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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243034/application-of-pyridostigmine-in-pediatric-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders-a-case-series
#1
Mhd Louai Manini, Michael Camilleri, Rayna Grothe, Carlo Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are common in children. Treatment is challenging with limited medical and surgical options. Pyridostigmine, an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor, increases acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction promoting intestinal contractions. Little is known about the role and dosing of pyridostigmine in pediatric GI motility disorders. METHODS: We present a case series of children with GI dysmotility managed with oral pyridostigmine...
December 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240511/meeting-the-nutritional-needs-of-premature-babies-their-future-is-in-our-hands
#2
Arieh Riskin
The goals of early nutrition in preterm infants are to provide all the necessary vital nutrients, achieve extra-uterine growth rates similar to fetuses of the same gestational age, and support functional neurodevelopmental outcomes that are comparable to those of infants born at term. It is vital to provide nutrition that will maximally support brain growth and development, but over-feeding with accelerated growth, fat accumulation and long-term metabolic consequences should also be avoided. Because the morbidity associated with prematurity increases nutritional and energetic demands, the basic approach is of providing early intensive nutrition...
December 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240507/neonatal-jaundice-aetiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
Subhabrata Mitra, Janet Rennie
A significant proportion of term and preterm infants develop neonatal jaundice. Jaundice in an otherwise healthy term infant is the most common reason for readmission to hospital. Jaundice is caused by an increase in serum bilirubin levels, largely as a result of breakdown of red blood cells. Bilirubin is conveyed in the blood as 'unconjugated' bilirubin, largely bound to albumin. The liver converts bilirubin into a conjugated form which is excreted in the bile. Very high levels of unconjugated bilirubin are neurotoxic...
December 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236520/reply-to-letter-to-the-editor-regarding-permissive-underfeeding-or-standard-enteral-feeding-in-high-and-low-nutritional-risk-critically-ill-patients
#4
Yaseen M Arabi, Hani M Tamim, Musharaf Sadat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236518/letter-to-the-editor-regarding-permissive-underfeeding-or-standard-enteral-feeding-in-high-and-low-nutritional-risk-critically-ill-patients
#5
Charlene Compher, Niels D Martin, Daren K Heyland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232402/chagas-disease-vector-blood-meal-sources-identified-by-protein-mass-spectrometry
#6
Judith I Keller, Bryan A Ballif, Riley M St Clair, James J Vincent, M Carlota Monroy, Lori Stevens
Chagas disease is a complex vector borne parasitic disease involving blood feeding Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) insects, also known as kissing bugs, and the vertebrates they feed on. This disease has tremendous impacts on millions of people and is a global health problem. The etiological agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), is deposited on the mammalian host in the insect's feces during a blood meal, and enters the host's blood stream through mucous membranes or a break in the skin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232262/intermittent-versus-continuous-feeding-in-critically-ill-adults
#7
Jayshil J Patel, Martin D Rosenthal, Daren K Heyland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Early enteral nutrition is recommended in critically ill adult patients. The optimal method of administering enteral nutrition remains unknown. Continuous enteral nutrition administration in critically ill patients remains the most common practice worldwide; however, its practice has recently been called into question in favor of intermittent enteral nutrition administration, where volume is infused multiple times per day. This review will outline the key differences between continuous and intermittent enteral nutrition, describe the metabolic responses to continuous and intermittent enteral nutrition administration and outline recent studies comparing continuous with intermittent enteral nutrition administration on outcomes in critically ill adults...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230674/diet-and-activity-patterns-of-arsi-geladas-in-low-elevation-disturbed-habitat-south-of-the-rift-valley-at-indetu-ethiopia
#8
Kelil Abu, Addisu Mekonnen, Afework Bekele, Peter J Fashing
Understanding the basic natural history of threatened primate taxa is crucial to developing and implementing successful conservation strategies for them. Data on feeding ecology and activity patterns are particularly important for identifying the strategies through which primates invest time and foraging effort towards survival and reproduction at a given locale. Here, we report the results of the first study of the diet and activity budget of Arsi geladas, a population of < 1000 individuals endemic to a heavily disturbed region of the southern Ethiopian Highlands and believed to represent a new taxon of geladas...
