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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475098/xq-1h-protects-against-ischemic-stroke-by-regulating-microglia-polarization-through-ppar%C3%AE-pathway-in-mice
#1
Rui Liu, Junjian Diao, Shucheng He, Binbin Li, Yuxiang Fei, Yunman Li, Weirong Fang
Cerebral ischemic and reperfusion injury often accompany with inflammation, and lead to severe neuronal damage, which further result in neurological disorders and memory disorders. In this study, we researched XQ-1H, a novel derivative of ginkgolide B, protecting against ischemic stroke in mice through regulation of microglia polarization. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/reperfusion in mice is applied to mimic ischemic stroke in vivo. Immediately after MCAO, mice are intragastric administrated with different dose (31 or 62 mg/kg) of XQ-1H for one or continuative three days...
February 20, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475078/damage-of-the-temporal-lobe-and-apoe-status-determine-neural-compensation-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Laura Prieto Del Val, Jose L Cantero, Daniel Baena, Mercedes Atienza
In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the APOE4 genotype is associated with accelerated memory decline, likely due to the impact of neuropathology on main cerebral networks required for successful memory retrieval and/or to decreased capacity for recruiting secondary networks that might compensate for that brain damage. Here, we tested this hypothesis in twenty-six healthy older adults and thirty-four MCI patients, of which sixteen were APOE4 carriers. Compared to controls, MCI showed hippocampal volume reduction, cortical thinning in frontal, temporal and parietal regions, and dysfunctional EEG oscillations across fronto-temporal networks...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475072/digital-gene-expression-profiling-reveals-transcriptional-responses-to-acute-cold-stress-in-chinese-soft-shelled-turtle-pelodiscus-sinensis-juveniles
#3
Wen-Yi Zhang, Cui-Juan Niu, Bo-Jian Chen, Kenneth B Storey
Turtles are well known for their stress tolerance, including an ability to deal with temperature extremes or rapid thermal change. To know more about the comprehensive molecular basis of thermal stress responses in turtles, we assessed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the brain, liver and kidney of juvenile soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis, after acute cold stress (28 °C-8 °C acute transfer and held for 12 h) and following recovery (back to 28 °C and held for 24 h) by digital gene expression profiling...
February 20, 2018: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475038/astaxanthin-protects-against-kainic-acid-induced-seizures-and-pathological-consequences
#4
Yi Chang, Cheng Wei Lu, Yi Jing Chen, Tzu Yu Lin, Shu Kuei Huang, Su Jane Wang
Excitotoxic damage caused by increased glutamate levels is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Astaxanthin, a natural carotenoid with multiple health benefits, inhibits glutamate release from the brain tissue; however, whether it possesses the ability to affect glutamate-induced brain injury is unknown. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin on kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity in rats and the possible underlying intracellular signaling pathway...
February 20, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474878/long-term-effects-of-brief-hypoxia-due-to-cardiac-arrest-hippocampal-reductions-and-memory-deficits
#5
Vess Stamenova, Raneen Nicola, Judith Aharon-Peretz, Dorith Goldsher, Michael Kapeliovich, Asaf Gilboa
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of brief hypoxia (<7 min) due to cardiac arrest on the integrity of the brain and performance on memory and executive functions tasks. METHODS: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) (n = 9), who were deemed neurologically intact on discharge, were compared to matched patients with MI (n = 9). A battery of clinical and experimental memory and executive functions neuropsychological tests were administered and MRI scans for all patients were collected...
February 20, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474873/expression-of-nucleotide-excision-repair-in-alzheimer-s-disease-is-higher-in-brain-tissue-than-in-blood
#6
Helge Leander B Jensen, Meryl S Lillenes, Alberto Rabano, Clara-Cecilie Günther, Tahira Riaz, Shewit T Kalayou, Ingun D Ulstein, Thomas Bøhmer, Tone Tønjum
Age-related changes are increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), including oxidative stress and DNA damage. We propose that genotoxic stress and DNA repair responses influence neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of AD. Here, we focus on nucleotide excision repair (NER). Real-time qPCR and mass spectrometry were employed to determine the expression levels of selected NER components. The mRNA levels of the genes encoding the NER proteins RAD23B, RPA1, ERCC1, PCNA and LIG3 as well as the NER-interacting base excision repair protein MPG in blood and brain tissue from four brain regions in patients with AD or mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls (HC), were assessed...
