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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913774/gravity-flow-in-proposed-enteral-tube-small-bore-connectors
#1
Ryan T Hurt, Lisa M Epp, Adele K Pattinson, Wanda M Duellman, Stephen M Corner, Manpreet S Mundi
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition (EN) misconnections have been identified as a serious and potential deadly problem. An international effort led by EN industry leaders has developed a small-bore enteral connector (ENFit) that in theory will reduce the frequency of misconnections. Despite the potential benefit of preventing misconnections, the full impact of adoption of the ENFit connector is unknown. To assess the impact of transitioning to ENFit on our home EN (HEN) patients, the current study evaluated gravity feeding comparing 2 proposed small-bore connectors to the legacy (current connector) using various commercial formulas...
December 2, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913762/aspen-felanpe-clinical-guidelines-nutrition-support-of-adult-patients-with-enterocutaneous-fistula
#2
Vanessa J Kumpf, Jose Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento, Jose Ignacio Diaz-Pizarro Graf, Amber M Hall, Liam McKeever, Ezra Steiger, Marion F Winkler, Charlene W Compher
BACKGROUND: The management of patients with enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) requires an interdisciplinary approach and poses a significant challenge to physicians, wound/stoma care specialists, dietitians, pharmacists, and other nutrition clinicians. Guidelines for optimizing nutrition status in these patients are often vague, based on limited and dated clinical studies, and typically rely on individual institutional or clinician experience. Specific nutrient requirements, appropriate route of feeding, role of immune-enhancing formulas, and use of somatostatin analogues in the management of patients with ECF are not well defined...
December 2, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911928/%C3%AE-glucans-and-resistant-starch-alter-the-fermentation-of-recalcitrant-fibers-in-growing-pigs
#3
Sonja de Vries, Walter J J Gerrits, Mirjam A Kabel, Thava Vasanthan, Ruurd T Zijlstra
Interactions among dietary ingredients are often assumed non-existent when evaluating the nutritive value and health effects of dietary fiber. Specific fibers can distinctly affect digestive processes; therefore, digestibility and fermentability of the complete diet may depend on fiber types present. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of readily fermentable fibers (β-glucans and resistant starch) on the degradation of feed ingredients containing more persistent, recalcitrant, fibers. Six semi-synthetic diets with recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal (pectic polysaccharides, xyloglucans, and cellulose) or corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS; (glucurono)arabinoxylans and cellulose) with or without inclusion of β-glucans (6%) or retrograded tapioca (40%) substituted for corn starch were formulated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909608/comparison-of-two-different-enteral-nutrition-protocol-in-critically-ill-patients
#4
Sibel Büyükçoban, Mert Akan, Uğur Koca, Merih Yıldız Eğlen, Meltem Çiçeklioğlu, Ömür Mavioğlu
OBJECTIVE: In this study, two enteral nutrition protocols with different gastric residual volumes (GRVs) and different monitoring intervals were compared with respect to gastrointestinal intolerance findings in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: The study was carried out prospectively in 60 patients in the anaesthesiology and reanimation ICU under mechanical ventilation support, who were scheduled to take enteral feeding. Patients were sequentially divided into two groups: Group 1, GRV threshold of 100 mL, and monitoring interval of 4 hours, and Group 2, GRV threshold of 200 mL, monitoring interval of 8 hours...
October 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908638/using-the-acmge-milestones-as-a-handover-tool-from-medical-school-to-surgery-residency
#5
Lauren M Wancata, Helen Morgan, Gurjit Sandhu, Sally Santen, David T Hughes
OBJECTIVE: To map current medical school assessments for graduating students to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones in general surgery, and to pass forward individual performance metrics on level 1 milestones to receiving residency programs. DESIGN: The study included 20 senior medical students who were accepted into surgery internship positions. Data from medical school performance assessments from the third-year surgery clerkship, fourth-year surgery rotations, fourth-year surgery boot camp, Clinical Competency Assessment Examination, and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and 2 examinations were used to map each student's competency assessments to the General Surgery Milestones based on a scoring system created and validated by independent assessors...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907206/intestinal-fluid-permeability-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-is-affected-by-dietary-protein-source
#6
Haibin Hu, Trond M Kortner, Karina Gajardo, Elvis Chikwati, John Tinsley, Åshild Krogdahl
In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907064/nad-is-a-food-component-that-promotes-exit-from-dauer-diapause-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Mykola Mylenko, Sebastian Boland, Sider Penkov, Julio L Sampaio, Benoit Lombardot, Daniela Vorkel, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Teymuras V Kurzchalia
The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans adapts its development to the availability of food. When food is scarce and population density is high, worms enter a developmentally arrested non-feeding diapause stage specialized for long-term survival called the dauer larva. When food becomes available, they exit from the dauer stage, resume growth and reproduction. It has been postulated that compound(s) present in food, referred to as the "food signal", promote exit from the dauer stage. In this study, we have identified NAD+ as a component of bacterial extract that promotes dauer exit...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903201/nutrition-in-the-intensive-care-unit-you-must-breathe-what-you-eat
#8
John F Cade, Daryl A Jones, Rinaldo Bellomo
The imprecision in prescribing of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients must result in occasions of overfeeding as well as underfeeding. Overfeeding could cause increased CO2 production and thus increased work of breathing and prolonged ventilator dependence. This possibility is supported by the limited relevant literature. We examined this possibility mathematically using the data in The Augmented versus Routine Approach to Giving Energy Trial (TARGET) feasibility study and in its main study protocol...
