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enteral feeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928065/does-partial-replacement-of-corn-with-glycerin-in-beef-cattle-diets-affect-in-vitro-ruminal-fermentation-gas-production-kinetic-and-enteric-greenhouse-gas-emissions
#1
Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti, Mozart Alves Fonseca, Teshome Shenkoru, Marcos Inácio Marcondes, Eduardo Marostegan de Paula, Lorrayny Galoro da Silva, Antonio Pinheiro Faciola
Five in vitro experiments were conducted with the following objectives: 1) To evaluate the ruminal fermentation of three different single ingredients: corn, glycerin, and starch (Exp. 1 and 2); 2) To assess effects of partially replacing corn with glycerin in beef cattle diets on ruminal fermentation pattern (Exp. 3 and 4); and 3) To evaluate the effects of glycerin inclusion on the extension of ruminal DM digestibility of feeds with high (orchard hay) and low (corn) fiber content (Exp. 5). For Exp. 1 and 2, two in vitro systems (24-bottle AnkomRF and 20-serum bottles) were used in four consecutive fermentation batches to evaluate gas production (GP), fermentation profiles, enteric methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) of corn, glycerin, and starch...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926476/formula-versus-donor-breast-milk-for-feeding-preterm-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#2
REVIEW
Maria Quigley, Nicholas D Embleton, William McGuire
BACKGROUND: When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, alternative forms of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight (LBW) infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula. Donor breast milk may retain some of the non-nutritive benefits of maternal breast milk for preterm or LBW infants. However, feeding with artificial formula may ensure more consistent delivery of greater amounts of nutrients. Uncertainty exists about the balance of risks and benefits of feeding formula versus donor breast milk for preterm or LBW infants...
June 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924423/methods-of-enteral-nutrition-administration-in-critically-ill-patients-continuous-intermittent-cyclic-and-bolus-feeding
#3
REVIEW
Satomi Ichimaru
There are several methods of enteral nutrition (EN) administration, including continuous, cyclic, intermittent, and bolus techniques, which can be used either alone or in combination. Continuous feeding involves hourly administration of EN over 24 hours assisted by a feeding pump; cyclic feeding involves administration of EN over a time period of <24 hours generally assisted by a feeding pump; intermittent feeding involves administration of EN over 20-60 minutes every 4-6 hours via pump assist or gravity assist; and bolus feeding involves administration of EN over a 4- to 10-minute period using a syringe or gravity drip...
June 20, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924386/successful-identification-of-anatomical-markers-and-placement-of-feeding-tubes-in-critically-ill-patients-via-camera-assisted-technology-with-real-time-video-guidance
#4
Paul E Wischmeyer, Michelle M McMoon, Nathan H Waldron, Elizabeth J Dye
BACKGROUND: Enteral feeding via feeding tube (FT) provides essential nutrition support to critically ill patients or those who cannot intake adequate nutrition via the oral route. Unfortunately, 1%-2% of FTs placed blindly at bedside enter the airway undetected (as confirmed by x-ray), where they could result in adverse events. Misplaced FTs can cause complications including pneumothorax, vocal cord injury, bronchopleural fistula, pneumonia, and death. X-ray is typically performed to confirm FT placement before feeding, but may delay nutrition intake, may not universally identify misplacement, and adds cost and radiation exposure...
June 20, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924079/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-outcomes-and-complications-of-percutaneous-endoscopic-versus-radiologic-gastrostomy-for-enteral-feeding
#5
Denise Strijbos, Daniel Keszthelyi, Roel M M Bogie, Lennard P L Gilissen, Martin Lacko, Janneke G J Hoeijmakers, Christiaan van der Leij, Rogier de Ridder, Michiel W de Haan, Ad A M Masclee
BACKGROUND: The optimal technique for long-term enteral feeding has not yet been established. Both percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG) are widely used. Aim was to extensively review outcomes of PEG and PRG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane was performed, using standardized tools for assessing bias. Main outcomes were infectious and tube-related complications, procedure related and 30-day mortality...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923969/clinical-symptoms-laboratory-and-microbial-patterns-of-suspected-neonatal-sepsis-cases-in-a-children-s-referral-hospital-in-northwestern-iran
#6
Majid Mahallei, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Bahareh Mehramuz, Shayan Beheshtirooy, Babak Abdinia
Sepsis is the systemic response to infection manifested as hyperthermia or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and shock. This condition represents a major life-threatening factor in all age groups, particularly in neonatal period. The present study aimed to examine the results of blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine culture tests in suspected neonatal sepsis cases in northwestern Iran.This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on suspected neonatal sepsis cases hospitalized in Tabriz Children's Hospital...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922760/centralized-care-for-acute-pancreatitis-significantly-improves-outcomes
#7
Szilárd Gódi, Bálint Erőss, Zsuzsanna Gyömbér, Andrea Szentesi, Nelli Farkas, Andrea Párniczky, Patrícia Sarlós, Judit Bajor, József Czimmer, Alexandra Mikó, Katalin Márta, Roland Hágendorn, Zsolt Márton, Zsófia Verzár, László Czakó, Zoltán Szepes, Áron Vincze, Péter Hegyi
AIMS: In this observational study, we investigated whether specialized care improves outcomes for acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted to two university hospitals with AP were enrolled in this study between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2016 (Center A: specialized center; Center B: general hospital). Data on demographic characteristics and AP etiology, severity, mortality and quality of care (enteral nutrition and antibiotic use) were extracted from the Hungarian Acute Pancreatitis Registry...
