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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106777/neuroprotection-by-caffeine-in-hyperoxia-induced-neonatal-brain-injury
#1
Stefanie Endesfelder, Ulrike Weichelt, Evelyn Strauß, Anja Schlör, Marco Sifringer, Till Scheuer, Christoph Bührer, Thomas Schmitz
Sequelae of prematurity triggered by oxidative stress and free radical-mediated tissue damage have coined the term "oxygen radical disease of prematurity". Caffeine, a potent free radical scavenger and adenosine receptor antagonist, reduces rates of brain damage in preterm infants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of caffeine on oxidative stress markers, anti-oxidative response, inflammation, redox-sensitive transcription factors, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix following the induction of hyperoxia in neonatal rats...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106731/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-promotes-endogenous-adaptive-response-in-rat-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#2
Ying Yang, Jieyang Ju, Min Deng, Jing Wang, Hui Liu, Li Xiong, Junjian Zhang
Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), a pivotal regulator of gene expression in response to hypoxia and ischemia, is now considered to regulate both pro-survival and pro-death responses depending on the duration and severity of the stress. We previously showed that chronic global cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) triggered long-lasting accumulation of HIF-1α protein in the hippocampus of rats. However, the role of the stabilized HIF-1α in CCH is obscure. Here, we knock down endogenous HIF-1α to determine whether and how HIF-1α affects the disease processes and phenotypes of CCH...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106136/long-term-exposure-to-835%C3%A2-mhz-rf-emf-induces-hyperactivity-autophagy-and-demyelination-in-the-cortical-neurons-of-mice
#3
Ju Hwan Kim, Da-Hyeon Yu, Yang Hoon Huh, Eun Ho Lee, Hyung-Gun Kim, Hak Rim Kim
Radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) is used globally in conjunction with mobile communications. There are public concerns of the perceived deleterious biological consequences of RF-EMF exposure. This study assessed neuronal effects of RF-EMF on the cerebral cortex of the mouse brain as a proxy for cranial exposure during mobile phone use. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 835 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg for 5 hours/day during 12 weeks. The aim was to examine activation of autophagy pathway in the cerebral cortex, a brain region that is located relatively externally...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106117/norovirus-p-particle-based-active-a%C3%AE-immunotherapy-elicits-sufficient-immunogenicity-and-improves-cognitive-capacity-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Lu Fu, Yingnan Li, Yue Hu, Yayuan Zheng, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Hui Wu, Xianghui Yu, Wei Kong
Disease-modifying immunotherapies focusing on reducing amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition are the main treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of the Aβ immunotherapies has produced clinically meaningful results to date. The main reason for this lack of efficacy is that the vaccine induces insufficiently high antibody titers, as it contains small B-cell epitope of Aβ to avoid Aβ42-specific T-cell activation. With the aim of generating a potent AD vaccine, we designed the protein PP-3copy-Aβ1-6-loop123, comprising three copies of Aβ1-6 inserted into three loops of a novel vaccine platform, the norovirus P particle, which could present Aβ at its surface and remarkably enhance the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104485/green-channel-autofluorescence-imaging-a-novel-and-sensitive-technique-to-delineate-infarcts
#5
Kang-Hoon Je, Wi-Sun Ryu, Su-Kyoung Lee, Eo Jin Kim, Jeong-Yeon Kim, Hee Jeong Jang, Jung E Park, Matthias Nahrendorf, Dawid Schellingerhout, Dong-Eog Kim
BACKGROUND: We have found that infarcted brain regions exhibit green channel autofluorescence (GCAF). Here, we compare ex vivo GCAF-imaging with 2,3,5-triphenylteterazolium chloride (TTC)-staining. NEW METHOD: C57BL/6 mice (n=120) underwent GCAF-imaging after transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or pMCAO). COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: TTC-staining may not reflect subtle ischemic injury. TTC-stained tissues, when reused, are prone to processing artifacts related to prior TTC-staining...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103777/role-of-iodine-in-metabolism
#6
Szybiński Zbigniew
The natural resources of iodine are seawater, seaweeds and saltpeter-nitrate deposits in Chile. Over 1/3 of the global population is exposed to iodine deficiency, especially in the mountains. Iodine is a component of the thyroid hormones and a strong antioxidant with electric potential of -0.54 V. Iodine as iodide is taken up by the thyroid gland, gastric mucosa, salivary glands and mammary glands in pregnant and breast-feeding women. The transport of iodine to the thyroid gland is regulated by specific enzymes: Natrium-Iodine Symporter, Na+/K+ATP-ase, Pendrin and Apical Iodine Transporter...