December 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902988/smell-and-taste-to-improve-nutrition-in-very-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#9
Friederike Beker, Gillian Opie, Elizabeth Noble, Yannan Jiang, Frank H Bloomfield
BACKGROUND: The perception of smell and taste, though present early in development, is not routinely considered in the care of preterm infants. Smell and taste are known to increase gut motility, insulin secretion, and the release of appetite, digestive and metabolic hormones. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of regular smell and taste on the time from birth to full enteral feeds, and the feasibility of the study protocol in very preterm infants. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, infants <29 weeks' postmenstrual age (PA) were assigned to receive either the smell and taste of milk before each feed or to have no exposure to the smell and taste of milk (control)...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898960/associations-among-methane-emission-traits-measured-in-the-feedlot-and-in-respiration-chambers-in-angus-cattle-bred-to-vary-in-feed-efficiency
#10
R M Herd, J I Velazco, P F Arthur, R F Hegarty
The objective of the study was to evaluate associations among animal performance and methane emission traits under feedlot conditions and in respiration chambers in Angus cattle bred to vary in residual feed intake (RFI), which is a measure of feed efficiency. Fifty-nine cattle were tested for feedlot RFI, of which 41 had methane production recorded on an ad libitum grain-based ration in the feedlot, 59 on a restricted grain-based ration in respiration chambers, and 57 on a restricted roughage ration in respiration chambers...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898854/enteric-methane-and-carbon-dioxide-emissions-measured-using-respiration-chambers-the-sulfur-hexafluoride-tracer-technique-and-a-greenfeed-head-chamber-system-from-beef-heifers-fed-alfalfa-silage-at-three-allowances-and-four-feeding-frequencies
#11
A Jonker, G Molano, C Antwi, G C Waghorn
The objective of this study was to determine methane (CH) and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions from 8 beef heifers (approximately 20 mo of age and 382 ± 24.3 kg BW) measured by respiration chambers and the sulfur hexafluoride (SF) tracer technique and a mobile head-chamber, spot-sampling system (GreenFeed; C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) when fed alfalfa silage at 3 feeding levels and 4 feeding frequencies. Feeding frequency may affect CH yield (g/kg DMI), and measurement systems (such as GreenFeed or SF) are needed to obtain accurate estimates of CH emissions from individual cattle under grazing where new pasture is provided once or twice daily...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895228/differences-in-durability-dislodgement-and-other-complications-with-use-of-low-profile-nonballoon-gastrostomy-tubes-in-children
#12
Temara Hajjat, Riad M Rahhal
BACKGROUND: Nonballoon low-profile gastrostomy tubes (GTs) are used for enteral nutrition support in a subset of pediatric patients with feeding difficulties when use of balloon GTs is problematic. Different nonballoon low-profile tube types are available, but comparative studies are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study comparing complications and outcomes between different low-profile nonballoon GTs at a pediatric tertiary care center over 10 years...
November 28, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893064/effect-of-increased-enteral-protein-intake-on-growth-in-human-milk-fed-preterm-infants-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Christoph Maas, Michaela Mathes, Christine Bleeker, Julia Vek, Wolfgang Bernhard, Cornelia Wiechers, Andreas Peter, Christian F Poets, Axel R Franz
Importance: Protein, supplied in currently available commercial fortifiers, may be inadequate to meet the requirements of very preterm infants; in addition, intraindividual and interindividual variability of human milk protein and energy content potentially contribute to unsatisfactory early postnatal growth. Objective: To determine effects on growth of different levels of enteral protein supplementation in predominantly human milk-fed preterm infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical and partially blinded single-center trial was conducted in a neonatal tertiary referral center in Germany...
