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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446003/effects-of-canine-and-murine-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-transplantation-on-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#1
Diego Noe Rodriguez Sanchez, Matheus Bertanha, Thiago Dias Fernandes, Luiz Antônio de Lima Resende, Elenice Deffune, Rogério Martins Amorim
Background and Objectives: Maintaining a permissive microenvironment is essential for adequate nerve regeneration. Cell-based therapy has the potential based cell replacement and promotion of axonal growth. The adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stromal cells (Ad-MSC) attract interest because neuroregenerative and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of canine and murine Ad-MSC transplantation on the sciatic nerve regeneration. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided randomly into: control group - CG (n=8); denervated group - DG (n=8); decellularized vein group - VG (n=8); decellularized vein+canine MSC-cMSC (n=8); descellularized vein+murine MSC-mMSC (n=8)...
April 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445874/erythropoietin-treatment-exacerbates-moderate-injury-after-hypoxia-ischemia-in-neonatal-superoxide-dismutase-transgenic-mice
#2
R Ann Sheldon, Christine Windsor, Byong Sop Lee, Olatz Arteaga Cabeza, Donna M Ferriero
The neonatal brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress as developing endogenous antioxidant mechanisms are overwhelmed. In the neonate, superoxide dismutase (SOD) overexpression worsens hypoxic-ischemic injury due to H2O2 accumulation in the brain. Erythropoietin (EPO) is upregulated in 2 phases after HI, early (4 h) and late (7 days), and exogenous EPO has been effective in reducing the injury, possibly through reducing oxidative stress. We hypothesized that exogenous EPO would limit injury from excess H2O2 seen in SOD1-overexpressing mice, and thus enhance recovery after HI...
April 27, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445538/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-neurological-disease-in-human-hiv-infection
#3
Pietro Paolo Sanna, Vez Repunte-Canonigo, Eliezer Masliah, Celine Lefebvre
The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445478/delayed-histochemical-alterations-within-the-neurovascular-unit-due-to-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-experimental-treatment-with-neurotrophic-factors
#4
Dominik Michalski, Roman Pitsch, Deepu R Pillai, Bianca Mages, Susanne Aleithe, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Felix Schlachetzki, Wolfgang Härtig
Current stroke therapy is focused on recanalizing strategies, but neuroprotective co-treatments are still lacking. Modern concepts of the ischemia-affected neurovascular unit (NVU) and surrounding penumbra emphasize the complexity during the transition from initial damaging to regenerative processes. While early treatment with neurotrophic factors was shown to result in lesion size reduction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) stabilization, cellular consequences from these treatments are poorly understood. This study explored delayed cellular responses not only to ischemic stroke, but also to an early treatment with neurotrophic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444645/outdoor-ambient-air-pollution-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-neuroinflammation-hypothesis
#5
REVIEW
Richard L Jayaraj, Eric A Rodriguez, Yi Wang, Michelle L Block
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accumulating research indicates that ambient outdoor air pollution impacts the brain and may affect neurodegenerative diseases, yet the potential underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. RECENT FINDINGS: The neuroinflammation hypothesis holds that elevation of cytokines and reactive oxygen species in the brain mediates the deleterious effects of urban air pollution on the central nervous system (CNS). Studies in human and animal research document that neuroinflammation occurs in response to several inhaled pollutants...
April 25, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444635/the-leukocentric-theory-of-neurological-disorder-a-manifesto
#6
Robert Fern
Approximately half of the human brain is composed of white matter (WM), a specialized tissue housing the axonal projection of neurons and their necessary supporting glial cells. Axons course long distances from their parent soma, have a delicate structure, large surface area and in many cases are dependent upon a uniquely close morphological arrangement with myelinating oligodendrocyte partners; all factors that may predispose them to injury and disease. WM damage is central to a range of well-characterized disorders including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury and is also makes a significant contribution to disorders often considered to be largely focused in gray matter; for example, in stroke where ~49% of injury by volume is located in WM...
April 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444573/the-effect-of-different-types-of-nanoparticles-on-fus-and-tdp-43-solubility-and-subcellular-localization
#7
Jasna Lojk, Sonja Prpar Mihevc, Vladimir Boštjan Bregar, Mojca Pavlin, Boris Rogelj
Increased environmental pollution has been suggested as one of the possible causes for increased incidence of neurodegenerative and developmental disorders. Through the environmental pollution, everyday consumer products and nanomedical applications, we are also exposed to various nanoparticles (NPs). Specific types of NPs have been shown to be able to cause neural damage in vivo through processes such as disruption of the blood-brain barrier, induction of neuroinflammation, increase in oxidative stress and protein aggregation...
