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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830091/bacteriocins-and-bacteriophage-a-narrow-minded-approach-to-food-and-gut-microbiology
#1
Susan Mills, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill
Bacteriocins and bacteriophage (phage) are biological tools which exhibit targeted microbial killing, a phenomenon which until recently was seen as a major drawback for their use as antimicrobial agents. However, in an age when the deleterious consequences of broad-spectrum antibiotics on human health have become apparent, there is an urgent need to develop narrow-spectrum substitutes. Indeed, disruption of the microbial communities which exist on and in our bodies can generate immediate and long-term negative effects and this is particularly borne out in the gut microbiota community whose disruption has been linked to a number of disorders reaching as far as the brain...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829216/leukoaraiosis-as-an-outcome-predictor-in-the-acute-and-subacute-phases-of-stroke
#2
Fabio Fierini, Anna Poggesi, Leonardo Pantoni
Leukoaraiosis (LA) is one of the neuroimaging features of cerebral small vessel disease and is associated with poor long-term prognosis. Areas covered: This narrative review focuses on the predictive role of LA on the evolution of the ischemic brain damage and on the clinical outcome in the subacute phase of stroke and in the short-term period afterwards. Expert commentary: In acute stroke, LA is associated with a less favorable fate of brain infarct and is a marker of increased risk of thrombolysis-related hemorrhagic transformation...
August 22, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828731/pharmacological-properties-and-biological-functions-of-the-gpr17-receptor-a-potential-target-for-neuro-regenerative-medicine
#3
Marta Fumagalli, Davide Lecca, Giusy T Coppolino, Chiara Parravicini, Maria P Abbracchio
In 2006, cells heterologously expressing the "orphan" receptor GPR17 were shown to acquire responses to both uracil nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes, two families of signaling molecules accumulating in brain or heart as a result of hypoxic/traumatic injuries. In subsequent years, evidence of GPR17 key role in oligodendrogenesis and myelination has highlighted it as a "model receptor" for new therapies in demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases. The apparently contrasting evidence in the literature about the role of GPR17 in promoting or inhibiting myelination can be due to its transient expression in the intermediate stages of differentiation, exerting a pro-differentiating function in early oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and an inhibitory role in late stage maturing cells...
August 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828615/glial-excitatory-amino-acid-transporters-and-glucose-incorporation
#4
Germán Fernando Gutiérrez Aguilar, Ivan Alquisiras-Burgos, Mónica Espinoza-Rojo, Penélope Aguilera
Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) expressed in astrocytes remove the glutamate released by neurons in and around the synaptic cleft. In this manner, astrocytes preserve the signaling functions mediated by glutamate on synapses and prevent excitotoxicity. Additionally, EAAT activation stimulates glucose utilization in astrocytes, linking neuronal activity with astrocyte metabolism. In this chapter, we briefly review the characteristics of the EAATs and the glucose transporters (GLUTs) expressed in the brain...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828175/combination-of-dura-turning-over-and-decompressive-craniectomy-a-new-pattern-of-surgery-for-cerebral-infarction-caused-by-craniocerebral-gunshot-injury
#5
Qi-Yong Mei, Yao Li, Chao He, Hong-Wei Shan, Yun-Kun Wang, Yan Dong, Ming-Kun Yu, Li-Jun Hou
BACKGROUND: Craniocerebral gunshot injury refers to a wound caused by a bullet passing through or lodged in brain tissue, resulting in the loss of function of a certain area or other fatal damage to the human brain. Craniocerebral gunshot injury is usually life-threatening and is very common in modern warfare, accounting for the majority of battle casualties. Most of the patients suffer from acute cerebral infarction caused by vascular injury. Lack of early and solid battlefield emergency medical interference adds to the risk of death among the wounded...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827727/branching-morphology-determines-signal-propagation-dynamics-in-neurons
#6
Netanel Ofer, Orit Shefi, Gur Yaari
Computational modeling of signal propagation in neurons is critical to our understanding of basic principles underlying brain organization and activity. Exploring these models is used to address basic neuroscience questions as well as to gain insights for clinical applications. The seminal Hodgkin Huxley model is a common theoretical framework to study brain activity. It was mainly used to investigate the electrochemical and physical properties of neurons. The influence of neuronal structure on activity patterns was explored, however, the rich dynamics observed in neurons with different morphologies is not yet fully understood...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827178/increase-of-cortical-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-a-rat-model-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-dysfunction
#7
Alberto Llorente-Ovejero, Iván Manuel, Maria Teresa Giralt, Rafael Rodríguez-Puertas
The basal forebrain cholinergic pathways progressively degenerate during the progression of Alzheimer's disease, leading to an irreversible impairment of memory and thinking skills. The stereotaxic lesion with 192IgG-saporin in the rat brain has been used to eliminate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and is aimed at emulating the cognitive damage described in this disease in order to explore its effects on behavior and on neurotransmission. Learning and memory processes that are controlled by cholinergic neurotransmission are also modulated by the endocannabinoid system...