February 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474315/antibodies-and-the-brain-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antibody-and-the-clinical-effects-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#7
Yoshiyuki Arinuma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuropsychiatric manifestations are one of the fatal complications in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the diagnosis and monitoring of that aspect of SLE is still challenging, as there are no reliable biomarkers linked to central nervous system (CNS) damage. This review emphasizes potential candidate autoantibodies that appear to be associated with development of behavioral and psychiatric manifestations in SLE patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Developments in the pathogenesis in SLE, not surprising for this immune disorder, point to specific, autoantibody toxicity...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473662/mri-supervised-and-unsupervised-classification-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#8
Patrice Péran, Gaetano Barbagallo, Federico Nemmi, Maria Sierra, Monique Galitzky, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Pierre Payoux, Wassilios G Meissner, Olivier Rascol
BACKGROUND: Multimodal MRI approach is based on a combination of MRI parameters sensitive to different tissue characteristics (eg, volume atrophy, iron deposition, and microstructural damage). The main objective of the present study was to use a multimodal MRI approach to identify brain differences that could discriminate between matched groups of patients with multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease, and healthy controls. We assessed the 2 different MSA variants, namely, MSA-P, with predominant parkinsonism, and MSA-C, with more prominent cerebellar symptoms...
February 23, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473512/the-role-of-inflammatory-response-in-stroke-associated-programmed-cell-death
#9
K Duris, Z Splichal, M Jurajda
Stroke represents devastating pathology which is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Initial damage caused directly by the onset of stroke, primary injury, may be eclipsed by secondary injury which may have a much more devastating effect on the brain. Primary injury is predominantly associated with necrotic cell death due to fatal insufficiency of oxygen and glucose. Secondary injury may on the contrary, lead apoptotic cell death due to structural damage which is not compatible with cellular functions or which may even represent the danger of malign transformation...
February 22, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472886/changes-in-brain-lateralization-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-study-from-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative
#10
Hao Liu, Lele Zhang, Qian Xi, Xiaohu Zhao, Fei Wang, Xiangbin Wang, Weiwei Men, Qixiang Lin
Purpose: To detect changes in brain lateralization in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Materials and methods: Data from 61 well-matched right-handed subjects were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, including 19 healthy controls (HCs), 25 patients with MCI, and 17 patients with AD. First, we divided 256 pairs of seed regions from each hemisphere covering the entire cerebral gray matter...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472835/decreased-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-and-behavioral-impairment-in-an-animal-model-of-inhalant-abuse
#11
Hanaa Malloul, Mohammed Bennis, Sara Bonzano, Giovanna Gambarotta, Isabelle Perroteau, Silvia De Marchis, Saadia Ba-M'hamed
Thinners are highly toxic chemicals widely employed as organic solvents in industrial and domestic use. They have psychoactive properties when inhaled, and their chronic abuse as inhalants is associated with severe long-term health effects, including brain damage and cognitive-behavioral alterations. Yet, the sites and mechanisms of action of these compounds on the brain are far from being fully understood. Here, we investigated the consequences of paint thinner inhalation in adult male mice. Depression-like behaviors and an anxiolytic effect were found following repeated exposure in chronic treatments lasting 12 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472246/counteracting-the-effects-of-tnf-receptor-1-has-therapeutic-potential-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Sophie Steeland, Nina Gorlé, Charysse Vandendriessche, Sriram Balusu, Marjana Brkic, Caroline Van Cauwenberghe, Griet Van Imschoot, Elien Van Wonterghem, Riet De Rycke, Anneke Kremer, Saskia Lippens, Edward Stopa, Conrad E Johanson, Claude Libert, Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, and neuroinflammation is an important hallmark of the pathogenesis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) might be detrimental in AD, though the results coming from clinical trials on anti-TNF inhibitors are inconclusive. TNFR1, one of the TNF signaling receptors, contributes to the pathogenesis of AD by mediating neuronal cell death. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier consists of a monolayer of choroid plexus epithelial (CPE) cells, and AD is associated with changes in CPE cell morphology...
February 22, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471227/the-impact-of-acute-and-short-term-methamphetamine-abstinence-on-brain-metabolites-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-chemical-shift-imaging-study
#13
Antoinette Burger, Samantha J Brooks, Dan J Stein, Fleur M Howells
BACKGROUND: Abuse of methamphetamine (MA) is a global health concern. Previous1 H-MRS studies have found that, with methamphetamine abstinence (MAA), there are changes in n-acetyl-aspartate (NAA/Cr), myo-inositol (mI/Cr), choline (Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA), and glutamate with glutamine (Glx) metabolites. Limited studies have investigated the effect of acute MAA, and acute-to-short-term MAA on brain metabolites. METHODS: Adults with chronic MA dependence (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 22) were recruited...