April 25, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444183/calcium-dysregulation-and-cdk5-atm-pathway-involved-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome
#8
Gaëlle Robin, José R López, Glenda M Espinal, Susan Hulsizer, Paul J Hagerman, Isaac N Pessah
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurological disorder that affects premutation carriers with 55-200 CGG-expansion repeats (preCGG) in FMR1, presenting with early alterations in neuronal network formation and function that precede neurodegeneration. Whether intranuclear inclusions containing DNA damage response (DDR) proteins, are causally linked to abnormal synaptic function, neuronal growth and survival are unknown. In a mouse that harbors a premutation CGG expansion (preCGG), cortical and hippocampal FMRP expression is moderately reduced from birth through adulthood, with greater FMRP reductions in the soma than in the neurite, despite several-fold elevation of Fmr1 mRNA levels...
April 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444170/neuronal-activity-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-and-unpredictable-chronic-stress-modulate-transcription-of-gadd45-family-members-and-dna-methylation-in-the-hippocampus
#9
Daniela Grassi, Henriette Franz, Riccardo Vezzali, Patrick Bovio, Stefanie Heidrich, Fariba Dehghanian, Natalia Lagunas, Catherine Belzung, Kerstin Krieglstein, Tanja Vogel
Neuronal activity is altered in several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Upon depolarization not only neurotransmitters are released but also cytokines and other activators of signaling cascades. Unraveling their complex implication in transcriptional control in receiving cells will contribute to understand specific central nervous system (CNS) pathologies and will be of therapeutically interest. In this study we depolarized mature hippocampal neurons in vitro using KCl and revealed increased release not only of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but also of transforming growth factor beta (TGFB)...
April 21, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444141/imaging-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-as-a-biomarker-for-epileptogenesis
#10
Guy Bar-Klein, Svetlana Lublinsky, Lyn Kamintsky, Iris Noyman, Ronel Veksler, Hotjensa Dalipaj, Vladimir V Senatorov, Evyatar Swissa, Dror Rosenbach, Netta Elazary, Dan Z Milikovsky, Nadav Milk, Michael Kassirer, Yossi Rosman, Yonatan Serlin, Arik Eisenkraft, Yoash Chassidim, Yisrael Parmet, Daniela Kaufer, Alon Friedman
A biomarker that will enable the identification of patients at high-risk for developing post-injury epilepsy is critically required. Microvascular pathology and related blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation were shown to be associated with epileptogenesis after injury. Here we used prospective, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging to quantitatively follow blood-brain barrier pathology in rats following status epilepticus, late electrocorticography to identify epileptic animals and post-mortem immunohistochemistry to confirm blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation...
April 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443061/a-linear-temporal-increase-in-thrombin-activity-and-loss-of-its-receptor-in-mouse-brain-following-ischemic-stroke
#11
Doron Bushi, Efrat Shavit Stein, Valery Golderman, Ekaterina Feingold, Orna Gera, Joab Chapman, David Tanne
BACKGROUND: Brain thrombin activity is increased following acute ischemic stroke and may play a pathogenic role through the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1). In order to better assess these factors, we obtained a novel detailed temporal and spatial profile of thrombin activity in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo). METHODS: Thrombin activity was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy on coronal slices taken from the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres 2, 5, and 24 h following pMCAo (n = 5, 6, 5 mice, respectively)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442781/spreading-depolarization-remarkably-exacerbates-ischemia-induced-tissue-acidosis-in-the-young-and-aged-rat-brain
#12
Ákos Menyhárt, Dániel Zölei-Szénási, Tamás Puskás, Péter Makra, M Tóth Orsolya, Borbála É Szepes, Réka Tóth, Orsolya Ivánkovits-Kiss, Tihomir P Obrenovitch, Ferenc Bari, Eszter Farkas
Spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur spontaneously in the cerebral cortex of subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke or traumatic brain injury patients. Accumulating evidence prove that SDs exacerbate focal ischemic injury by converting zones of the viable but non-functional ischemic penumbra to the core region beyond rescue. Yet the SD-related mechanisms to mediate neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. Here we show in the cerebral cortex of isoflurane-anesthetized, young and old laboratory rats, that SDs propagating under ischemic penumbra-like conditions decrease intra and- extracellular tissue pH transiently to levels, which have been recognized to cause tissue damage...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442607/n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-blockade-prevents-neuronal-death-induced-by-zika-virus-infection
#13
Vivian V Costa, Juliana L Del Sarto, Rebeca F Rocha, Flavia R Silva, Juliana G Doria, Isabella G Olmo, Rafael E Marques, Celso M Queiroz-Junior, Giselle Foureaux, Julia Maria S Araújo, Allysson Cramer, Ana Luíza C V Real, Lucas S Ribeiro, Silvia I Sardi, Anderson J Ferreira, Fabiana S Machado, Antônio C de Oliveira, Antônio L Teixeira, Helder I Nakaya, Danielle G Souza, Fabiola M Ribeiro, Mauro M Teixeira
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a global health emergency that causes significant neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative processes may be exacerbated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent neuronal excitoxicity. Here, we have exploited the hypothesis that ZIKV-induced neurodegeneration can be rescued by blocking NMDA overstimulation with memantine. Our results show that ZIKV actively replicates in primary neurons and that virus replication is directly associated with massive neuronal cell death. Interestingly, treatment with memantine or other NMDAR blockers, including dizocilpine (MK-801), agmatine sulfate, or ifenprodil, prevents neuronal death without interfering with the ability of ZIKV to replicate in these cells...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442538/peripheral-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-tnf-%C3%AE-modulates-amyloid-pathology-by-regulating-blood-derived-immune-cells-and-glial-response-in-the-brain-of-ad-tnf-transgenic-mice
