Read by QxMD icon Read


Amy Jennings, Alex MacGregor, Tim Spector, Aedín Cassidy
BACKGROUND: Although dietary flavonoid intake has been associated with less weight gain, there are limited data on its impact on fat mass, and to our knowledge, the contribution of genetic factors to this relation has not previously been assessed. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations between flavonoid intakes and fat mass. DESIGN: In a study of 2734 healthy, female twins aged 18-83 y from the TwinsUK registry, intakes of total flavonoids and 7 subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, polymers, and proanthocyanidins) were calculated with the use of food-frequency questionnaires...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Wenxiu Yang, Lulu Chen, Xiangjian Liu, Jianbo Jia, Shaojun Guo
Herein, a novel material with an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), composed of onion-like carbon@Co nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated on defect-rich N-doped graphene nanoribbons (C@Co-NGR), is prepared via a combination of nitric acid etching and subsequent high-temperature treatment of the as-synthesized C@Co-N doped carbon nanotubes. The as-prepared C@Co-NGR exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for the ORR in 0.10 M KOH with a half-wave potential of 0.830 V (vs...
January 16, 2017: Nanoscale
Haruki Koike, Masato Kadoya, Ken-Ichi Kaida, Shohei Ikeda, Yuichi Kawagashira, Masahiro Iijima, Daisuke Kato, Hidenori Ogata, Ryo Yamasaki, Noriyuki Matsukawa, Jun-Ichi Kira, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the morphological features of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with autoantibodies directed against paranodal junctional molecules, particularly focusing on the fine structures of the paranodes. METHODS: We assessed sural nerve biopsy specimens obtained from 9 patients with CIDP with antineurofascin-155 antibodies and 1 patient with anticontactin-1 antibodies. 13 patients with CIDP without these antibodies were also examined to compare pathological findings...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Andreas Schieber
Industrial processing of plant-derived raw materials generates enormous amounts of by-products. On one hand, these by-products constitute a serious disposal issue because they often emerge seasonally and are prone to microbial decay. On the other hand, they are an abundant source of valuable compounds, in particular secondary plant metabolites and cell wall materials, which may be recovered and used to functionalize foods and replace synthetic additives with ingredients of natural origin. This review covers 150 references and presents select studies performed between 2001 and 2016 on the recovery, characterization, and application of valuable constituents from grape pomace, apple pomace, potato peels, tomato pomace, carrot pomace, onion peels, by-products of citrus, mango, banana, and pineapple processing, side streams of olive oil production, and cereal by-products...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Junkai Gao, Yanjun Jiang, Jinshu Lu, Zhi Han, Jiajia Deng, Yan Chen
Dopmine functionalized mesoporous onion-like silica (DPMS) was synthesized via a biomimetic coating, and lipase Candida sp. 99-125 (LCS) was immobilized in DPMS (LCS@DPMS) by physical adsorption in this study. The DPMS was characterized by SEM, TEM, BET and FT-IR, and it was shown that the DPMS had clear multishell structures with large surface area of 419 m(2)/g. The activity, pH stability, thermal stability, storage stability, and reusability of the LCS@DPMS were investigated in detail. The stabilities of LCS@DPMS were improved significantly compared to the free lipase and LCS@MS (LCS immobilized in unfunctionalized mesoporous onion-like silica by physical adsorption)...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Noureddine Messaoudi, Raïs El'hadi Bekka, Philippe Ravier, Rachid Harba
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effects of the longitudinal single differential (LSD), the longitudinal double differential (LDD) and the normal double differential (NDD) spatial filters, the electrode shape, the inter-electrode distance (IED) on non-Gaussianity and non-linearity levels of simulated surface EMG (sEMG) signals when the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) varied from 10% to 100% by a step of 10%. The effects of recruitment range thresholds (RR), the firing rate (FR) strategy and the peak firing rate (PFR) of motor units were also considered...