August 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827088/comparing-and-contrasting-the-cognitive-effects-of-hippocampal-and-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-damage-a-review-of-human-lesion-studies
#8
REVIEW
Cornelia McCormick, Elisa Ciaramelli, Flavia De Luca, Eleanor A Maguire
The hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are closely connected brain regions whose functions are still debated. In order to offer a fresh perspective on understanding the contributions of these two brain regions to cognition, in this review we considered cognitive tasks that usually elicit deficits in hippocampal-damaged patients (e.g., autobiographical memory retrieval), and examined the performance of vmPFC-lesioned patients on these tasks. We then took cognitive tasks where performance is typically compromised following vmPFC damage (e...
August 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823025/nanomedicine-associated-with-photodynamic-therapy-for-glioblastoma-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Leonardo B de Paula, Fernando L Primo, Antonio C Tedesco
Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most recurrent and malignant astrocytic glioma found in adults. Biologically, GBMs are highly aggressive tumors that often show diffuse infiltration of the brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection difficult. GBM is not curable with surgery alone because tumor cells typically invade the surrounding brain, rendering complete resection unsafe. Consequently, present-day therapy for malignant glioma remains a great challenge. The location of the invasive tumor cells presents several barriers to therapeutic delivery...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822845/triphenyl-phosphonium-coated-nano-quercetin-for-oral-delivery-neuroprotective-effects-in-attenuating-age-related-global-moderate-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#10
Swarupa Ghosh, Sibani Sarkar, Somsubhra T Choudhury, Tirtha Ghosh, Nirmalendu Das
Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is a classical example of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated acute damage to brain. Post-ischemic reperfusion induced oxygen free radicals production causes damage to brain cell mitochondria. Antioxidants like quercetin (Qc) have potentials to manage oxidative stress related pathophysiology. However low oral bioavailability and poor cell membrane permeability restricts its therapeutic efficacy. To overcome these hurdles mitochondria specific delivery of Qc nanocapsules were designed to efficiently counteract cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induced cell death and neurodegeneration in young and aged rats...
August 16, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822835/neuroprotective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-in-mice-involvement-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#11
Filiz Kazak, Gul Fatma Yarim
Neuroinflammation is the inflammation of nervous tissue that can lead to neurodegeneration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin which affects growth, function and survival of neurons, enhances the stabilization of synapses, regulates synaptic function and branching of dendrites and axons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is believed to be involved in the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) diseases associated with neuroinflamation. The aim of this study was to investigate new protective and therapeutic effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) in neuroinflammation...
August 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822751/using-multi-level-bayesian-lesion-symptom-mapping-to-probe-the-body-part-specificity-of-gesture-imitation-skills
#12
Elisabeth I S Achilles, Peter H Weiss, Gereon R Fink, Ellen Binder, Cathy J Price, Thomas M H Hope
Past attempts to identify the neural substrates of hand and finger imitation skills in the left hemisphere of the brain have yielded inconsistent results. Here, we analyse those associations in a large sample of 257 left hemisphere stroke patients. By introducing novel Bayesian methods, we characterise lesion symptom associations at three levels: the voxel-level, the single-region level (using anatomically defined regions), and the region-pair level. The results are inconsistent across those three levels and we argue that each level of analysis makes assumptions which constrain the results it can produce...
August 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822160/-effects-of-active-components-group-of-xiaoxuming-decoction-on-brain-mitochondria-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-rats-during-early-recovery-period
#13
Xiao Du, Chang Lu, Xiao-Li He, Guan-Hua Du
To observe the effect of active components group of Xiaoxuming decoction (XXMD) on brain mitochondria in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats during early recovery period, and study its protective mechanism for nerves in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats during early recovery period. Cerebral ischemia model of middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats was established by suture method, and reperfusion was conducted 2 h later. The degree of cerebral ischemia in rats was evaluated by using Zea-Longa's standard grading method, and the model rats were randomly divided into model group, Xiaoxuming decoction active components low, medium and high dose groups and positive drug Ginaton group, with sham operated rats as control group...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821635/enzyme-replacement-prevents-neonatal-death-liver-damage-and-osteoporosis-in-murine-homocystinuria
#14
Tomas Majtan, Helena Hůlková, Insun Park, Jakub Krijt, Viktor Kožich, Erez M Bublil, Jan P Kraus
Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is an inborn error of sulfur amino acid metabolism caused by deficient activity of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), resulting in an accumulation of homocysteine and a concomitant decrease of cystathionine and cysteine in blood and tissues. In mice, the complete lack of CBS is neonatal lethal. In this study, newborn CBS knockout (KO) mice were treated with recombinant polyethyleneglycolylated human truncated CBS (PEG-CBS). Full survival of the treated KO mice, along with a positive impact on metabolite levels in plasma, liver, brain, and kidneys, was observed...
