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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334885/full-volume-isotonic-0-9-vs-two-thirds-volume-hypotonic-0-18-intravenous-maintenance-fluids-in-preventing-hyponatremia-in-children-admitted-to-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-a-randomized-controlled-study
#1
Raksha S K, B Dakshayani, Premalatha R
Background: : We aimed to compare the effect of two different intravenous fluid regimes on the incidence of hyponatremia in children. Methods: : Children 1 month to 18 years of age, admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary care medical college hospital were randomized to receive either isotonic fluid (0.9% saline in 5% dextrose) at the standard maintenance rate or hypotonic fluid (0.18% saline in 5% dextrose) at two-thirds of the standard maintenance rate...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320755/ciliary-mechanisms-of-cyst-formation-in-polycystic-kidney-disease
#2
Ming Ma, Anna-Rachel Gallagher, Stefan Somlo
Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a disease of defective tissue homeostasis resulting in active remodeling of nephrons and bile ducts to form fluid-filled sacs called cysts. The causal genes PKD1 and PKD2 encode transmembrane proteins polycystin 1 (PC1) and polycystin 2 (PC2), respectively. Together, the polycystins localize to the solitary primary cilium that protrudes from the apical surface of most kidney tubule cells and is thought to function as a privileged compartment that the cell uses for signal integration of sensory inputs...
March 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317453/ebola-virus-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-control-threat-to-humans-lessons-learnt-and-preparedness-plans-an-update-on-its-40-year-s-journey
#3
Raj Kumar Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Rekha Khandia, Ruchi Tiwari, Ashok Munjal, Mani Saminathan, Swati Sachan, Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Sunil Kumar Joshi
Ebola virus (EBOV) is an extremely contagious pathogen and causes lethal hemorrhagic fever disease in man and animals with high fatality rates. The recently occurred Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in the West African countries have categorized it as an international health concern. For the virus maintenance and transmission, the non-human primates and reservoir hosts like fruit bats have played a vital role. Furthermore, the virus may also get transferred through contaminated biological fluids like breast milk, tears, urine, semen, blood, etc...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315594/goal-neglect-fluid-intelligence-and-processing-speed-manipulating-instruction-load-and-inter-stimulus-interval
#4
Matthew H Iveson, Sergio Della Sala, Mike Anderson, Sarah E MacPherson
Goal maintenance is the process where task rules and instructions are kept active to exert their control on behavior. When this process fails, an individual may ignore a rule while performing the task, despite being able to describe it after task completion. Previous research has suggested that the goal maintenance system is limited by the number of concurrent rules which can be maintained during a task, and that this limit is dependent on an individual's level of fluid intelligence. However, the speed at which an individual can process information may also limit their ability to use task rules when the task demands them...
March 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295857/single-frequency-and-multi-frequency-bioimpedance-analysis-what-is-the-difference
#5
Serkan Feyyaz Yalın, Sibel Gulcicek, Suna Avci, Banu Erkalma Senates, Mehmet Riza Altıparmak, Sinan Trabulus, Selma Alagoz, Hakan Yavuzer, Alper Doventas, Nurhan Seyahi
AIM: Bioelectrical impedance analysis is a promising method in determining the body compartments in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the agreement between two widely used methods: the single-frequency and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyses. METHODS: Maintenance hemodialysis patients were enrolled in the study. Single-frequency and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyses were performed consecutively before hemodialysis...
March 10, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285451/analysis-of-microbiota-involved-in-the-aged-natural-fermentation-of-indigo
#6
Takahiro Okamoto, Kenichi Aino, Takashi Narihiro, Hidetoshi Matsuyama, Isao Yumoto
Although the indigo reduction process is performed via natural fermentation and maintained under open-air condition, the indigo-reducing reactions continue for 6 months (on average) or longer. Identifying the mechanism underlying the maintenance of this process could lead to the development of a novel, long-lasting, unsterilized bioprocesses. To determine the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of the indigo fermentation system microbiota for more than 6 months in a reduced state in an anaerobic alkaline environment, we examined changes in the microbiota in one early-phase batch and two aged batches of indigo fermentation fluid...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285000/reinforcement-of-articular-cartilage-with-a-tissue-interpenetrating-polymer-network-reduces-friction-and-modulates-interstitial-fluid-load-support
#7
Benjamin G Cooper, Taylor Lawson, Brian D Snyder, Mark W Grinstaff
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis is associated with increased articular cartilage hydraulic permeability and decreased maintenance of high interstitial fluid load support during articulation, resulting in increased friction on the cartilage solid matrix. This study assesses frictional response following in situ synthesis of an interpenetrating polymer network designed to mimic glycosaminoglycans depleted during osteoarthritis. METHODS: Cylindrical osteochondral explants containing various interpenetrating polymer concentrations were subjected to a torsional friction test under unconfined creep compression...
