reports from coroners suggested that fentanyl was frequently taken unknowingly by people who use drugs. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of fentanyl use among clients accessing harm reduction (HR) services in BC...
2015: Harm Reduction Journal
Martin Holt, Toby Lea, Jason Asselin, Margaret Hellard, Garrett Prestage, David Wilson, John de Wit, Mark Stoové
INTRODUCTION: Gay and bisexual men (GBM) with undiagnosed HIV are believed to contribute disproportionately to HIV transmission in Australia but national prevalence estimates have been lacking. METHODS: From November 2013 to November 2014, we recruited men at gay venues and events in six Australian states and territories. Of 7291 survey participants, 3071 men also provided an oral fluid sample for testing and decided whether to receive their test results or not...
2015: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Ashleigh J Rich, Nathan J Lachowsky, Zishan Cui, Paul Sereda, Allan Lal, David M Moore, Robert S Hogg, Eric A Roth
This study analyzed event-level partnership data from a computer-assisted survey of 719 gay and bisexual men (GBM) enrolled in the Momentum Health Study to delineate potential linkages between anal sex roles and the so-called "sex drugs," i.e., erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD), poppers, and crystal methamphetamine. Univariable and multivariable analyses using generalized linear mixed models with logit link function with sexual encounters (n = 2514) as the unit of analysis tested four hypotheses: (1) EDD are significantly associated with insertive anal sex roles, (2) poppers are significantly associated with receptive anal sex, (3) both poppers and EDD are significantly associated with anal sexual versatility, and (4) crystal methamphetamine is significantly associated with all anal sex roles...
August 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Catherine E Oldenburg, Jennifer A Mitty, Katie B Biello, Elizabeth F Closson, Steven A Safren, Kenneth H Mayer, Matthew J Mimiaga
Alcohol and stimulant use are independently associated with increased HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM). We assessed differences in acceptability and perceived barriers to uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among stimulant and alcohol-using MSM in Boston. From September 2012-2013, a quantitative assessment was conducted with 254 MSM respondents who reported recent condomless sex in the context of concurrent stimulant (crack/cocaine and crystal methamphetamine; n = 132) or alcohol use (n = 122)...
July 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Stephen J Kaar, Caroline X Gao, Belinda Lloyd, Karen Smith, Dan I Lubman
AIMS: The current burden of cannabis-related presentations to emergency health services is largely unknown. This paper presents data collected over a 13-year period in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia as part of the Ambo Project, a unique surveillance system that analyses and codes paramedic records for drug-related trends and harms. METHODS: Cannabis-related ambulance attendances involving 15-59 year olds in metropolitan Melbourne were analysed retrospectively from 2000 to 2013 (n=10,531)...
October 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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