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enteral feeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231698/effect-of-feeding-of-blend-of-essential-oils-on-methane-production-growth-nutrient-utilization-in-growing-buffaloes
#1
M A Yatoo, L C Chaudhary, Neeta Agarwal, V B Chaturvedi, D N Kamra
Objective: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of a blend of essential oils (BEO) on enteric methane emission and growth performance of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Methods: Twenty one growing male buffaloes (average body weight of 279 ± 9.3 kg) were divided in to three groups. The animals of all the three groups were fed on a ration consisting of wheat straw and concentrate mixture targeting 500g daily live weight gain. The three dietary groups were; Group1: control without additive, Group 2 and 3: supplemented with BEO @ 0...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231180/evolution-of-the-maillard-reaction-in-glutamine-or-arginine-dextrinomaltose-model-systems
#2
Silvia Pastoriza, José Ángel Rufián-Henares, Belén García-Villanova, Eduardo Guerra-Hernández
Enteral formulas are foods designed for medical uses to feed patients who are unable to eat normally. They are prepared by mixing proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and fats and submitted to sterilization. During thermal treatment, the Maillard reaction takes place through the reaction of animo acids with reducing sugars. Thus, although glutamine and arginine are usually added to improve the nutritional value of enteral formulas, their final concentration may vary. Thus, in the present paper the early, intermediate, and advanced states of the Maillard reaction were studied in model systems by measuring loss of free amino acids through the decrease of fluorescence intensity with o-phtaldialdehyde (OPA), 5-Hydroximethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, glucosylisomaltol, fluorescence, and absorbance at 420 nm...
December 7, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229617/giant-esophageal-diverticulum-as-a-new-clinical-indication-for-endoscopic-gastrostomy
#3
Gonçalo Nunes, Carla Adriana Santos, Jorge Fonseca
Persistent mechanical or functional dysphagia is the most common clinical indication for endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), however less common conditions may justify prolonged enteral feeding to avoid malnutrition and prevent aspiration. The authors report the case of a 76 year old man referred to the artificial feeding outpatient clinic presenting dysphagia, malnutrition and several episodes of aspiration pneumonia. Upper endoscopy showed a giant esophageal diverticulum, ineffective peristalsis and transient lumen narrowing...
February 23, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228206/low-abdominal-wall-thickness-may-predict-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-complications
#4
Melissa K James, Vanessa P Ho, Simon P Tiu, Richard J Tom, Taylor R Klein, Gloria M Melnic, Sebastian D Schubl
Although percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement is a common and safe procedure to provide enteral feeding, some patients develop complications. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the development of post-PEG complications. We hypothesized that patients with low albumin, diabetes, higher body mass index (BMI), thicker abdominal walls, or psychomotor agitation would have more complications. A 2-year retrospective review was performed on patients who received a PEG tube at a single institution...
February 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224108/implementation-of-enteral-feeding-protocol-in-an-intensive-care-unit-before-and-after-study
#5
Martin Padar, Gerli Uusvel, Liis Starkopf, Joel Starkopf, Annika Reintam Blaser
AIM: To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS: An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013, a nurse-driven enteral feeding protocol was developed and implemented in the ICU. Nutrition and outcome-related data from patients who were treated in the study unit from 2011-2012 (the Before group) and 2014-2015 (the After group) were obtained from a local electronic database, the national Population Registry and the hospital's Infection Control Service...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224105/nutrient-stimulation-of-mesenteric-blood-flow-implications-for-older-critically-ill-patients
#6
REVIEW
Thu An Nguyen, Yasmine Ali Abdelhamid, Liza K Phillips, Leeanne S Chapple, Michael Horowitz, Karen L Jones, Adam M Deane
Nutrient ingestion induces a substantial increase in mesenteric blood flow. In older persons (aged ≥ 65 years), particularly those with chronic medical conditions, the cardiovascular compensatory response may be inadequate to maintain systemic blood pressure during mesenteric blood pooling, leading to postprandial hypotension. In older ambulatory persons, postprandial hypotension is an important pathophysiological condition associated with an increased propensity for syncope, falls, coronary vascular events, stroke and death...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215896/economic-trade-offs-between-genetic-improvement-and-longevity-in-dairy-cattle
#7
A De Vries
Genetic improvement in sires used for artificial insemination (AI) is increasing faster compared with a decade ago. The genetic merit of replacement heifers is also increasing faster and the genetic lag with older cows in the herd increases. This may trigger greater cow culling to capture this genetic improvement. On the other hand, lower culling rates are often viewed favorably because the costs and environmental effects of maintaining herd size are generally lower. Thus, there is an economic trade-off between genetic improvement and longevity in dairy cattle...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215197/growth-responses-of-entire-and-immunocastrated-male-pigs-to-dietary-protein-with-and-without-ractopamine-hydrochloride
#8
T Needham, L C Hoffman, R M Gous
The interaction between dietary balanced protein, ractopamine (RAC) and Improvac (IMP) on the growth response of 120 individually penned male PIC© pigs was evaluated. The pigs entered the trial at 16 weeks of age and were assigned to 12 treatments using a 2×2×3 factorial design. Three balanced protein diets, formulated with standard illeal digestible lysine levels of 7.50 (low), 9.79 (medium) and 12.07 g/kg (high), were fed from 20 weeks. Improvac was administered at 16 and 20 weeks, the booster being given 4 weeks before slaughter...