January 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103389/the-use-of-antioxidants-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Whitney Venegoni, Qiuhua Shen, Amanda R Thimmesch, Meredith Bell, John B Hiebert, Janet D Pierce
AIMS: To discuss secondary traumatic brain injury, the mitochondria and the use of antioxidants as a treatment. BACKGROUND: One of the leading causes of death in young adults internationally is traumatic brain injury, affecting individuals in all demographics. Traumatic brain injury is produced by an external blunt force or penetration resulting in alterations in brain function or pathology. Often, with a traumatic brain injury, secondary injury causes additional damage to the brain tissue that can have further impact on recovery and the quality of life...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103133/role-of-choline-in-the-modulation-of-degenerative-processes-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#8
Tania Merinas-Amo, Inmaculada Tasset-Cuevas, Antonio M Díaz-Carretero, Ángeles Alonso-Moraga, Fernando Calahorro
The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutraceutical potential of choline as an added value to its well-known brain nutrient role. Several toxicity, antitoxicity, genotoxicity, antigenotoxicity, and longevity endpoints were checked in the somatic mutation and recombination test in in vivo Drosophila animal model. Cytotoxicity in human leukemia-60 cell line (HL-60) promyelocytic and NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, proapoptotic DNA fragmentation, comet assay, methylation status, and macroautophagy (MA) activity were tested in in vitro assays...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102825/versatile-modular-three-dimensional-microelectrode-arrays-for-neuronal-ensemble-recordings-from-design-to-fabrication-assembly-and-functional-validation-in-non-human-primates
#9
Falk Barz, Alessandro Livi, Marco Lanzilotto, Monica Maranesi, Luca Bonini, Oliver Paul, Patrick Ruther
<i>Objective. </i>Application-specific designs of electrode arrays offer an improved effectiveness for providing access to targeted brain regions in neuroscientific research and brain machine interfaces. The simultaneous and stable recording of neuronal ensembles is the main goal in the design of advanced neural interfaces. Here, we describe the development and assembly of highly customizable three-dimensional microelectrode arrays and demonstrate their recording performance in chronic applications in non-human primates...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102508/simvastatin-promotes-hematoma-absorption-and-reduces-hydrocephalus-following-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-part-by-upregulating-cd36
#10
Qianwei Chen, Xia Shi, Qiang Tan, Zhou Feng, Yuelong Wang, Qiaoying Yuan, Yihao Tao, Jianbo Zhang, Liang Tan, Gang Zhu, Hua Feng, Zhi Chen
We previously found that hematoma worsens hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) via increasing iron deposition and aggravating ependymal cilia injury; therefore, promoting hematoma absorption may be a promising strategy for IVH. Recently, some investigations imply that simvastatin has the ability of accelerating hematoma absorption. Thus, this study was designed to examine the efficacy of simvastatin for IVH in rats. Intracerebral hemorrhage with ventricular extension was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after autologous blood injection...
January 19, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102473/the-role-of-glun2a-in-cerebral-ischemia-promoting-neuron-death-and-survival-in-the-early-stage-and-thereafter
#11
REVIEW
Yongjun Sun, Xiaokun Cheng, Jie Hu, Zibin Gao
Over-activation of NMDA receptors is a crucial step required for brain damage following a stroke. Although clinical trials for NMDA receptor blockers have failed, the role of GluN2A subunit in cerebral ischemia has been extensively evaluated in recent years. However, the effect of GluN2A on neuron damage induced by cerebral ischemia remains a matter of controversy. The underlying reason may be that GluN2A mediates both pro-death and pro-survival effects. These two effects result from two mutually excluding pathways, Ca(2+) overload-dependent pro-death signaling and C-terminal-dependent pro-survival signaling, respectively...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102395/sesamol-ameliorates-high-fat-and-high-fructose-induced-cognitive-defects-via-improving-insulin-signaling-disruption-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Zhigang Liu, Yali Sun, Qinglian Qiao, Tong Zhao, Wentong Zhang, Bo Ren, Qian Liu, Xuebo Liu
Sesamol, a nutritional component from sesame, possesses antioxidant, lipid lowering and antidepressant activities. Nonetheless, few studies report its effects on high-energy-dense diet-induced cognitive loss. The present research aimed to elucidate the action of sesamol on high-fat and high-fructose (HFFD) "western"-diet-induced central nervous system insulin resistance and learning and memory impairment, and further determined the possible underlying mechanism. 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into 3 groups with/without sesamol in the drinking water (0...