June 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921825/a-review-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-the-gut-microbiome-insights-into-novel-mechanisms-of-secondary-brain-injury-and-promising-targets-for-neuroprotection
#8
REVIEW
Caroline S Zhu, Ramesh Grandhi, Thomas Tyler Patterson, Susannah E Nicholson
The gut microbiome and its role in health and disease have recently been major focus areas of research. In this review, we summarize the different ways in which the gut microbiome interacts with the rest of the body, with focus areas on its relationships with immunity, the brain, and injury. The gut⁻brain axis, a communication network linking together the central and enteric nervous systems, represents a key bidirectional pathway with feed-forward and feedback mechanisms. The gut microbiota has a central role in this pathway and is significantly altered following injury, leading to a pro-inflammatory state within the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921329/metabolomic-signatures-distinguish-the-impact-of-formula-carbohydrates-on-disease-outcome-in-a-preterm-piglet-model-of-nec
#9
Lee Call, Barbara Stoll, Berthe Oosterloo, Nadim Ajami, Fariha Sheikh, Anja Wittke, Rosaline Waworuntu, Brian Berg, Joseph Petrosino, Oluyinka Olutoye, Douglas Burrin
BACKGROUND: Major risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) include premature birth and formula feeding in the context of microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. We previously showed that feeding formula composed of lactose vs. corn syrup solids protects against NEC in preterm pigs; however, the microbial and metabolic effects of these different carbohydrates used in infant formula has not been explored. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize the effects of lactose- and corn syrup solid-based formulas on the metabolic and microbial profiles of preterm piglets and to determine whether unique metabolomic or microbiome signatures correlate with severity or incidence of NEC...
June 19, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915974/managing-a-positive-air-leak-test-during-a-gastrojejunostomy-revision
#10
Dvir Froylich, Matthew Davis, Gautam Sharma, Tammy Fouse, Philip Schauer, Stacy Brethauer
BACKGROUND: Gastrojejunostomy revision after gastric bypass surgery is a challenging procedure that requires advanced skills. The air-leak test was performed to identify gastrojejunostomy leaks. Omental patch seal technique is a well-known treatment of perforated gastrojejunostomy ulcers (Surg Obes Relat Dis 4:423-8, 2012; Surg Endosc 2:384-9, 2013; Surg Endosc 11:2110, 2007). METHODS: We present a case of a 40-year-old female, who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass 6 years prior and subsequently developed marginal ulcer, resulting in chronic gastrojejunostomy stricture...
June 18, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914737/measuring-gastric-residual-volumes-in-critically-ill-burn-patients-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
C H Pham, Z J Collier, W L Garner, C M Kuza, T J Gillenwater
PURPOSE: Measuring gastric residual volumes (GRV) is common in intensive care units (ICU) in patients receiving enteral nutrition (EN) and are a common source of feeding interruptions. Interruptions in EN yield adverse outcomes and are an area of improvement in burn care. The objectives of this study are to summarize the literature's ICU GRV practices and offer practical suggestions to GRV management in the burn patient. METHODS: PubMed, SCOPUS, and OvidSP Medline were systematically reviewed using the keywords: burns; thermal injury; gastric residual volume; enteral feeding; tube feeding; enteral nutrition; gastric intolerance; ICU; critical illness...
June 15, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911270/nano-delivery-of-trace-minerals-for-marine-fish-larvae-influence-on-skeletal-ossification-and-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-intestinal-transport-of-minerals-osteoblast-differentiation-and-oxidative-stress-response
#12
Genciana Terova, Simona Rimoldi, Marisol Izquierdo, Cristina Pirrone, Wafa Ghrab, Giovanni Bernardini
Currently, the larviculture of many marine fish species with small-sized larvae depends for a short time after hatching, on the supply of high-quality live zooplankton to ensure high survival and growth rates. During the last few decades, the research community has made great efforts to develop artificial diets, which can completely substitute live prey. However, studies aimed at determining optimal levels of minerals in marine larvae compound feeds and the potential of novel delivery vectors for mineral acquisition has only very recently begun...