February 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209419/a-safety-and-pharmacokinetic-dosing-study-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-in-infants-with-intestinal-failure
#9
David L Sigalet, Mary E Brindle, Dana Boctor, Bryan Dicken, Viona Lam, Lily Sia Lu, Elaine de Heuvel, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogues are approved for adults with intestinal failure (IF), but no studies have included infants. This study examined the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in infants with IF. METHODS: With parental consent (Health Canada Protocol:150,979), parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants were treated with 5-20-μg/kg/day GLP-2 for 3days (phase 1), and if tolerated continued for 42days (phase 2)...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207376/hookworm-infection-in-south-american-fur-seal-arctocephalus-australis-pups
#10
M Seguel, F Muñoz, M J Navarrete, E Paredes, E Howerth, N Gottdenker
Tissues of South American fur seal pups naturally infected with hookworms ( Uncinaria sp) were examined. Hookworm infection was found in nearly all pups examined (132/140, 94%), and hookworm enteritis with secondary bacteremia was considered the cause of death in 46 (35%) pups. Common findings in these pups included severe hemorrhagic enteritis and numerous (mean intensity = 761.8) hookworms in the jejunum. Hookworms were recovered from the abdominal cavity in 12 of 55 pups (22%) examined through peritoneal wash; these pups had an average of 1343...
March 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203647/the-potential-of-blue-lupins-as-a-protein-source-in-the-diets-of-laying-hens
#11
Michael R F Lee, Sarah Parkinson, Hannah R Fleming, Vince J Theobald, Dave K Leemans, Tony Burgess
Layers diets typically contain 15-20% soya due to its high crude protein content (ca. 36%). Reliance on soya for protein can result in large increases in cost of feed due to the law of supply and demand as a global commodity. Lupin grains have high protein content (35-40%) but previous experience with white lupins has shown toxic effects in poultry due to high levels alkaloids and poor performance due to anti-nutritional Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Here blue lupins either processed or whole were trialled for their potential as a protein source...
December 2016: Veterinary and Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198203/enteral-administration-of-twice-daily-dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-as-a-part-of-a-triple-therapy-regimen-in-a-critically-ill-patient-with-hiv
#12
Sarah Lynn Turley, Patricia Pecora Fulco
The administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in intubated critically ill patients may be challenging. Limited pharmacokinetic data exist characterizing the effects of crushed ART with subsequent enteral administration on antiretroviral drug concentrations or the clinical impact on HIV virologic suppression. We report a case of a 27-year-old HIV-positive male with presumed multidrug-resistant HIV and a diagnosis of lymphoma who required enteral ART administration after intensive care unit admission. Crushed twice-daily dolutegravir (separated from enteral nutrition by 2 hours) and rilpivirine (concurrently with a bolus feed) were administered via an orogastric tube...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196568/human-milk-management-redesign-improving-quality-and-safety-and-reducing-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-nurse-stress
#13
Margaret Doyle Settle, Amanda Bulette Coakley, Christine Donahue Annese
Human milk provides superior nutritional value for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit and is the enteral feeding of choice. Our hospital used the system engineering initiative for patient safety model to evaluate the human milk management system in our neonatal intensive care unit. Nurses described the previous process in a negative way, fraught with opportunities for error, increased stress for nurses, and the need to be away from the bedside and their patients. The redesigned process improved the quality and safety of human milk management and created time for the nurses to spend with their patients...
