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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056692/raw-meat-based-diets-in-dogs-and-cats
#1
Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Tiina Heikkilä, Noora Pernu, Sara Kovanen, Anna Hielm-Björkman, Rauni Kivistö
Feeding pets raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) is commonly practiced by many companion animal owners and has received increasing attention in recent years. It may be beneficial for the animals, but may also pose a health risk for both pets and their owners, as RMBDs may be contaminated by enteric pathogens-such as Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia-which are the most common zoonotic bacteria causing enteritis in humans. Little information exists on the prevalence of these pathogens in pet food, and thus one aim was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia in commercial RMBDs from retail stores...
June 28, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055487/outcomes-for-thoracoscopic-versus-open-repair-of-small-to-moderate-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernias
#2
Cory N Criss, Megan A Coughlin, Niki Matusko, Samir K Gadepalli
INTRODUCTION: Indications for thoracoscopic versus open approaches to repair congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are unclear as the variability in defect size, disease severity and patient characteristics pose a challenge. Few studies use a patient and disease-matched comparison of techniques. We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of open versus thoracoscopic repairs of small to moderate sized hernia defects in a low risk population. METHODS: All neonates receiving CDH repair of small (type A) and moderate (type B) size defects at an academic children's hospital between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054835/a-strategy-to-reduce-critical-cardiorespiratory-alarms-due-to-intermittent-enteral-feeding-of-preterm-neonates-in-intensive-care
#3
Rohan Joshi, Carola van Pul, Anouk Sanders, Hans Weda, Jan Willem Bikker, Loe Feijs, Peter Andriessen
BACKGROUND: Many preterm infants require enteral feeding as they cannot coordinate sucking, swallowing, and breathing. In enteral feeding, milk feeds are delivered through a small feeding tube passed via the nose or mouth into the stomach. Intermittent milk feeds may either be administered using a syringe to gently push milk into the infant's stomach (push feed) or milk can be poured into a syringe attached to the tube and allowed to drip in by gravity (gravity feed). This practice of enteral feeding is common in neonatal intensive care units...
October 20, 2017: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048409/maternal-milk-feedings-reduce-sepsis-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-improve-outcomes-of-premature-infants
#4
J Cortez, K Makker, D F Kraemer, J Neu, R Sharma, M L Hudak
OBJECTIVE: Human milk (donor milk (DM) and/or maternal milk (MM)) feedings protect against late onset sepsis (LOS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death. However, DM lacks many anti-infective components of MM. Therefore, we studied exclusive MM feedings to evaluate the full effect of human milk on infectious and other outcomes in premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: All infants born before 33 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) who received exclusive (>95%) MM or exclusive preterm formula (PF) were included in this prospective investigation...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043569/nutritional-support-and-parenteral-nutrition-in-cancer-patients-an-expert-consensus-report
#5
REVIEW
J A Virizuela, M Camblor-Álvarez, L M Luengo-Pérez, E Grande, J Álvarez-Hernández, M J Sendrós-Madroño, P Jiménez-Fonseca, M Cervera-Peris, M J Ocón-Bretón
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a frequent medical problem of cancer patients that negatively impacts their quality of life. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group of experts in Medical Oncology, Pharmacy, and Nutrition convened to discuss the management of the nutritional support in cancer patients. RESULTS: Of the 18 questions addressed, 9 focused on nutritional support, 5 were related to parenteral nutrition (PN) and 4 about home PN (HPN). The panel of experts recommends using nutritional screening routinely, at diagnosis and throughout the disease course, for detecting the risk of malnutrition and, if it is positive, to perform a complete nutritional assessment, to diagnose malnutrition...
October 17, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040820/systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-enteral-feeding-on-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants
#6
Wanli Xu, Michelle Judge, Kendra Maas, Naveed Hussain, Jacqueline M McGrath, Wendy A Henderson, Xiaomei Cong
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of feeding type on microbial patterns among preterm infants and to identify feeding factors that promote the colonization of beneficial bacteria. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, and the Cummulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature were thoroughly searched for articles published between January 2000 and January 2017, using the keywords gut microbiome, gut microbiota, enteral microbiome, enteral microbiota, premature infant, preterm infant, extremely low birth weight infant, ELBW infant, very low birth weight infant, feeding, breast milk, breastfeeding, formula, prebiotic, probiotic, and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039295/effects-of-feeding-low-fishmeal-diets-with-increasing-soybean-meal-levels-on-growth-gut-histology-and-plasma-biochemistry-of-sea-bass
#7
E Bonvini, A Bonaldo, L Mandrioli, R Sirri, F Dondi, C Bianco, R Fontanillas, F Mongile, P P Gatta, L Parma
The aquaculture industry depends upon the development of sustainable protein sources to replace fishmeal (FM) in aquafeeds and the products derived from soybeans are some of the most studied plant feedstuffs. A key area of investigation for continuing to improve modern aquafeeds includes the evaluation of varying proportions and combinations of plant ingredients to identify mixtures that are more efficiently utilized by the fish. This study investigated the effects of increasing soybean meal (SBM) by replacing a mix of plant ingredients in low FM (20%) diets on growth, blood biochemistry profile and gut histology on European sea bass...