January 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102362/evaluation-of-region-selective-bilirubin-induced-brain-damage-as-a-basis-for-a-pharmacological-treatment
#13
Matteo Dal Ben, Cristina Bottin, Fabrizio Zanconati, Claudio Tiribelli, Silvia Gazzin
The neurologic manifestations of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit high variations in the severity and appearance of motor, auditory and cognitive symptoms, which is suggestive of a still unexplained selective topography of bilirubin-induced damage. By applying the organotypic brain culture (OBC: preserving in vitro the cellular complexity, connection and architecture of the in vivo brain) technique to study hyperbilirubinemia, we mapped the regional target of bilirubin-induced damage, demonstrated a multifactorial toxic action of bilirubin, and used this information to evaluate the efficacy of drugs applicable to newborns to protect the brain...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101531/osteopontin-is-a-blood-biomarker-for-microglial-activation-and-brain-injury-in-experimental-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#14
Yikun Li, Eric B Dammer, Xiaohui Zhang-Brotzge, Scott Chen, Duc M Duong, Nicholas T Seyfried, Chia-Yi Kuan, Yu-Yo Sun
Clinical management of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) suffers from the lack of reliable surrogate marker tests. Proteomic analysis may identify such biomarkers in blood, but there has been no proof-of-principle evidence to support this approach. Here we performed in-gel trypsin digestion of plasma proteins from four groups of 10-d-old mice [untouched and 24 h after low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure, hypoxia-ischemia (HI), or LPS/HI injury; n = 3 in each group) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis to search for HI- and LPS/HI-associated brain injury biomarkers...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101460/captopril-and-valsartan-may-improve-cognitive-function-through-potentiation-of-the-brain-antioxidant-defense-system-and-attenuation-of-oxidative-nitrosative-damage-in-stz-induced-dementia-in-rat
#15
Yasaman Arjmand Abbassi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi, Mahsa Sarami Foroshani, Javad Raouf Sarshoori
Purpose: Previous findings have shown the crucial roles of brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since RAS inhibitors may have beneficial effects on dementia and cognitive function in elderly people, the aim of present study was to examine the neuroprotective actions of captopril and valsartan on memory function and neuronal damage in experimental model of AD. Methods: Adult forty male Wistar rats (220-280g) were randomly divided into 5 groups; Control, Vehicle, Alzheimer and treatment groups...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101189/inhibition-of-cytoskeletal-protein-carbonylation-may-protect-against-oxidative-damage-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Qiusheng Zhang, Meng Zhang, Xianjian Huang, Xiaojia Liu, Weiping Li
Oxidative stress is the principal factor in traumatic brain injury (TBI) that initiates protracted neuronal dysfunction and remodeling. Cytoskeletal proteins are known to be carbonylated under oxidative stress; however, the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms of cytoskeletal protein carbonylation remain poorly understood. In the present study, the expression levels of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were investigated in PC12 cells treated with H2O2. Western blot analysis was used to monitor the carbonylation levels of β-actin and β-tubulin...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101164/paeoniflorin-attenuates-hippocampal-damage-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-dementia
#17
Ying Zhang, Li-Li Wang, Yan Wu, Ning Wang, Shang-Ming Wang, Bin Zhang, Cui-Ge Shi, Shu-Cheng Zhang
Paeoniflorn (PF), the principal bioactive component of Paeoniae radix prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine, possesses a wide range of biological effects and exhibits neuroprotective effects in numerous diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that PF significantly attenuates memory impairment in rats with vascular dementia (VD). In the present study, a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) rat model was used to explore the underlying mechanisms of PF. The expression levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100β, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein, cytochrome c and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were measured by western blot analysis...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100851/effects-of-propofol-on-oxidative-stress-parameters-in-selected-parts-of-the-brain-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-disease
#18
Ewa Romuk, Wioletta Szczurek, Przemysław Nowak, Marta Skowron, Bernard Prudel, Edyta Hudziec, Ewa Chwalińska, Ewa Birkner
INTRODUCTION: Propofol is an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent that is commonly used to induce and maintain general anaesthesia. This drug has antioxidant properties, which are partly caused by a phenolic structure similar to α-tocopherol. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of propofol on the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in the frontal cortex, striatum, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum in rats with experimental Parkinson's disease (PD). MATERIAL/METHODS: The experiment was performed on 24 male Wistar rats assigned to the following groups: 1 - control; 2 - PD; 3 - PD with propofol...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100742/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#19
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behavior. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behavior is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been studied directly in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with fMRI and eye movements were monitored simultaneously...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100738/mir-142-3p-is-a-key-regulator-of-il-1%C3%AE-dependent-synaptopathy-in-neuroinflammation
#20
Georgia Mandolesi, Francesca De Vito, Alessandra Musella, Antonietta Gentile, Silvia Bullitta, Diego Fresegna, Helena Sepman, Claudio Di Sanza, Nabila Haji, Francesco Mori, Fabio Buttari, Emerald Perlas, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Eran Hornstein, Irene Bozzoni, Carlo Presutti, Diego Centonze
: MicroRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in post-transcriptional gene regulation of several physiological and pathological processes. In multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory and degenerative disease of the CNS, and in its mouse model, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), miRNA dysregulation has been mainly related to immune system dysfunction and white matter (WM) pathology. However, little is known about their role in gray matter pathology. Here, we explored miRNA involvement in the inflammation-driven alterations of synaptic structure and function, collectively known as synaptopathy, a neuropathological process contributing to excitotoxic neurodegeneration in MS/EAE...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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