August 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821392/schisandra-chinensis-extract-decreases-chloroacetaldehyde-production-in-rats-and-attenuates-cyclophosphamide-toxicity-in-liver-kidney-and-brain
#15
Jianxiu Zhai, Feng Zhang, Shouhong Gao, Li Chen, Ge Feng, Jun Yin, Wansheng Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill (S. chinensis) has been used for thousands years in China, and is usually applied in treatment of urinary tract disorders and liver injury. S. chinensis extract (SCE) has board protective effects on liver, kidney and nervous system. Schisandra lignans are generally considered as the bioactive components of SCE. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDIs) between SCE and cyclophosphamide (CTX)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821279/genetic-deletion-of-mglu2-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-improves-the-short-term-outcome-of-cerebral-transient-focal-ischemia
#16
Federica Mastroiacovo, Slavianka Moyanova, Milena Cannella, Anderson Gaglione, Remy Verhaeghe, Giovanna Bozza, Michele Madonna, Marta Motolese, Anna Traficante, Barbara Riozzi, Valeria Bruno, Giuseppe Battaglia, David Lodge, Ferdinando Nicoletti
We have recently shown that pharmacological blockade of mGlu2 metabotropic glutamate receptors protects vulnerable neurons in the 4-vessel occlusion model of transient global ischemia, whereas receptor activation amplifies neuronal death. This raised the possibility that endogenous activation of mGlu2 receptors contributes to the pathophysiology of ischemic neuronal damage. Here, we examined this possibility using two models of transient focal ischemia: (i) the monofilament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice, and (ii) the model based on intracerebral infusion of endothelin-1 (Et-1) in rats...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820755/sleep-complications-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Natalie A Grima, Jennie L Ponsford, Matthew P Pase
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent research has provided extensive characterization as to the frequency and nature of sleep disturbances following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and proposes future directions for research. RECENT FINDINGS: Complaints of sleep disturbance are common following TBI, and objective assessments of sleep largely corroborate these complaints. Sleep is often disturbed in the acute phase postinjury and can persist for decades, with the prevalence of sleep disorders higher in patients with TBI as compared with the general population...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820284/bnip3l-nix-mediated-mitophagy-protects-against-ischemic-brain-injury-independent-of-park2
#18
Yang Yuan, Yanrong Zheng, Xiangnan Zhang, Ying Chen, Xiaoli Wu, Jiaying Wu, Zhe Shen, Lei Jiang, Lu Wang, Wei Yang, Jianhong Luo, Zhenghong Qin, Weiwei Hu, Zhong Chen
Cerebral ischemia induces massive mitochondrial damage. These damaged mitochondria are cleared, thus attenuating brain injury, by mitophagy. Here, we identified the involvement of BNIP3L/NIX in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I-R)-induced mitophagy. Bnip3l knockout (bnip3l(-/-)) impaired mitophagy and aggravated cerebral I-R injury in mice, which can be rescued by BNIP3L overexpression. The rescuing effects of BNIP3L overexpression can be observed in park2(-/-) mice, which showed mitophagy deficiency after I-R...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819888/paraquat-induced-movement-disorder-in-relation-to-oxidative-stress-mediated-neurodegeneration-in-the-brain-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
S Niveditha, S R Ramesh, T Shivanandappa
Exposure to pesticides like paraquat (PQ) is considered as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). PQ has been shown to induce PD-like phenotype in experimental animals. Drosophila, a valuable laboratory model organism, is widely used to study neurodegenerative disorders including PD. The acute (single dose) PQ model of PD in Drosophila is associated with high mortality as well as reversibility of locomotor deficits and, therefore, does not replicate the disease phenotype. We have investigated the relevance of the acute and multiple (sublethal) dose of PQ to induce PD-like symptoms in Drosophila and shown that multiple-dose of PQ induces irreversible locomotor impairment without significant mortality...
August 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818859/renal-denervation-suppresses-coronary-hyperconstricting-responses-after-drug-eluting-stent-implantation-in-pigs-in-vivo-through-the-kidney-brain-heart-axis
#20
Hironori Uzuka, Yasuharu Matsumoto, Kensuke Nishimiya, Kazuma Ohyama, Hideaki Suzuki, Hirokazu Amamizu, Susumu Morosawa, Michinori Hirano, Tomohiko Shindo, Yoku Kikuchi, Kiyotaka Hao, Takashi Shiroto, Kenta Ito, Jun Takahashi, Koji Fukuda, Satoshi Miyata, Yoshihito Funaki, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Satoshi Yasuda, Hiroaki Shimokawa
OBJECTIVE: Drug-eluting stent-induced coronary hyperconstricting responses remain an important issue. The adventitia harbors a variety of components that potently modulate vascular tone, including sympathetic nerve fibers (SNF) and vasa vasorum. Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) inhibits sympathetic nerve activity. We, thus, examined whether RDN suppresses drug-eluting stent-induced coronary hyperconstricting responses, and if so, what mechanisms are involved. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Protocol 1: pigs implanted with everolimus-eluting stents into the left coronary arteries underwent coronary angiography at 1 month after implantation for assessment of coronary vasomotion and adventitial SNF formation...
August 17, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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