October 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037264/cold-acclimation-increases-cold-tolerance-independently-of-diapause-programing-in-the-bean-bug-riptortus-pedestris
#8
J Rozsypal, M Moos, S G Goto
The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) is a pest of soybeans and other legumes in Japan and other Asian countries. It enters a facultative adult diapause on exposure to short days. While photoperiodism and diapause are well understood in R. pedestris, knowledge of cold tolerance is very limited, as is information on the effect of diapause on cold tolerance. We examined the effect of photoperiod, cold acclimation, and feeding status on cold tolerance in R. pedestris. We found that cold acclimation significantly increased survival at -10°C in both long- and short-day adult R...
October 17, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034711/electromagnetically-guided-bedside-placement-of-post-pyloric-feeding-tubes-in-critical-care
#9
Danielle E Bear, Alice Champion, Katie Lei, Luigi Camporota, Nicholas A Barrett
Post-pyloric feeding is recommended in critically ill patients with gastro-intestinal intolerance. However, traditional placement methods are logistically difficult and carry potential risks. The authors retrospectively compared the position of post-pyloric feeding tubes (PPFTs) using an electromagnetic device that demonstrated by X-ray and analysed the complication rates, proportion of lung placements avoided and the time taken to establish enteral feeding. Forty placements in 37 mechanically ventilated patients were analysed; there was a success rate of 87...
October 12, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034175/refining-low-protein-modular-feeds-for-children-on-low-protein-tube-feeds-with-organic-acidaemias
#10
A Daly, S Evans, C Ashmore, S Chahal, S Santra, A MacDonald
Children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) who are dependent on tube feeding and require a protein restriction are commonly fed by 'modular tube feeds' consisting of several ingredients. A longitudinal, prospective two-phase study, conducted over 18 months assessed the long-term efficacy of a pre-measured protein-free composite feed. This was specifically designed to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children (aged over 1 year) with organic acidaemias on low protein enteral feeds and to be used as a supplement with an enteral feeding protein source...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032966/safety-and-efficacy-of-uninterrupted-perioperative-enteral-feeding-in-pediatric-burn-patients
#11
Folasade Imeokparia, Morgan Johnson, Rajan K Thakkar, Sheila Giles, Teresa Capello, Renata Fabia
INTRODUCTION: Burn injuries are a significant cause of morbidity. Early enteral nutrition has been shown to improve outcomes, however enteral nutrition is often held for procedures receiving general anesthesia. Limited data is available on uninterrupted perioperative nutrition in pediatric burn patients. METHODS: A single, American Burn Association verified burn center database was queried for patients ≤18 years of age with ≥15% total body surface area (TBSA) burn injuries who underwent surgeries with general anesthesia...
October 9, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032617/emerging-issues-in-complementary-feeding-global-aspects
#12
Kim F Michaelsen, Laurence Grummer-Strawn, France Bégin
The complementary feeding period (6-24 months) is a window of opportunity for preventing stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity and for improving long-term development and health. Because WHO published its guiding principles for complementary feeding in 2003, new knowledge and evidence have been generated in the area of child feeding. The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the emerging issues in complementary feeding and potential implications on the guidelines revision. Evidence on the effect of the quality and quantity of protein and fat intake on child growth during the complementary feeding period is summarized...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030744/peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine-3-36-reduces-meal-size-and-activates-the-enteric-neurons-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#13
Kayla D Newman, Thaer R Mhalhal, Martha C Washington, John C Heath, Ayman I Sayegh
BACKGROUND: Peptide tyrosine tyrosine 3-36 (peptide YY 3-36 or PYY 3-36) reduces food intake by unknown site(s). AIM: To test the hypothesis that the gastrointestinal tract contains sites of action regulating meal size (MS) and intermeal interval (IMI) length by PYY 3-36. METHODS: Peptide YY 3-36 (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 nmol/kg) was injected in the aorta, the artery that supplies the gastrointestinal tract, prior to the onset of the dark cycle in free feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats and food intake was measured...
