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brain damage

Varinder Singh, Pawan Krishan, Richa Shri
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in ischemia reperfusion (IR)-mediated functional and neuronal impairment. Therefore, strategies employing antioxidants to reverse the damage due to IR are being investigated. Allium schoenoprasum L. is a culinary medicine whose antioxidant properties are well documented but whose neuroprotective potential has not been examined. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of A. schoenoprasum leaf extract (ASLE) on functional deficit against IR-induced cerebral injury in mice...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Yanier Nuñez-Figueredo, Jeney Ramírez-Sánchez, Gilberto L Pardo Andreu, Estael Ochoa-Rodríguez, Yamila Verdecia-Reyes, Diogo O Souza
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Thrombolysis by tissue plasminogen activator is the only pharmacological treatment approved for clinical practice, but has a narrow therapeutic window and poor efficacy when the cell death cascade is activated. Numerous drugs that are thought to protect neurons against injury have previously failed in human trials despite showing efficacy in experimental models of stroke. Herein, we reviewed the main pre-clinical results of the neuroprotective effects of JM-20, a new hybrid molecule, against brain ischemia...
February 12, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Yutaka Mine, Toshihiko Momiyama, Takuro Hayashi, Takeshi Kawase
Although recent progress in the use of human iPS cell-derived midbrain dopaminergic progenitors is remarkable, alternatives are essential in the strategies of treatment of basal-ganglia-related diseases. Attention has been focused on neural stem cells (NSCs) as one of the possible candidates of donor material for neural transplantation, because of their multipotency and self-renewal characteristics. In the present study, miniature-swine (mini-swine) mesencephalic neuroepithelial stem cells (M-NESCs) of embryonic 17 and 18 days grafted in the parkinsonian rat striatum were assessed immunohistochemically, behaviourally and electrophysiologically to confirm their feasibility for the neural xenografting as a donor material...
June 19, 2018: Neuroscience
Caitlin Hilverman, Sharice Clough, Melissa C Duff, Susan Wagner Cook
During conversation, people integrate information from co-speech hand gestures with information in spoken language. For example, after hearing the sentence, "A piece of the log flew up and hit Carl in the face" while viewing a gesture directed at the nose, people tend to later report that the log hit Carl in the nose (information only in gesture) rather than in the face (information in speech). The cognitive and neural mechanisms that support the integration of gesture with speech are unclear. One possibility is that the hippocampus - known for its role in relational memory and information integration - is necessary for integrating gesture and speech...
June 19, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Liang Shu, Ben Chen, Bin Chen, Hai Xu, Guoxiang Wang, Yian Huang, Yingya Zhao, Hui Gong, Min Jiang, Lidian Chen, Xu Liu, Yun Wang
Ischemic stroke not only induces neuron death in the infarct area but also structural and functional damage of the surviving neurons in the surrounding peri-infarct area. In the present study, we first identified cofilin rod, a pathological rod-like aggregation, formed in neurons of in vivo ischemic stroke animal model and induced neuronal impairment. Cofilin rods formed only on the ipsilateral side of the middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO-R) rat brain and showed the highest density in peri-infarct area...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Qunqun Bao, Ping Hu, Yingying Xu, Tiansheng Cheng, Chenyang Wei, Limin Pan, Jianlin Shi
Cerebral vasculature and neuronal networks will be largely destroyed due to the oxidative damages by over-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) during stroke, accompanied by the symptoms of ischemic injury and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Ceria nanoparticles, acting as an effective and recyclable ROS scavenger, have been showing high effectiveness in neuroprotection. However, the brain access of nanoparticles can only be achieved by targeting the damaged area of BBB, leading to the disrupted BBB unprotected and turbulence of microenvironment in brain...
June 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Matt Higger, Martha Shenton, Sylvain Bouix
Because mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (mTBI) are heterogeneous, classification methods perform outlier detection from a model of healthy tissue. Such a model is challenging to construct. Instead, we utilize region-specific pairwise (person-to-person) comparisons. Each person-region is characterized by a distribution of Fractional Anisotropy and comparisons are made via Median, Mean, Bhattacharya and Kullback-Liebler distances. Additionally, we examine an ordinal decision rule which compares a subject's nth most atypical region to a healthy control's...