#14
Evi Paouri, Ourania Tzara, Georgia-Ioanna Kartalou, Sofia Zenelak, Spiros Georgopoulos
Increasing evidence has suggested that systemic inflammation along with local brain inflammation can play a significant role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Identifying key molecules that regulate the crosstalk between the immune and the central nervous system can provide potential therapeutic targets. TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and AD. Recent studies have reported that anti-TNF-α therapy or RA itself can modulate AD pathology, although the underlying mechanism is unclear...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440186/the-double-roles-of-the-prostaglandin-e2-ep2-receptor-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#15
Xu Luo, Qiquan Zhu, Jie Zhang, Qin Huang, Zongyi Xie, Yuan Cheng
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a subtype of stroke, brings high morbidity and mortality to human beings. Multiple studies indicate that neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity resulted from the degradation products of blood clot play vital roles in ICH-induced secondary brain injury, which contributes to deterioration of neurological outcome. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a type of prostanoids commonly up-regulated in these progresses, is known to modulate numerous cellular and molecular processes and involve in various diseases, including ICH, cerebral ischemic, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etc...
April 24, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438556/the-brain-and-the-subjective-experience-of-time-a-voxel-based-symptom-lesion-mapping-study
#16
Luigi Trojano, Michelina Caccavale, Francesco De Bellis, Claudio Crisci
The aim of the study was to identify the anatomical bases involved in the subjective experience of time, by means of a voxel based symptom-lesion mapping (VLSM) study on patients with focal brain damage. Thirty-three patients (nineteen with right-hemisphere lesions -RBD, and fourteen with left lesion- LBD) and twenty-eight non-neurological controls (NNC) underwent the semi-structured QUEstionnaire for the Subjective experience of Time (QUEST) requiring retrospective and prospective judgements on self-relevant time intervals...
April 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438530/ferulic-acid-attenuates-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-damage-caused-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-via-punctate-mitochondria-dependent-mitophagy
#17
Jun-Li Chen, Wen-Jun Duan, Si Luo, Shi Li, Xiao-Hui Ma, Bo-Nan Hou, Shu-Yi Cheng, Shu-Huan Fang, Qi Wang, Shui-Qing Huang, Yun-Bo Chen
Ferulic acid (FA) has an important effect on scavenging free radicals, which is related to the alleviation of various neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are few studies about its effects on vascular dementia. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of FA on oxidative damage of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) which underwent oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 2 hours. Our data showed that FA significantly reversed the oxidative stress state of OGD-treated BMECs and reduced mitochondrial dysfunction...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438504/agomelatine-protects-against-neuronal-damage-without-preventing-epileptogenesis-in-the-kainate-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Zlatina Nenchovska, Milena Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Rumyana Gesheva, Nikolai Lazarov
Recent studies about the novel antidepressant agomelatine, which is a mixed MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist and 5HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist possessing an anticonvulsant and neuroprotective action, suggest that it may have potential to contribute against epileptogenesis and epilepsy-induced memory impairment. In order to ascertain whether protection of some brain structures could suppress epileptogenesis, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of chronic post-status treatment with agomelatine on epileptogenesis, behavioral and neuronal damage induced by kainate acid (KA) status epilepticus (SE)...
April 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437839/semicarbazide-sensitive-amine-oxidase-vascular-adhesion-protein-1-inhibition-reduces-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation
#19
Serena Becchi, Alberto Buson, Jonathan Foot, Wolfgang Jarolimek, Bernard W Balleine
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuroinflammation is initiated by a variety of stimuli including infections, sepsis, neurodegenerative diseases or traumatic brain injury and if not adequately controlled can lead to various degrees of neuronal damage and behavioural impairment. A critical event in the initial steps of inflammation is neutrophil extravasation. Semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO, also known as vascular adhesion protein 1 or VAP-1) regulates neutrophil adhesion and extravasation...
April 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437822/osmotic-demyelination-syndrome-due-to-severe-hyponatremia-mimicking-hypoxic-encephalopathy
#20
Felix Wicke, Sasha Moreitz, Stefan Weidauer
Hyponatremia and its rapid correction is a well-known cause of osmotic demyelination most commonly affecting the pons. We report on a case of severe hyponatremia likely due to psychogenic polydipsia resulting in hypotonic hyperhydration with resulting cortical laminar necrosis on initial imaging, mimicking hypoxic brain damage. Pontine myelinolysis became apparent on follow-up imaging, illustrating the diagnostic challenges of extrapontine manifestations of severe hyponatremia.
April 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
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