December 11, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225081/enteral-nutrition-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-undergoing-chemoradiotherapy-for-esophageal-carcinoma-a-comparison-of-nasogastric-tube-esophageal-stent-and-ostomy-tube-feeding
#9
Fang-Jung Yu, Hsiang-Yao Shih, Chien-Yi Wu, Yun-Shiuan Chuan, Jui-Ying Lee, Hsien-Pin Li, Pen-Tzu Fang, Dong-Lin Tsai, Shah-Hwa Chou, I-Chen Wu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study prospectively recruited esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma patients who received esophageal stent, nasogastric tube (NG) or jejunostomy/gastrostomy feeding to compare the changes in nutritional status and quality of life during chemoradiation therapy (CRT). METHODS: In total, 81 patients were analyzed (stent 7, surgical ostomy 26, NG 19, oral intake 29). NG was inserted when despite medication dysphagia or pain worsened with oral feeding during CRT...
December 7, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224867/dairy-system-parity-and-lactation-stage-affect-enteric-methane-production-yield-and-intensity-per-kilogram-of-milk-and-cheese-predicted-from-gas-chromatography-fatty-acids
#10
Giovanni Bittante, Alessio Cecchinato, Stefano Schiavon
Ruminants (and milk production) contribute to global climate change through enteric methane emissions (EME), and any attempt to reduce them is complicated by the fact that they are difficult and expensive to measure directly. In the case of dairy cows, a promising indirect method of estimating EME is to use the milk fatty acid profile as a proxy, as a relationship exists between microbial activity in the rumen and the molecules available for milk synthesis in the mammary gland. In the present study, we analyzed the detailed fatty acid profiles (through gas chromatography) of a large number of milk samples from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows reared on 85 farms with the aim of testing in the field 2 equations for estimating EME taken from a published meta-analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224863/quantifying-fecal-shedding-of-mycobacterium-avium-ssp-paratuberculosis-from-calves-after-experimental-infection-and-exposure
#11
Caroline S Corbett, Herman W Barkema, Jeroen De Buck
Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), causes large economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. Fecal shedding of MAP contaminates the environment, feed, and water and contributes to new infections on farm, yet there is limited knowledge regarding mechanisms of shedding, extent of intermittent shedding, and numbers of MAP bacteria shed. The objectives were to (1) compare (in an experimental setting) the frequency at which intermittent shedding occurred and the quantity of MAP shed among pen mates that were inoculated or contact-exposed (CE); and (2) determine whether an association existed between inoculation dose and quantity of MAP shed...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222890/home-enteral-nutrition-after-minimally-invasive-esophagectomy-can-improve-quality-of-life-and-reduce-the-risk-of-malnutrition
#12
Zixiang Wu, Ming Wu, Qi Wang, Tianwei Zhan, Lian Wang, Saibo Pan, Gang Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The potential benefits of home enteral nutrition (HEN) and the effects of HEN on quality of life (QOL) after esophagectomy remain unclear. The aim was to investigate the effect of 3 months HEN on health related QOL and nutritional status of esophageal cancer patients who were preoperatively malnourished. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: 142 malnourished (PG-SGA stage B or C) patients with esophageal cancer were assigned to receive Ivor Lewis minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE group) with laparoscopic jejunal feeding tube placement or open esophagectomy (OE group) with nasojejunal feeding tube placement...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219857/a-literature-review-of-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-dealing-with-complications
#13
Hatice Pars, Hicran Çavuşoğlu
Sufficient energy and essential nutrients are vital for normal growth and development in childhood. Ideally, nutrition should be provided orally. However, if the gastrointestinal system is functional, enteral tube feeding can be used when nutritional requirements cannot be provided orally, thus providing nutritional benefits and enabling positive disease management in pediatric patients. Postoperative care in children allows monitoring of the position and functionality of the tube; performing nutrition intolerance, growth, hydration, and nutritional assessments; and performing metabolic and complication follow-ups...
December 6, 2017: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218832/necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-the-setting-of-milk-allergy-after-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#14
Soichi Narumoto, Seisuke Sakamoto, Hajime Uchida, Kengo Sasaki, Takanobu Shigeta, Akinari Fukuda, Shunsuke Nosaka, Rie Irie, Takako Yoshioka, Mureo Kasahara
NEC is an idiopathic intestinal mucosal injury that may progress to transmural bowel necrosis without mesenteric ischemia. NEC usually affects 7- to 10-day-old neonates following enteral feeding. A 10-month-old girl with no history of laparotomy underwent LDLT for acute liver failure. After starting enteral feeding on postoperative day 5, she developed abdominal distention. Diffuse PVG and PI were detected by radiologic modalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed patchy necrosis of the intestine without perforation...