2018: Brainlesion: glioma, multiple sclerosis, stroke and traumatic brain injuries: third International Workshop, BrainLes 2017, held in conjunction with MICCAI 2017, Quebec City, QC, Canada, September 14, 2017, Revised selected papers
Valeria Isella, Stefano Giuseppe Grisanti, Francesca Ferri, Sabrina Morzenti, Cinzia Crivellaro, Monica Musarra, Carlo Ferrarese
BACKGROUND: Cognitively stimulating life experiences and activities are deemed to moderate the clinical impact of brain damage progressively building a neural and cognitive reserve (CR). CR has been studied extensively in various neurodegenerative disorders, but not in Corticobasal degeneration (CBD). METHODS: Using SPM8 we correlated years of education, as determinant of cognitive reserve, with tracer uptake on FDG-PET, as marker of neurodegeneration, in 35 patients with various phenotypes of CBD, including a cognitive-motor composite score or symptoms duration as covariates for controlling disease stage...
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Yongjie Xu, Xiaodan Lai, Zhipeng Li, Xiquan Zhang, Qingbin Luo
The differences in physiological and immunological parameters and pathological damage to organ tissues exposed to chronic heat stress provide the basis for evaluating heat resistance of different chicken breeds (white recessive rock [WRR] and The Lingshan [LS]). Ninety broilers of each breed were divided equally into a chronic heat stress group and a no heat stress group. The effects of chronic heat stress on the physiological and immunological parameters of broilers were analyzed using flow cytometry, ELISA, RT-qPCR, etc...
June 20, 2018: Poultry Science
María E Rivarola, Soledad de Olmos, Guillermo Albrieu-Llinás, Laura B Tauro, Melisa Gorosito-Serrán, Brenda S Konigheim, Marta S Contigiani, Adriana Gruppi
Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a neglected flavivirus that causes severe neurological disorders. The epidemic strain of SLEV, CbaAr-4005, isolated during an outbreak in Córdoba city (Argentina), causes meningitis and encephalitis associated with neurological symptoms in a murine experimental model. Here, we identified the affected brain areas and the damage triggered by this neurotropic arbovirus. We performed a detailed analysis of brain neurodegeneration associated with CbaAr-4005 SLEV infection in mice...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maria Osminina, Nathalia Geppe, Elena Afonina
Case history of a small girl outlet with epilepsy, followed by scleroderma skin damage and uveitis, neurovasculitis with white matter foci in brain on the side of skin lesion in two months, immunologic disease activity. Resistance to conventional immunosuppressive therapy forced us to initiate the treatment with tocilizumab. It was well tolerated and led to significant improvement of brain, ocular and skin manifestations.
June 18, 2018: Reumatología Clinica
Fabiola Paciello, Maria Vittoria Podda, Rolando Rolesi, Sara Cocco, Laura Petrosini, Diana Troiani, Anna Rita Fetoni, Gaetano Paludetti, Claudio Grassi
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool capable to modulate cortical functions by affecting neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated the effects of anodal tDCS on auditory cortex (ACx) in normal-hearing rats and following a paradigm of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), that causes morphological alterations in ACx pyramidal neurons. METHODS: Male rats exposed to intense pure tone (10 kHz) were subsequently subjected to unilateral anodal tDCS of ACx and changes in dendritic morphology and spines were assessed by Golgi-Cox staining 30 days after the onset of the acoustic trauma...