March 8, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282425/administration-of-tranexamic-acid-to-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-evokes-pain-and-increases-the-infusion-rate-of-remifentanil-during-the-surgery
#8
Nobuko Ohashi, Masayuki Ohashi, Naoto Endo, Tatsuro Kohno
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that tranexamic acid (TXA) evokes pain in rats by inhibiting γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors on neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. Although TXA is commonly used to reduce perioperative blood loss during various surgeries, its potential to induce intraoperative nociception, thereby increasing the need for more analgesics during surgery, has not been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether TXA evokes pain and increases the need for a higher infusion rate of remifentanil in patients undergoing surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270914/sepsis-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-%C3%AE-adrenergic-blockade-therapy-for-sepsis
#9
REVIEW
Takeshi Suzuki, Yuta Suzuki, Jun Okuda, Takuya Kurazumi, Tomohiro Suhara, Tomomi Ueda, Hiromasa Nagata, Hiroshi Morisaki
Despite recent advances in medical care, mortality due to sepsis, defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, remains high. Fluid resuscitation and vasopressors are the first-line treatment for sepsis in order to optimize hemodynamic instability caused by vasodilation and increased vascular permeability. However, these therapies, aimed at maintaining blood pressure and blood flow to vital organs, could have deleterious cardiac effects, as cardiomyocyte damage occurs in the early stages of sepsis...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264820/microtubule-motors-in-establishment-of-epithelial-cell-polarity
#10
Geri Kreitzer, Monn Monn Myat
Epithelial cells play a key role in insuring physiological homeostasis by acting as a barrier between the outside environment and internal organs. They are also responsible for the vectorial transport of ions and fluid essential to the function of many organs. To accomplish these tasks, epithelial cells must generate an asymmetrically organized plasma membrane comprised of structurally and functionally distinct apical and basolateral membranes. Adherent and occluding junctions, respectively, anchor cells within a layer and prevent lateral diffusion of proteins in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane and restrict passage of proteins and solutes through intercellular spaces...
March 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264818/trafficking-ion-transporters-to-the-apical-membrane-of-polarized-intestinal-enterocytes
#11
Amy Christine Engevik, James R Goldenring
Epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract require distinct apical and basolateral domains to function properly. Trafficking and insertion of enzymes and transporters into the apical brush border of intestinal epithelial cells is essential for effective digestion and absorption of nutrients. Specific critical ion transporters are delivered to the apical brush border to facilitate fluid and electrolyte uptake. Maintenance of these apical transporters requires both targeted delivery and regulated membrane recycling...
March 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264586/low-pressure-hydrocephalus-clinical-manifestations-radiological-characteristics-and-treatment
#12
Zhe Cheng, Wenhua Wang, Yong Han, Jiangang Liu, Zhong Wang, Youxin Zhou, Fengen Li, Yulun Huang
Low pressure hydrocephalus (LPH) is a rare type of hydrocephalus with low intracranial pressure and ventriculomegaly. The recognition of LPH is important, and the treatment is difficult and very complicated. An understanding of how to drain cerebrospinal fluid when the intracranial pressure is lower than the opening pressure of the value represents a critical issue. Seven patients who suffered from the pain of hydrocephalus syndrome and were diagnosed with LPH were retrospectively reviewed. A ventricle peritoneal shunt was applied to all patients, and the valve system was adjusted to the lowest pressure; however, the clinical manifestations of hydrocephalus in five of seven patients did not improve over one week...
March 6, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261022/emerging-roles-of-lymphatic-vasculature-in-immunity
#13
REVIEW
Ki-Wook Kim, Joo-Hye Song
The lymphatic vasculature has been regarded as a passive conduit for interstitial fluid and responsible for the absorption of macromolecules such as proteins or lipids and transport of nutrients from food. However, emerging data show that the lymphatic vasculature system plays an important role in immune modulation. One of its major roles is to coordinate antigen transport and immune-cell trafficking from peripheral tissues to secondary lymphoid organs, lymph nodes. This perspective was recently updated with the notion that the interaction between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes controls the immune-cell migration and immune responses by regulating lymphatic flow and various secreted molecules such as chemokines and cytokines...