December 7, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218657/comparison-of-laparoscopic-jejunostomy-tube-to-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-tube-with-jejunal-extension-long-term-durability-and-nutritional-outcomes
#15
Ivy N Haskins, Andrew T Strong, Mary Baginsky, Gautam Sharma, Matthew Karafa, Jeffrey L Ponsky, John H Rodriguez, Matthew D Kroh
INTRODUCTION: Enteral access through the jejunum is indicated when patients cannot tolerate oral intake or gastric feeding. While multiple approaches for feeding jejunal access exist, few studies have compared the efficacy of these techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term durability, re-intervention rates, and nutritional outcomes following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes with jejunal extension tubes (PEG-JET) versus laparoscopic jejunostomy tubes (j-tubes)...
December 7, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218064/non-diabetic-hyperglycemia-and-some-of-its-correlates-in-icu-hospitalized-patients-receiving-enteral-nutrition
#16
Mohammad Amin Valizadeh Hasanloei, Zahra Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Davoud Vahabzadeh, Zakaria Vahabzadeh, Leila Nasiri, Ali Shargh
Introduction: Hyperglycemia is a common occurrence in critically ill patients, and its prevalence in patients receiving nutritional support is much higher than in other patients. The non-diabetic form is associated with more undesirable outcomes. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of non-diabetic hyperglycemia and its correlates in patients receiving enteral nutrition. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed between March and December 2015...
September 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217669/maternal-choline-supplementation-during-the-third-trimester-of-pregnancy-improves-infant-information-processing-speed-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-feeding-study
#17
Marie A Caudill, Barbara J Strupp, Laura Muscalu, Julie E H Nevins, Richard L Canfield
Rodent studies demonstrate that supplementing the maternal diet with choline during pregnancy produces life-long cognitive benefits for the offspring. In contrast, the two experimental studies examining cognitive effects of maternal choline supplementation in humans produced inconsistent results, perhaps because of poor participant adherence and/or uncontrolled variation in intake of choline or other nutrients. We examined the effects of maternal choline supplementation during pregnancy on infant cognition, with intake of choline and other nutrients tightly controlled...
December 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216950/-effect-of-early-enteral-nutrition-standardized-treatment-on-blood-glucose-and-prognosis-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-patients-with-mechanical-ventilation
#18
Chunmiao Zhong, Chaohui Ji, Zhuquan Dai, Kai Fu, Xiaohong Wen, Huibin Pan
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of early entreat nutrition (EN) standardized treatment on optimization of blood glucose control and prognosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients with mechanical ventilation (MV). METHODS: Forty-two patients with MV of ARDS admitted to Huzhou First Municipal People's Hospital from April 2015 to March 2017 were enrolled. April 1st, 2016 was taken as the time node, the patients treated from April 1st, 2015 to March 31st, 2016 were assigned in the control group (n = 20), while the patients treated from April 1st, 2016 to March 31st, 2017 were included in the experimental group (n = 22)...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212397/growth-and-neurodevelopment-in-very-preterm-infants-receiving-a-high-enteral-volume-feeding-regimen-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Claus Klingenberg, Fredrik Kragh Muraas, Catherine Elde Isaksen, Tina Nilsen, Marte Torgersen, Cecilie Melum-Hansen
AIM: To evaluate a feeding regimen routinely providing > 180 ml/kg/d fortified human milk to very preterm infants and impact on in-hospital growth, osteopenia and neurodevelopment. METHOD: Retrospective population-based descriptive study of infants < 30-week gestation admitted within 24 h of birth and discharged during the 6-year period 2005 to 2010. Growth and neurodevelopment was assessed until 2 years corrected age, and cerebral palsy up to 4 years corrected age Results: Ninety-nine infants below 30-week gestation were admitted within 24 h of birth during the 6-year period, of which 84 (85%) survived to discharge...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211897/effect-of-yeast-cell-wall-on-the-growth-performance-and-gut-health-of-broilers-challenged-with-aflatoxin-b1-and-necrotic-enteritis
#20
N Liu, J Q Wang, S C Jia, Y K Chen, J P Wang
This study aimed to investigate the effect of yeast cell walls (YCW) on the growth performance, visceral lesions, intestinal integrity, enterotoxicity, and bacteria of broilers challenged with aflatoxin B1 (AF) and necrotic enteritis (NE) from 1 to 21 d of age. A total of 576 one-day-old broilers were assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 design for diets containing AFB1 (0 or 40 μg/kg), NE (challenged or unchallenged), or YCW (0 or 500 mg/kg). The main effect analysis showed that AF depressed (P < 0.01) average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily body weight gain (ADG), the mRNA profiles of polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), claudin-1, and occludin, but increased (P < 0...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
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