November 21, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885561/outbreak-of-severe-pseudorabies-virus-infection-in-pig-offal-fed-farmed-mink-in-liaoning-province-china
#14
Hao Liu, Xin-Tong Li, Bo Hu, Xiao-Yu Deng, Lei Zhang, Shi-Zhen Lian, Hai-Ling Zhang, Shuang Lv, Xiang-Hong Xue, Rong-Guang Lu, Ning Shi, Ming-Hao Yan, Peng-Peng Xiao, Xi-Jun Yan
An outbreak of severe pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection in farmed mink occurred in northern China in late 2014, causing significant economic losses in the local fur industry. Here, we report the first case of a PRV outbreak in mink in northeastern China, caused by feeding farmed mink with raw pork or organs contaminated by PRV. Mink infected with virulent PRV exhibited diarrhea, neurologic signs, and higher mortality, which can be misdiagnosed as highly pathogenic mink enteritis virus (MEV), canine distemper virus (CDV), and food poisoning...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882304/metabolic-and-adaptive-immune-responses-induced-in-mice-infected-with-tissue-dwelling-nematode-trichinella-zimbabwensis
#15
N Onkoba, M J Chimbari, J M Kamau, S Mukaratirwa
Tissue-dwelling helminths are known to induce intestinal and systemic inflammation accompanied with host compensatory mechanisms to counter balance nutritional and metabolic deficiencies. The metabolic and immune responses of the host depend on parasite species and tissues affected by the parasite. This study investigated metabolic and immuno-inflammatory responses of mice infected with tissue-dwelling larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis and explored the relationship between infection, metabolic parameters and Th1/Th17 immune responses...
2016: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879173/residue-depletion-of-oxytetracycline-otc-and-4-epi-oxytetracycline-4-epi-otc-in-broiler-chicken-s-claws-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-ms
#16
J Cornejo, E Pokrant, D Araya, C Briceño, H Hidalgo, A Maddaleno, C Araya-Jordán, B San Martin
Antibiotics are widely used in poultry production for treatment of bacterial diseases. However, residues may remain in products and by-products destined for human consumption or animal feeding. The claws of chickens are a by-product from the poultry industry, which can directly or indirectly enter the food chain as meals destined to feed other productive animals. Thus, it becomes necessary to determine and quantify antimicrobial residues present in this matrix. The objective of the present study was to assess the depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its metabolite 4-epi-OTC in broiler chicken's claws...
November 23, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875285/what-is-best-achievable-practice-in-implementing-the-enhanced-protein-energy-provision-via-the-enteral-route-feeding-protocol-in-intensive-care-units-in-the-united-states-results-of-a-multicenter-quality-improvement-collaborative
#17
Daren K Heyland, Margot Lemieux, Lin Shu, Kristen Quisenberry, Andrew G Day
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine what was "best achievable practice" with the implementation of a novel enteral feeding protocol (Enhanced Protein-Energy Provision via the Enteral Route Feeding Protocol [PEP uP protocol]). METHODS: This study was a multicenter quality improvement collaborative wherein we describe nutrition practices and outcomes within PEP uP sites. We report the minimum, average, and maximal site-level performance on aspects related to nutrition practices and outcomes...
October 10, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872963/microbial-production-of-amino-acid-related-compounds
#18
Volker F Wendisch
Corynebacterium glutamicum is the workhorse of the production of proteinogenic amino acids used in food and feed biotechnology. After more than 50 years of safe amino acid production, C. glutamicum has recently also been engineered for the production of amino acid-derived compounds, which find various applications, e.g., as synthons for the chemical industry in several markets including the polymer market. The amino acid-derived compounds such as non-proteinogenic ω-amino acids, α,ω-diamines, and cyclic or hydroxylated amino acids have similar carbon backbones and functional groups as their amino acid precursors...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865490/effect-of-concentrate-supplementation-during-the-dry-period-on-colostrum-quality-and-effect-of-colostrum-feeding-regimen-on-passive-transfer-of-immunity-calf-health-and-performance
#19
A Dunn, A Ashfield, B Earley, M Welsh, A Gordon, M McGee, S J Morrison
The objectives were to evaluate the effect of (1) supplementing concentrates to multiparous Holstein cows during the dry period on colostral and milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration; and (2) feeding calves colostrum at either 5 or 10% of their body weight (BW) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance. Holstein multiparous cows (n = 37) were assigned to 1 of 2 nutritional treatments during an 8-wk dry period: (1) offered ad libitum grass silage only (GS) or (2) offered ad libitum access to the same grass silage plus concentrate [total mixed ration in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], providing a mean concentrate DM intake of 3...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865429/maternal-education-is-associated-with-disparities-in-breastfeeding-at-time-of-discharge-but-not-at-initiation-of-enteral-feeding-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#20
Lena Carolin Herich, Marina Cuttini, Ileana Croci, Francesco Franco, Domenico Di Lallo, Dante Baronciani, Katia Fares, Giancarlo Gargano, Massimiliano Raponi, Jennifer Zeitlin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between maternal education and breastfeeding in very preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, population-based cohort study analyzed the data of all very preterm infants admitted to neonatal care during 1 year in 3 regions in Italy (Lazio, Emilia-Romagna, and Marche). The use of mothers' own milk was recorded at initial enteral feedings and at hospital discharge. We used multilevel logistic analysis to model the association between maternal education and breastfeeding outcomes, adjusting for maternal age and country of birth...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
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