February 1, 2017: Creative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195006/the-differential-effects-of-high-fat-and-high-fructose-diets-on-physiology-and-behavior-in-male-rats
#14
Lauren Woodie, Sarah Blythe
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study is to directly compare a diet high in fat with a diet high in fructose. This side-by-side comparison will allow us to determine the physiological and behavioral effects resulting from the consumption of a diet dominated by one macronutrient. METHODS: Rats were fed pelletized food containing either 60% fat or 55% fructose diet, or control chow (5.8% kcal of fat, 44.3% kcal carb) for 9 weeks. Animals performed a classic Morris Water Maze (MWM) and a reversal MWM to assess spatial and working memory near the end of the feeding period...
February 14, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194211/enteral-nutrition-for-optimal-growth-in-preterm-infants
#15
REVIEW
Myo-Jing Kim
Early, aggressive nutrition is an important contributing factor of long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. To ensure optimal growth in premature infants, adequate protein intake and optimal protein/energy ratio should be emphasized rather than the overall energy intake. Minimal enteral nutrition should be initiated as soon as possible in the first days of life, and feeding advancement should be individualized according to the clinical course of the infant. During hospitalization, enteral nutrition with preterm formula and fortified human milk represent the best feeding practices for facilitating growth...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190552/use-of-balloon-dilatation-for-management-of-postoperative-intestinal-strictures-in-children-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#16
Christina Belza, Kevin Fitzgerald, Joao Amaral, Karen Steinberg, Yaron Avitzur, Paul W Wales
PURPOSE: Children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) often require numerous operations to optimize intestinal function. Postoperative intestinal strictures are a complication that inhibits enteral feeding advancement and prolongs parenteral nutrition dependency, often requiring reoperation. Our objective was to review our experience with fluoroscopic balloon dilatation to treat intestinal strictures. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of intestinal failure patients with SBS was completed...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188079/current-practices-in-home-management-of-nasogastric-tube-placement-in-pediatric-patients-a-survey-of-parents-and-homecare-providers
#17
LaDonna Northington, Beth Lyman, Peggi Guenter, Sharon Y Irving, Lori Duesing
: Enteral feeding tubes are used in pediatric patients to deliver nutrition, fluids or medications. The literature related to short-term feeding tube (nasogastric [NG], hereafter known as NGT, or orogastric [OGT],) use in pediatric homecare patients is sparse. This descriptive study sought to gather baseline information about these children and how their feeding tubes are managed at home. Specifically, we sought to better understand how the tubes are placed and the method(s) used for tube placement verification...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188017/the-risk-of-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-in-human-food-and-animal-feed
#18
Bernhard Jank, Johannes Rath
Toxicity from naturally occurring plant pyrrolizidine alkaloids bears substantial risk to humans and livestock. Risk management strategies must focus on minimizing the likelihood of such alkaloids entering into the food chain. To address this challenge, we describe the role of a tiered risk characterization approach and specific farm management practices.
February 7, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185628/use-of-bedside-abdominal-ultrasound-to-confirm-intestinal-motility-in-neonates-with-gastroschisis-a-feasibility-study
#19
Lori A Gurien, Deidre L Wyrick, Melvin S Dassinger, Jeffrey M Burford, Steven C Mehl, Marie E Saylors, Samuel D Smith
BACKGROUND: Optimal timing to begin feeds in neonates with gastroschisis remains unclear. We examined if bedside abdominal ultrasound for intestinal motility is a feasible tool to detect return of bowel function in neonates with gastroschisis. METHODS: Neonates born with uncomplicated gastroschisis who underwent closure received daily ultrasound exams. Full motility was defined as peristalsis seen in all quadrants. Average length of time between abdominal wall closure and start of enteral feeds, full ultrasound motility, and clinical characteristics was compared using Student's t-tests...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181921/feed-induced-dystonias-in-children-with-severe-central-nervous-system-disorders
#20
Santosh Mordekar, Manjula Velayudhan, David I Campbell
Dystonias can arise from any painful stimuli in neurologically disabled children. Classically, feed induced dystonias from mediastinal pain due to severe gastroesophageal reflux disease are described as Sandifer's spasm. We report a case series of 12 severely neurologically impaired children with enteral feed induced dystonias. Intestinal dysmotility was demonstrated in several. Improvements are seen with jejunal feeds or gut rest with Total Parenteral Nutrition. Use of parenteral nutrition in children with severe neurodisability requires thorough discussion with patient groups and commissioners to give clinicians guidelines to standardise care...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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