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fluid maintenance

M A Zouache, I Eames, C A Klettner, P J Luthert
The development of fluid transport systems was a key event in the evolution of animals and plants. While within vertebrates branched geometries predominate, the choriocapillaris, which is the microvascular bed that is responsible for the maintenance of the outer retina, has evolved a planar topology. Here we examine the flow and mass transfer properties associated with this unusual geometry. We show that as a result of the form of the choriocapillaris, the blood flow is decomposed into a tessellation of functional vascular segments of various shapes delineated by separation surfaces across which there is no flow, and in the vicinity of which the transport of passive substances is diffusion-limited...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lourdes Mateos-Hernández, Margarita Villar, Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Marco Trevisan-Herraz, Ángel García-Forcada, Francisco Romero Ganuza, Jesús Vázquez, José de la Fuente
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune-mediated peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause. However, about a quarter of GBS patients have suffered a recent bacterial or viral infection, and axonal forms of the disease are especially common in these patients. Proteomics is a good methodological approach for the discovery of disease biomarkers. Until recently, most proteomics studies of GBS and other neurodegenerative diseases have focused on the analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, serum represents an attractive alternative to CSF because it is easier to sample and has potential for biomarker discovery...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Paulina R Davis, Ginevra Giannini, Karin Rudolph, Nathaniel Calloway, Christopher M Royer, Tina L Beckett, M Paul Murphy, Frederick Bresch, Dieter Pagani, Thomas Platt, Xiaohong Wang, Amy Skinner Donovan, Tiffany L Sudduth, Wenjie Lou, Erin Abner, Richard Kryscio, Donna M Wilcock, Edward G Barrett, Elizabeth Head
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) immunotherapy is a promising intervention to slow Alzheimer's disease. Aging dogs naturally accumulate Aβ and show cognitive decline. An active vaccine against fibrillar Aβ 1-42 (VAC) in aged beagles resulted in maintenance but not improvement of cognition along with reduced brain Aβ. Behavioral enrichment (ENR) led to cognitive benefits but no reduction in Aβ. We hypothesized cognitive outcomes could be improved by combining VAC with ENR in aged dogs. Aged dogs (11-12 years) were placed into 4 groups: (1) control/control (C/C); (2) control/VAC (C/V); (3) ENR/control (E/C); and (4) ENR/VAC (E/V) and treated for 20 months...
September 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Jevon R Puckett, John W Pickering, Suetonia C Palmer, John L McCall, Michal T Kluger, Janak De Zoysa, Zoltan H Endre, Mattias Soop
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a low perioperative minimum urine output target is safe and fluid sparing when compared with the standard target. BACKGROUND: A minimum hourly urine output of 0.5 mL/kg is a key target guiding perioperative fluid therapy. Few data support this standard practice, which may contribute to perioperative fluid overloading. METHODS: We randomized patients without significant risk factors for acute kidney injury undergoing elective colectomy to a minimum urine output target of 0...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Shatha Hussain Ali, Salman Hussain Assi, Fadhil S Hussien
Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most common sequelae of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Dialysis-related HTN is predominantly caused by chronic volume overload, and as such the blood pressure (BP) can be reduced and/or brought down to normal in a sizable number of patients with improved salt and fluid balance. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of HTN among children on hemodialysis (HD) and to evaluate the correlation of HTN with some demographic data. This is a prospective study performed on forty pediatric patients with CKD receiving maintenance HD in three centers in Baghdad...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Hao Yan, Wei Fang, Aiwu Lin, Liou Cao, Zhaohui Ni, Jiaqi Qian
BACKGROUND: Incident patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are often prescribed either 3 or 4 exchanges per day. However, the effects on residual kidney function and clinical outcomes of 3 versus 4 exchanges are not known. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Incident CAPD patients aged 18 to 80 years with glomerular filtration rates (GFRs; mean of renal urea and creatinine clearance from a 24-hour urine collection) ≥ 2mL/min and urine volume ≥ 500mL/d...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Ahmer M Hameed, Henry C Pleass, Germaine Wong, Wayne J Hawthorne