February 19, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471172/enhancing-glioblastoma-treatment-using-cisplatin-gold-nanoparticle-conjugates-and-targeted-delivery-with-magnetic-resonance-guided-focused-ultrasound
#14
Daniel Coluccia, Carlyn A Figueiredo, Megan YiJun Wu, Alexandra N Riemenschneider, Roberto Diaz, Amanda Luck, Christian Smith, Sunit Das, Cameron Ackerley, Meaghan O'Reilly, Kullervo Hynynen, James T Rutka
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality. A strategy to increase the efficacy of available drugs and enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutics through the blood brain barrier (BBB) is desperately needed. We investigated the potential of Cisplatin conjugated gold nanoparticles (GNP-UP-Cis) in combination with MR-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) to intensify GBM treatment. Viability assays demonstrated that GNP-UP-Cis greatly inhibits the growth of GBM cells compared to free cisplatin and shows marked synergy with radiation therapy...
February 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471131/aerobic-and-strength-training-induce-changes-in-oxidative-stress-parameters-and-elicit-modifications-of-various-cellular-components-in-skeletal-muscle-of-aged-rats
#15
Thais Ceresér Vilela, Pauline Souza Effting, Giulia Dos Santos Pedroso, Hemelin Farias, Lara Paganini, Helen Sorato Rebelo, Renata Tiescoski Nesi, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade, Ricardo Aurino de Pinho
Skeletal muscle aging is associated with loss of mass, function, and strength-a condition known as sarcopenia. It has been reported that sarcopenia can be attenuated by physical exercise. Therefore, we investigated whether 2 different physical exercise protocols could modulate and induce changes in oxidative and inflammatory parameters, as well as in BDNF and DNA repair enzyme levels in skeletal muscle tissue of aged rats. Aging Wistar rats performed treadmill or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 times a week for 8 weeks...
February 19, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471052/revisiting-rabies-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-through-infecting-balb-c-mice-with-live-rabies-virus
#16
Yunlong Qin, Todd G Smith, Felix Jackson, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Clint N Morgan, Victoria Olson, Christina L Hutson, Xianfu Wu
This study investigates the production of rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody after virus infection through a mouse model. The BALB/c mice from different age groups (three, five, seven week old) were intramuscularly inoculated with live rabies virus (TX coyote 323R). Without pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), we found there is a decreased fatality with increased age of animals, the mortalities are 60%, 50%, and 30%, respectively. Interestingly, through assay of rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), the results showed that all the animals that succumbed to rabies challenge, except one, developed circulating neutralizing antibodies, and all the healthy animals, except two, did not generate virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA)...
February 19, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470266/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#17
Courtney Stanley Sundin, Michelle Laurane Johnson
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a newly defined syndrome; therefore, this transient clinical condition is not well known and probably underdiagnosed. It develops quickly with symptoms that are usually indistinguishable from eclampsia. Nurses need to be knowledgeable and aware of identifying symptoms and appropriate treatment. The condition is thought to share pathophysiology with eclampsia, and it is suggested that endothelial dysfunction combined with hypertension causes disruption in the blood brain barrier resulting in cerebral edema...
March 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468587/modeling-transient-focal-ischemic-stroke-in-rodents-by-intraluminal-filament-method-of-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion
#18
Mary Susan Lopez, Raghu Vemuganti
The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model is widely used for inducing a focal cerebral ischemic insult (stroke) in rodents. Here, we describe a method for transient MCAO technique without craniotomy in both mice and rats. In our laboratory, this technique yields consistent secondary brain damage that evolves over a period of 3-7 days of reperfusion after transient MCAO. We also describe the methods for analyzing postischemic motor dysfunction and infarct volume in rodents subjected to transient MCAO...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468499/resveratrol-improves-neuroimmune-dysregulation-through-the-inhibition-of-neuronal-toll-like-receptors-and-cox-2-signaling-in-btbr-t-itpr3-tf-j-mice
#19
Sheikh F Ahmad, Mushtaq A Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Mohammad Z Alzahrani, Saleh A Bakheet, Sabry M Attia
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in qualitative impairments in communication, repetitive and social interaction, restricted, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Resveratrol has been extensively studied pharmacologically and biologically and has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects on neuronal damage in neurodegenerative disorders. The BTBR T+ Itpr3tf /J (BTBR) autistic mouse model has been explored for treatment of autism, which shows low reciprocal social interactions, impaired juvenile play, and decreased social approach...
February 21, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468384/redirection-of-neuroblast-migration-from-the-rostral-migratory-stream-into-a-lesion-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adult-rats
#20
Jannis Gundelach, Michael Koch
Clinical treatment of structural brain damage today is largely limited to symptomatic approaches and the avoidance of secondary injury. However, neuronal precursor cells are constantly produced within specified regions of the mammalian brain throughout life. Here we evaluate the potential of the known chemoattractive properties of the glycoprotein laminin on neuroblasts to relocate the cells into damaged brain areas. Injection of a thin laminin tract, leading from the rostral migratory stream to an excitotoxic lesion within the medial prefrontal cortex of rats, enabled neuroblasts to migrate away from their physiological route towards the olfactory bulb into the lesion site...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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