February 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260940/ultrastructural-changes-and-nestin-expression-accompanying-compensatory-renal-growth-after-unilateral-nephrectomy-in-adult-rats
#14
Mohamed Ahmed Eladl, Wael M Elsaed, Hoda Atef, Mohamed El-Sherbiny
BACKGROUND: Several renal disorders affect the glomerular podocytes. Compensatory structural and functional changes have been observed in animals that have undergone unilateral renal ablation. These changes occur as a pliant response to quench the increased functional demand to maintain homeostasis of fluid and solutes. Nestin is an intermediate filament protein present in the glomerular podocytes of the adult kidney and is linked with the maintenance of its foot process structure. Structural changes in the podocytes ultimately restructure the filtration barrier...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259929/expression-profiles-and-circulation-dynamics-of-rat-mesenteric-lymph-micrornas
#15
Wakako Sakamoto, Tomohiko Masuno, Hiroyuki Yokota, Toshihiro Takizawa
Mesenteric lymph is vital for immune cell trafficking and intestinal fluid and chyle transport, which aid homeostatic maintenance. There have been few reports investigating the profiles and circulatory dynamics of mesenteric lymph microRNAs (miRNAs). The present study aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in normal rodent mesenteric lymph. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR)‑based array analysis was performed to examine the expression levels of 375 miRNAs in normal rat mesenteric lymph...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253022/a-sodium-drink-enhances-fluid-retention-during-3-hours-of-post-exercise-recovery-when-ingested-with-a-standard-meal
#16
Gethin H Evans, Jennifer Miller, Sophie Whiteley, Lewis J James
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of water and a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution on post-exercise rehydration when a standard meal was consumed during rehydration. Eight healthy participants took part in two experimental trials during which they lost 1.5 ± 0.4 % of initial body mass via intermittent exercise in the heat. Participants then rehydrated over a 60 minute period with water or a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution in a volume equivalent to 150% of their body mass loss during exercise. In addition, a standard meal was ingested during this time which was equivalent to 30% of participants predicted daily energy expenditure...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251745/in-children-requiring-intravenous-fluid-for-hydration-maintenance-which-out-of-hypotonic-saline-and-isotonic-saline-is-less-likely-to-result-in-the-development-of-hyponatraemia
#17
Michael Ma Tran, Esther M Tantsis, Joanne M Ging
The administration of intravenous fluids remains a common intervention for hospitalised children. Commonly used hypotonic fluids administered at maintenance rates provide 2-4 mmol/kg/day of sodium. Being hypotonic, the development of hyponatraemia remains a risk. The consequences of hyponatraemia are not insignificant, with possibilities of irreversible neurological morbidity and mortality. There is currently no clear consensus on the optimal composition of fluids to be used for intravenous rehydration. A review of the available literature suggests that children who receive isotonic fluid have a lower risk of developing hyponatraemia, regardless of the rate of administration...
March 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248529/neuronal-circuits-involved-in-osmotic-challenges
#18
M C Dos Santos Moreira, L M Naves, S M Marques, E F Silva, E Colombari, G R Pedrino
The maintenance of plasma sodium concentration within a narrow limit is crucial to life. When it differs from normal physiological patterns, several mechanisms are activated in order to restore body fluid homeostasis. Such mechanisms may be vegetative and/or behavioral, and several regions of the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in their triggering. Some of these are responsible for sensory pathways that perceive a disturbance of the body fluid homeostasis and transmit information to other regions...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246186/regulation-of-transporters-and-channels-by-membrane-trafficking-complexes-in-epithelial-cells
#19
Curtis T Okamoto
The vectorial secretion and absorption of fluid and solutes by epithelial cells is dependent on the polarized expression of membrane solute transporters and channels at the apical and basolateral membranes. The establishment and maintenance of this polarized expression of transporters and channels are affected by divers protein-trafficking complexes. Moreover, regulation of the magnitude of transport is often under control of physiological stimuli, again through the interaction of transporters and channels with protein-trafficking complexes...
February 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241392/the-high-incidence-of-severe-chronic-kidney-disease-after-intestinal-transplantation-and-its-impact-on-patient-and-graft-survival
#20
Geneviève Huard, Kishore Iyer, Jang Moon, John T Doucette, Vinay Nair, Thomas D Schiano
INTRODUCTION: Using data from the SRTR, cumulative incidence, risk factors for, and impact on survival of severe CKD in ITx recipients were assessed. METHODS: First-time adult ITx recipients transplanted in the United States between 01/01/1990 and 12/31/2012 were included. Severe CKD after ITx was defined as: GFR <30 ml/min/1.73m(2) , chronic hemodialysis initiation, or KTx. Survival analysis and extended Cox model were conducted. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of severe CKD one, five and ten years after ITx was 3...
February 27, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
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