December 25, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Paloma Abad, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Lidia Gil, Ana M García-Campaña
Onion extract is used as a feed supplement for the diet of dairy cows, acting as inhibitor of methane production; however, its properties could alter sensory attributes of milk. In this work, we propose a method to evaluate the influence of this extract on milk properties, using propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) as a marker. PTSO is extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure and monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The method was applied to milk samples obtained from 100 dairy cows fed during 2 months with enriched feed...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ding Liujun, Pu Mingyu, Wei Bo, Wang Xianping, Fan Renchun, Zhang Xiangqi
Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici Eriks. &Henn. (Pst), is a serious fungal disease. Identification of new genes associate with stripe rust resistance is important for developing disease resistant wheat cultivars and studying the mechanism of disease resistance. Trihelix is a plant specific transcription factor family, which is involved in regulation of growth and development, morphogenesis, and response to stresses. So far, no study reports on the relationship between the Trihelix family and wheat stripe rust...
December 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Zvjezdana Stančić, Dinko Vujević, Ana Gomaz, Saša Bogdan, Dragutin Vincek
The present study was aimed at the estimation of heavy metal content in vegetables sold at the city market of one of the densely populated Croatian cities, Varaždin, and to establish the relationship between their levels and possible sources of contamination. Twenty-eight samples of the most common diet vegetables (red and white potato, onion, carrot, common bean, lettuce, and cabbage) were randomly bought at the market in September and October 2013. Using the atomic absorption spectrometry method, concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were measured in the selected samples...
December 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Keith Doore, Matthew Cook, Eric Clausen, Pavel V Lukashev, Tim E Kidd, Andrew J Stollenwerk
Despite an enormous amount of research on carbon based nanostructures, relatively little is known about the electronic structure of multi-walled carbon fullerenes, also known as carbon onions. In part, this is due to the very high computational expense involved in estimating electronic structure of large molecules. At the same time, experimentally, the exact crystal structure of the carbon onion is usually unknown, and therefore one relies on qualitative arguments only. In this work we present the results of a computational study on a series of multi-walled fullerenes and compare their electronic structures to experimental data...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jia-Xiao Li, Peter Schieberle, Martin Steinhaus
Sixteen compounds, previously identified as potent odorants by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis and the gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of static headspace samples, were quantitated in the pulp of durians, variety Monthong, and odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated by dividing the concentrations obtained by the odor thresholds of the compounds in water. In combination with data recently reported for hydrogen sulfide and short-chain alkanethiols, OAVs > 1 were obtained for 19 compounds, among which ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 1700000), ethanethiol (rotten onion; OAV 480000), and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane-1-thiol (roasted onion; OAV 250000) were the most potent, followed by methanethiol (rotten, cabbage; OAV 45000), ethane-1,1-dithiol (sulfury, durian; OAV 23000), and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity; OAV 22000)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kathy E Schwinn, Hanh Ngo, Fernand Kenel, David A Brummell, Nick W Albert, John A McCallum, Meeghan Pither-Joyce, Ross N Crowhurst, Colin Eady, Kevin M Davies
Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Diana González-Peña, Antonio Checa, Begoña de Ancos, Craig E Wheelock, Concepción Sánchez-Moreno
The levels and roles of lipid mediators can be modified in response to nutritional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate shifts in oxylipin and sphingolipid profiles stimulated by a hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet along with the modulating effects of onion introduced as an antioxidant functional ingredient characterized in the diet (HCO). Oxylipin and sphingolipid profiles were determined in plasma and tissues from Wistar rats using LC-MS/MS. Plasma ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA-derived oxylipins decreased in rats after 7 weeks of HC feeding, but did not evidence a further shift with HCO diet...
December 9, 2016: Redox Biology
Santosh Kumar Sharma, Maki Yamamoto, Yasuhiko Mukai
Epigenetic regulatory posttranslational histone modification marks not only function individually but also capable to act in combination as a unique pattern. A total of 16 plant species belonging to 11 genera of eight families (five dicots and three monocots) including land plants, epiphytes (orchids) and the holokinetic taxa (Drosera spp.) were analysed for chromosomal distribution of dual modified antiphospho (Ser10)-acetyl (K14)-histone H3 (H3S10phK14ac) to understand the combinatorial chromatin dynamics during mitotic cell division in plants...