BACKGROUND: The two main options for renal allograft preservation are static cold storage (CS) and machine perfusion (MP). There has been considerably increased interest in MP preservation of kidneys, however conflicting evidence regarding its efficacy and associated costs have impacted its scale of clinical uptake. Additionally, there is no clear consensus regarding oxygenation, and hypo- or normothermia, in conjunction with MP, and its mechanisms of action are also debated. The primary aims of this article were to elucidate the benefits of MP preservation with and without oxygenation, and/or under normothermic conditions, when compared with CS prior to deceased donor kidney transplantation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ranjana Khetarpal, Veena Chatrath, Jagjit Kaur, Anju Bala, Harjeet Singh
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) fluids are an integral part of perioperative management. Intraoperative hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients undergoing major surgeries even in nondiabetics. AIM: This study was conducted to observe the effect of different maintenance fluid regimens on intraoperative blood glucose levels in nondiabetic patients undergoing major surgeries under general anesthesia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Randomized double-blind study...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Akwugo A Eziefule, Solafa Elshatanoufy, Mili Thakur, Frederico G Rocha
Background Propofol is a widely known, commonly used drug. Complications can occur with the use of this drug, including propofol-related infusion syndrome (PRIS). PRIS, in the obstetric population, has not been documented; however, we report a case of a patient who developed PRIS after an emergent cesarean delivery of a preterm infant. Case Study A 35-year-old multigravida woman presented complaining of leakage of fluid and decreased fetal movement. Her pregnancy was complicated by methadone maintenance therapy due to a history of opioid abuse...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Leandro Castañeyra-Ruiz, Ibrahim González-Marrero, Luis G Hernández-Abad, Emilia M Carmona-Calero, Gundela Meyer, Agustín Castañeyra-Perdomo
The choroid plexuses (ChP) are highly vascularized tissues suspended from each of the cerebral ventricles. Their main function is to secret cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces, forming a crucial system for the development and maintenance of the CNS. However, despite the essential role of the ChP-CSF system to regulate the CNS in a global manner, it still remains one of the most understudied areas in neurobiology. Here we define by immunohistochemistry the expression of different proteins involved in the maturation and functionality of the ChP from the late embryological period to maturity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Ankur Jain, Alka Khadwal, Gaurav Prakash, Nalini Gupta, Subhash Varma, Pankaj Malhotra
Testicular involvement in a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is well reported, but occurrence of "isolated" malignant hydrocele is extremely uncommon. We herein report a case of a 22-year-old man who presented to our hematology clinic with fever and easy fatiguability of 2 weeks' duration. Examination revealed pallor, cervical lymphadenopathy, and bilateral scrotal swellings. He was diagnosed as a case of Philadelphia-positive ALL (B-cell type) based on peripheral smear, bone marrow examination, and flow cytometry of the marrow aspirate...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pathology
Vanessa S Goodwill, Christopher Terrill, Ian Hopewood, Arthur D Loewy, Mark M Knuepfer
In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate...
September 22, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Mahesh Kandula, K B Sunil Kumar, Sivanesan Palanichamy, Ashok Rampal
Mesalamine (5-ASA) is one of the drugs indicated as first line therapy in ulcerative colitis for induction and maintenance of remission. Sulfasalazine and formulations of 5-ASA (pH-dependent and controlled release formulations) were developed to minimize the systemic absorption and maximize the delivery of the mesalamine to colon. Although, its efficacy and safety is well documented there are approximately 30% nonresponders to 5-ASA therapy. This necessitates the need for novel therapeutic options to improve the efficacy and safety of the currently available 5-ASA therapy...
October 4, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Annika Öhrfelt, Ann Brinkmalm, Julien Dumurgier, Gunnar Brinkmalm, Oskar Hansson, Henrik Zetterberg, Elodie Bouaziz-Amar, Jacques Hugon, Claire Paquet, Kaj Blennow
BACKGROUND: Synaptic degeneration is a central pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease that occurs early during the course of disease and correlates with cognitive symptoms. The pre-synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin-1 appears to be essential for the maintenance of an intact synaptic transmission and cognitive function. Synaptotagmin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid is a candidate Alzheimer biomarker for synaptic dysfunction that also may correlate with cognitive decline. METHODS: In this study, a novel mass spectrometry-based assay for measurement of cerebrospinal fluid synaptotagmin-1 was developed, and was evaluated in two independent sample sets of patients and controls...