May 31, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Nadeem, Syed Amir Gilani, Shaista Khan, Muhammad Wasim Sajid, Rai Muhammad Amir
Olive fruit is a significant and promising source of potential bioactive compounds such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol (HT). It is the main glycoside in olives, the degradation of which results in the formation of hydroxytyrosol in olive oil. Both plays a significant role in the reduction of coronary heart diseases and a certain type of cancers. Both olive oil phenols have an effective role counter to cell proliferation, cell growth, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Matthew McMillin, Stephanie Grant, Gabriel Frampton, Anca D Petrescu, Jessica Kain, Elaina Williams, Rebecca Haines, Lauren Canady, Sharon DeMorrow
Background & Aims: Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious neurologic complication of acute and chronic liver diseases. We previously showed that aberrant bile acid signaling contributes to the development of hepatic encephalopathy via farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated mechanisms in neurons. In the brain, a novel alternative bile acid synthesis pathway, catalyzed by cytochrome p450 46A1 (Cyp46A1), is the primary mechanism by which the brain regulates cholesterol homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine if FXR activation in the brain altered cholesterol homeostasis during hepatic encephalopathy...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sarah McGlasson, Stewart Wiseman, Joanna Wardlaw, Neeraj Dhaun, David P J Hunt
The brain and nervous system are important targets for immune-mediated damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), resulting in a complex spectrum of neurological syndromes. Defining nervous system disease in lupus poses significant challenges. Among the difficulties to be addressed are a diversity of clinical manifestations and a lack of understanding of their mechanistic basis. However, despite these challenges, progress has been made in the identification of pathways which contribute to neurological disease in SLE...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Wallace Jones, William Silkworth, Nathaniel Dusto, Victoria S Pelak, Jean Berliner, Isabelle Buard, Benzi Kluger
Here we present a patient with persistent central visual oscillopsia, review the literature on this condition, and report results from an experimental intervention using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. A 57-year-old man reported persistent visual oscillopsia after a traumatic brain injury suffered 20 years earlier. Symptoms were presumed to be of cortical origin given his normal eye movements, eye stability, and peripheral vestibular function. Furthermore, he reported oscillopsia with visual imagery during eye closure...
June 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Kowsar Bavarsad, Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini, Roghayeh Pakdel, Farimah Beheshti, Soleyman Bafadam, Zeinab Ashaari
The effect of levothyroxine (L-T4) on the learning and memory impairment induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and brain tissue oxidative damage in rats was evaluated. An animal model of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) was established by intracerebroventricular injection of STZ (3 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats (250 ± 50 g). After that, the rats were treated for 3 weeks with L-T4 (10, 100 μg/kg) or normal saline. Passive avoidance (PA) learning and spatial memory were evaluated using shuttle box and Morris water maze (MWM), respectively...
June 21, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Wei-Wei Wang, Ye-Chen Lu, Wei-Jun Tang, Jun-Hai Zhang, Hua-Ping Sun, Xiao-Yuan Feng, Han-Qiu Liu
Research on brain function after brachial plexus injury focuses on local cortical functional reorganization, and few studies have focused on brain networks after brachial plexus injury. Changes in brain networks may help understanding of brain plasticity at the global level. We hypothesized that topology of the global cerebral resting-state functional network changes after unilateral brachial plexus injury. Thus, in this cross-sectional study, we recruited eight male patients with unilateral brachial plexus injury (right handedness, mean age of 27...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Wen-Juan Fan, Ming-Chao Yan, Lai Wang, Yi-Zheng Sun, Jin-Bo Deng, Jie-Xin Deng
Synapses are key structures in neural networks, and are involved in learning and memory in the central nervous system. Investigating synaptogenesis and synaptic aging is important in understanding neural development and neural degeneration in diseases such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson's disease. Our previous study found that synaptogenesis and synaptic maturation were harmonized with brain development and maturation. However, synaptic damage and loss in the aging cerebellum are not well understood. This study was designed to investigate the occurrence of synaptic aging in the cerebellum by observing the ultrastructural changes of dendritic spines and synapses in cerebellar Purkinje cells of aging mice...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Pietro Cacialli, Antonio Palladino, Carla Lucini
Several mammalian animal models of traumatic brain injury have been used, mostly rodents. However, reparative mechanisms in mammalian brain are very limited, and newly formed neurons do not survive for long time. The brain of adult zebrafish, a teleost fish widely used as vertebrate model, possesses high regenerative properties after injury due to the presence of numerous stem cells niches. The ventricular lining of the zebrafish dorsal telencephalon is the most studied neuronal stem cell niche because its dorso-lateral zone is considered the equivalent to the hippocampus of mammals which contains one of the two constitutive neurogenic niches of mammals...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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