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
Mirela Nedelescu, Daniela Baconi, Aurora Neagoe, Virgil Iordache, Miriana Stan, Paula Constantinescu, Anne-Marie Ciobanu, Alexander I Vardavas, Marco Vinceti, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
We investigated two Romanian industrial regions- Copşa Mică and Zlatna, to assess the current situation of soil pollution and bioaccumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different vegetable species and possible risks to consumers. Both total and mobile forms of the metals were determined in soil samples, and metal content in the edible parts of root vegetable samples was also assessed. The concentrations of Pb and Zn in soil were higher in Copşa Mică than in Zlatna (566mg/kg vs 271mg/kg for Pb and 1143mg/kg vs 368mg/kg for Zn)·The metal mobility in soil from Copsa Mica decreases in the order Zn>Cu>Cd>Pb (1...
December 16, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Hui Zhang, Shengyong Wu, Zhenlong Xing, Xiaoqing Wang, Zhongren Lei
When flies were dipped in 1 × 10(8) conidia/ml conidia suspensions and then kept in the incubator (22 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 5% RH), scanning electron microscope observations revealed that, at 2 h, the majority of adhering Beauveria bassiana conidia were attached to either the wing surface or the interstitial area between the macrochaetae on the thorax and abdomen of the onion maggot adults. Germ tubes were being produced and had oriented toward the cuticle by 18 h. Penetration of the insect cuticle had occurred by 36 h, and by 48 h, germ tubes had completely penetrated the cuticle...
December 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Alessandra Bendini, Anna Vallverdu-Queralt, Enrico Valli, Rosa Palagano, Rosa Maria Lamuela-Raventos, Tullia Gallina Toschi
BACKGROUND: The sensory and head-space profiles of Italian and Spanish commercial tomato sauces have been studied. The Flash Profiling method was used to evaluate the sensory characteristics and samples within each set and were ranked according to selected descriptors. A hundred volatile compounds were identified by SPME-GC-MS. RESULTS: For Italian samples, the sensory notes of basil/aromatic herbs, acid and cooked tomato were among the most perceived by assessors, whereas in Spanish ones the sensory attributes of garlic/onion, onion/sweet pepper and, as for the Italian ones, cooked tomato were among the most frequently found...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Kasi Viswanatharaju Ruddraraju, Zachary D Parsons, Calvin D Lewis, Kent S Gates
Allyl sulfides are bioactive phytochemicals found in garlic, onion, and other members of the genus Allium. Here we showed that diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide can transfer allyl side chains to low molecular weight thiols. Diallyl monosulfide is inert with respect to this allyl transfer reaction. On the other hand, diallyl sulfone, a known metabolite of diallyl monosulfide, alkylates both amines and thiols under physiologically relevant conditions via isomerization to an electrophilic vinyl sulfone.
December 14, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ye Han, Qiuyan Ban, Hua Li, Yali Hou, Mijing Jin, Shoukun Han, Jingping Rao
Fruit softening is mainly associated with cell wall structural modifications, and members of the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) family are key enzymes involved in cleaving and re-joining xyloglucan in the cell wall. In this work, we isolated a new XTH gene, DkXTH8, from persimmon fruit. Transcriptional profiling revealed that DkXTH8 peaked during dramatic fruit softening, and expression of DkXTH8 was stimulated by propylene and abscisic acid but suppressed by gibberellic acid and 1-MCP. Transient expression assays in onion epidermal cells indicated direct localization of DkXTH8 to the cell wall via its signal peptide...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jiajun Dong, Tong Zhang, Dong Zhang, Weiwei Zhang, Huafang Zhang, Ran Liu, Mingguang Yao, Bingbing Liu
Onion-like carbon nanospheres (OCNSs) with an average diameter of 43 nm were produced on a large scale via a combustion method and examined as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The OCNSs exhibit a remarkable electrochemical cycling behavior and a capacity much higher than that of graphite. The capacity increases significantly with increasing charge-discharge cycles and reaches a value of 178% of the initial value (from 586 mA h g(-1)to 1045 mA h g(-1)) after 200 cycles. Further investigation provides unambiguous experimental evidence that such a remarkable capacity increase is related to the stable onion-like structure of the OCNSs and to the existence of large numbers of disordered/short graphitic fragments, which gradually provide more active sites for Li ion storage...
January 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"