October 3, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Priscila Vivas da Cruz Andrade, Vanessa Tubero Euzebio Alves, Verônica Franco de Carvalho, Michelle De Franco Rodrigues, Claudio Mendes Pannuti, Marinella Holzhausen, Giorgio De Micheli, Marina Clemente Conde
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) was introduced as a promising adjuvant therapy on the periodontal treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aPDT on inflammatory mediator levels in residual periodontal pockets of patients with severe chronic periodontitis under periodontal maintenance, during 12 months follow-up. A randomized controlled trial study was conducted in 28 patients with severe chronic periodontitis. After non-surgical periodontal treatment, patients with at least four teeth with residual pocket probing depth (PPD) ≥4 mm were randomly assigned to either aPDT or control group...
October 4, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Marc G Besselink, L Bengt van Rijssen, Claudio Bassi, Christos Dervenis, Marco Montorsi, Mustapha Adham, Horacio J Asbun, Maximillian Bockhorn, Oliver Strobel, Markus W Büchler, Olivier R Busch, Richard M Charnley, Kevin C Conlon, Laureano Fernández-Cruz, Abe Fingerhut, Helmut Friess, Jakob R Izbicki, Keith D Lillemoe, John P Neoptolemos, Michael G Sarr, Shailesh V Shrikhande, Robert Sitarz, Charles M Vollmer, Charles J Yeo, Werner Hartwig, Christopher L Wolfgang, Dirk J Gouma
BACKGROUND: Recent literature suggests that chyle leak may complicate up to 10% of pancreatic resections. Treatment depends on its severity, which may include chylous ascites. No international consensus definition or grading system of chyle leak currently is available. METHODS: The International Study Group on Pancreatic Surgery, an international panel of pancreatic surgeons working in well-known, high-volume centers, reviewed the literature and worked together to establish a consensus on the definition and classification of chyle leak after pancreatic operation...
September 28, 2016: Surgery
Markus Pirklbauer, Ramona Schupart, Gert Mayer
INTRODUCTION: To avoid excessive calcium loading in haemodialysis (HD) patients, current guidelines suggest a dialysate calcium concentration (dCa) of 2·5 mEq/L based on relatively stable intradialytic serum calcium levels. However, the latter do not account for possible calcium storage in acutely accessible pools. A rapidly exchangeable calcium pool located at the bone level has been previously proposed to be involved in acute (minute-to-minute) extracellular calcium regulation. DESIGN: To evaluate the contribution of this pool in the maintenance of serum calcium levels, acute calcium buffer capacity was assessed by measuring intradialytic dialysate-sided ionized calcium mass balance (iCaMB ) and change in extracellular fluid calcium mass in chronic HD patients using a dCa of 3·5 (n = 28) and 2·5 (n = 10) mEq/L...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Marta Maycas, Kevin A McAndrews, Amy Y Sato, Gretel G Pellegrini, Drew M Brown, Matthew R Allen, Lilian I Plotkin, Arancha R Gortazar, Pedro Esbrit, Teresita Bellido
There is an unmet need to understand the mechanisms underlying skeletal deterioration in diabetes mellitus (DM) and to develop therapeutic approaches to treat bone fragility in diabetic patients. We demonstrate herein that mice with type 1 DM induced by streptozotocin exhibited low bone mass, inferior mechanical and material properties, increased bone resorption, decreased bone formation, increased apoptosis of osteocytes, and increased expression of the osteocyte-derived bone formation inhibitor Sost/sclerostin...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Prashant Kumar, Anisha Ashokan, Gopala Krishna Aradhyam
BACKGROUND: Human APJ receptor (APJR), a rhodopsin family G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR), activated by isoforms of peptide ligand apelin causing potent inotropic effect, is involved in cardiac function, angiogenesis and maintenance of fluid homeostasis. APJR is expressed in various organs e.g., heart, brain, kidney, muscles, etc. Hence, problems in APJR signaling lead to severe dysregulation in the pathophysiology of an organism. METHODS: Based on multiple sequence alignment of receptors from various organisms, we observe a large number of conserved residues in the extracellular side...
September 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
David H MacIver, Ismail Adeniran, Iain R MacIver, Alistair Revell, Henggui Zhang
Pulmonary hypertension is usually related to obstruction of pulmonary blood flow at the level of the pulmonary arteries (eg, pulmonary embolus), pulmonary arterioles (idiopathic pulmonary hypertension), pulmonary veins (pulmonary venoocclusive disease) or mitral valve (mitral stenosis and regurgitation). Pulmonary hypertension is also observed in heart failure due to left ventricle myocardial diseases regardless of the ejection fraction. Pulmonary hypertension is often regarded as a passive response to the obstruction to pulmonary flow...
October 2016: American Heart Journal
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