October 13, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027698/buffalo-heifers-selected-for-lower-residual-feed-intake-have-lower-feed-intake-better-dietary-nitrogen-utilisation-and-reduced-enteric-methane-production
#14
V K Sharma, S S Kundu, C Datt, S Prusty, M Kumar, U B Sontakke
This study was conducted to evaluate the utilisation of the residual feed intake (RFI) as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with methane emissions. Eighteen Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers were fed ad libitum with total mixed ration (TMR) for 120 days. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size (MBW(0.75) ), heifers were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.09 to +0.12 kg DM/day with average RFI of -0...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027657/practical-issues-of-nutrition-during-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#15
Dariusz Onichimowski, Radosław Goraj, Rakesh Jalali, Jolanta Grabala, Ewa Mayzner-Zawadzka, Mirosław Czuczwar
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients has significant impact on one's ability to provide efficient nutritional therapy. CRRT may help in the prevention of intestinal oedema and the maintenance of the proper function of the gastrointestinal tract by enabling strict control of the fluid balance. It facilitates early introduction of nutrition via the enteral route, as well as allowing for the composition of high-volume feeding mixtures. It is necessary to take into consideration that during CRRT, together with blood purification of toxic substances, nutritive elements are also eliminated to some extent (micro- and macronutrients)...
October 13, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026096/plane-of-nutrition-affects-the-phylogenetic-diversity-and-relative-abundance-of-transcriptionally-active-methanogens-in-the-bovine-rumen
#16
Emily McGovern, Matthew S McCabe, Paul Cormican, Milka Popova, Kate Keogh, Alan K Kelly, David A Kenny, Sinead M Waters
Methane generated during enteric fermentation in ruminant livestock species is a major contributor to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. A period of moderate feed restriction followed by ad libitum access to feed is widely applied in cattle management to exploit the animal's compensatory growth potential and reduce feed costs. In the present study, we utilised microbial RNA from rumen digesta samples to assess the phylogenetic diversity of transcriptionally active methanogens from feed-restricted and non-restricted animals...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025434/minimum-dietary-diversity-and-associated-factors-among-children-aged-6-23%C3%A2-months-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#17
Dagmawit Solomon, Zewdie Aderaw, Teketo Kassaw Tegegne
BACKGROUND: Dietary diversity has long been recognized as a key element of high quality diets. Minimum Dietary Diversity (MDD) is the consumption of four or more food groups from the seven food groups. Globally, only few children are receiving nutritionally adequate and diversified foods. More than two-thirds of malnutrition related child deaths are associated with inappropriate feeding practice during the first two years of life. In Ethiopia, only 7 % of children age 6-23 months had received the minimum acceptable diet...
October 12, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025081/the-long-term-effects-of-early-oral-feeding-following-minimal-invasive-esophagectomy
#18
Gijs H K Berkelmans, Laura Fransen, Teus J Weijs, Merel Lubbers, Grard A P Nieuwenhuijzen, Jelle P Ruurda, Ewout A Kouwenhoven, Marc J van Det, Camiel Rosman, Richard van Hillegersberg, Misha D P Luyer
A nil-by-mouth regime with enteral nutrition via an artificial route is frequently applied following esophagectomy. However, early initiation of oral feeding could potentially improve recovery and has shown to be beneficial in many types of abdominal surgery. Although short-term nutritional safety of oral intake after an esophagectomy has been documented, long-term effects of this feeding regimen are unknown. In this cohort study data from patients undergoing minimal invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy between 04-2012 and 09-2015 in three centers in The Netherlands were collected...
August 31, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024213/the-newborn-rat-gastric-emptying-rate-is-volume-and-not-developmentally-dependent
#19
C H F Ferreira, Y Shifrin, J Pan, J Ivanovska, P J McNamara, J Belik
BACKGROUND: Gastric residuals are a common finding in enterally fed preterm neonates and traditionally thought to reflect immaturity-related delayed gastric emptying. Adult human data suggest that the meal volume regulate the gastric emptying rate, but early in life, this has not been adequately evaluated. The goal of this study was to study the rat postnatal changes in gastric emptying rate and the strain-induced effect on muscle contraction. We hypothesized that the stomach content volume and not developmental factors determines the newborn gastric emptying rate, via the Rho-kinase 2 (ROCK-2) pathway...
October 11, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023191/use-of-nasogastric-feeding-tubes-for-children-at-home-a-template-for-caregiver-education
#20
Beth Lyman, Gina Rempel, Kerrin Windsor, Peggi Guenter
There is a lack of knowledge on the part of caregivers who need to place nasogastric (NG) tubes in children for enteral nutrition therapy. This article provides the rationale, best practices, and a template for caregiver education. Canadian and Australian programs have excellent patient education materials. They have shared these step-by-step procedures for healthcare professionals to provide to caregivers to whom they are teaching placement and care of NG tubes.
October 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
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