June 17, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908681/the-impact-of-early-enteral-nutrition-on-pediatric-acute-respiratory-failure
#13
Amanda Haney, Emily Burritt, Christopher J Babbitt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Children who are critically ill undergo metabolic stress and it is important that they receive adequate calories and protein in order to recover. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on pediatric intensive care (PICU) patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on all patients admitted to a 20 bed PICU at a tertiary children's hospital over a 30 month period...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901824/optimization-of-surfactin-production-from-bacillus-subtilis-in-fermentation-and-its-effects-on-clostridium-perfringens-induced-necrotic-enteritis-and-growth-performance-in-broilers
#14
Yeong-Hsiang Cheng, Ning Zhang, Jin-Cheng Han, Ching-Wen Chang, Felix Shih-Hsiang Hsiao, Yu-Hsiang Yu
Bacillus species are commonly used as probiotics in the poultry feed industry for preventing infectious diseases and improving productivity by altering gastrointestinal microbiota. The growth parameters of Bacillus subtilis for surfactin production in fermentation and the benefits of surfactin on broiler chickens remain unclear. In this study, we examined the growth parameters of B. subtilis in fermentation and evaluated the effects of surfactin from B. subtilis-fermented products on Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis and growth performance in broilers...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901462/changing-paradigms-in-metabolic-support-and-nutrition-therapy-during-critical-illness
#15
Arthur R H van Zanten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the most recent advances in acute metabolic care and critical care nutrition. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research has demonstrated unknown consequences of high protein and amino acid administration in the early phase of ICU stay associated with dysregulated glucagon release leading to hepatic amino acid breakdown and suggested adverse effects on autophagy and long-term outcome. Progress has been made to measure body composition in the ICU...
June 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895410/fast-and-accurate-separation-of-the-paclitaxel-from-yew-extracum-by-a-pseudo-simulated-moving-bed-with-solvent-gradient
#16
Feng Wei, Licheng Shi, Qiang Wang, Yingxian Zhao
A pseudo simulated moving bed (SMB) with solvent gradient was used to trap and separate paclitaxel from yew extracum. This SMB process consisted of three steps: feeding, purification and recovery. In comparison with methanol/water as an eluent, acetonitrile/water could give a better separation but had a poor dissolubility of the yew extracum, and therefore methanol/water was used in the feeding followed by acetonitrile/water in the purification. In the first two steps, water was deliberately added into zone III to modulate the eluotropic strength of the liquid entering zone III, so as to make paclitaxel separation from impurities be more efficient...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895309/very-high-intact-protein-formula-successfully-provides-protein-intake-according-to-nutritional-recommendations-in-overweight-critically-ill-patients-a-double-blind-randomized-trial
#17
Arthur R H van Zanten, Laurent Petit, Jan De Waele, Hans Kieft, Janneke de Wilde, Peter van Horssen, Marianne Klebach, Zandrie Hofman
BACKGROUND: Optimal energy and protein provision through enteral nutrition is essential for critically ill patients. However, in clinical practice, the intake achieved is often far below the recommended targets. Because no polymeric formula with sufficient protein content is available, adequate protein intake can be achieved only by supplemental amino acids or semi-elemental formula administration. In the present study, we investigated whether protein intake can be increased with a new, very high intact-protein formula (VHPF) for enteral feeding...
June 12, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891594/risk-factors-for-gastrointestinal-colonization-and-acquisition-of-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-among-patients-in-intensive-care-units-in-thailand
#18
Anong Kiddee, Kanit Assawatheptawee, Anamai Na-Udom, Pornpit Treebupachatsakul, Apirath Wangteeraprasert, Timothy R Walsh, Pannika R Niumsup
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative Bacteria (CR-GNB) colonization and acquisition among patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in two tertiary care hospitals in Northern Thailand. Rectal swab screening for CR-GNB was performed on patients at ICU admission and discharge. Phenotypes and genotypes of all isolates were determined. Risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Overall, carriage rates of CR-GNB at admission was 11...
June 11, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891366/histopathological-effects-of-pedunsaponin-a-on-pomacea-canaliculata
#19
Chunping Yang, Yue Tian, Tianxing Lv, Xiaoli Chang, Min Zhang, Guoshu Gong, Liulan Zhao, Song Yang, Huabao Chen
Pedunsaponin A, a novel molluscicidal compound isolated from Pueraria peduncularis, exhibits strong toxicity against Pomacea canaliculata. To determine the mechanisms of Pedunsaponin A toxicity, its effects on the organs and hemocytes of P. canaliculata were examined in this study. The results showed that Pedunsaponin A had significant toxic effects on different organs of the snail, including the lungs, gills, mantle, siphon tube, ventricle, pericardial cavity, hepatopancreas, kidneys, and the major symptom of this toxicity was the loss of cilia in the lungs and gills...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888226/three-month-feeding-integration-with-bifidobacterium-strains-prevents-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-healthy-newborns
#20
Irene Aloisio, Flavia Prodam, Enza Giglione, Nicole Bozzi Cionci, Arianna Solito, Simonetta Bellone, Loredana Baffoni, Luca Mogna, Marco Pane, Gianni Bona, Diana Di Gioia
Infantile functional gastrointestinal disorders are common in the first months of life. Their pathogenesis remains unknown although evidences suggest multiple independent causes, including gut microbiota modifications. Feeding type, influencing the composition of intestinal microbiota, could play a significant role in the pathogenesis. Previous studies supported probiotic supplementation success against colics, however mainly Lactobacillus spp. were tested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness against functional gastrointestinal disorders of a Bifidobacterium breve based probiotic formulation including in the study both breast-fed and bottle-fed subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
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