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Inês Carqueijeiro, Liuda J Sepúlveda, Angela Mosquera, Richard Payne, Cyrielle Corbin, Nicolas Papon, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Sébastien Besseau, Arnaud Lanoue, Gaëlle Glévarec, Marc Clastre, Benoit St-Pierre, Lucia Atehortùa, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Sarah E O'Connor, Audrey Oudin, Vincent Courdavault
Accurate and efficient demonstrations of protein localizations to the vacuole or tonoplast remain strict prerequisites to decipher the role of vacuoles in the whole plant cell biology and notably in defence processes. In this chapter, we describe a reliable procedure of protein subcellular localization study through transient transformations of Catharanthus roseus or onion cells and expression of fusions with fluorescent proteins allowing minimizing artefacts of targeting.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yuyun Lu, Alicia Sarah Yoke Ling Fong, Jian-Yong Chua, Dejian Huang, Pin-Rou Lee, Shao-Quan Liu
Durian fruit is rich in volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), especially thiols and disulfides, which contribute to its onion-like odor. After fermentation, these VSCs were reduced to trace or undetectable levels in durian wine. The possible reduction mechanism of these VSCs (especially diethyl disulfide and ethanethiol) was investigated in a modified buffer in the presence of sulfite at different pH. An interconversion between diethyl disulfide and ethanethiol was found to be dependent on the pH: the higher the pH, the higher production of ethanethiol...
June 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kathryn Potter, Sailesh Konda, Vicky Zhen Ren, Apphia Lihan Wang, Aditya Srinivasan, Suneel Chilukuri
Surgical management of benign or malignant cutaneous tumors may result in noticeable scars that are of great concern to patients, regardless of sex, age, or ethnicity. Techniques to optimize surgical scars are discussed in this three-part review. Part 3 focuses on scar revision for erythema, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation. Scar revision options for erythematous scars include moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO), onion extract, silicone, methyl aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT), pulsed dye laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and nonablative fractional lasers...
2018: Skinmed
Hao Sun, Yaoke Duan, Xiaocui Qi, Liyang Zhang, Heqiang Huo, Haijun Gong
Background and Aims: Silicon has been proven to exert beneficial effects on plant growth and stress tolerance, and silicon accumulation varies among different plant species. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely used dicot model for silicon accumulation, but little is known about the molecular mechanism of its silicon uptake. Previously, we isolated and characterized CsLsi1, a silicon influx transporter gene from cucumber. In this study, we cloned a putative silicon efflux transporter gene, CsLsi2, from cucumber and investigated its role in silicon uptake...
June 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
K Rossi, L Bartok-Pártay, G Csányi, F Baletto
The control of structural and chemical transitions in bimetallic nanoalloys at finite temperatures is one of the challenges for their use in advanced applications. Comparing Nested Sampling and Molecular Dynamics simulations, we investigate the phase changes of CuPt nanoalloys with the aim to elucidate the role of kinetic effects during their solidification and melting processes. We find that the quasi-thermodynamic limit for the nucleation of (CuPt)309 is 965 ± 10 K, but its prediction is increasingly underestimated when the system is cooled faster than 109  K/s...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhi-Wei Bai, Li-Mei Pu, Bi-Feng Tang, Qian Wang, Xiu-Ming Cui, Di-Qiu Liu
Chitinases, a glycosidase enzyme that hydrolyzes chitin to N-acetylglucosamine, are widely found in plant cells, and they are an important part of plant antifungal defense system. The function of a Panax notoginseng chitinase gene PnCHI1 was characterized in this paper. Expression vector of PnCHI1 was constructed and transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells, and laser scanning confocal microscopy demonstrated that PnCHI1 was localized in the cell wall. Prokaryotic expression vector of PnCHI1 was also constructed, and recombinant protein of PnCHI1 was induced and purified...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Jing-Yun Chen, Ya-Wen Chang, Si-Zhu Zheng, Ming-Xing Lu, Yu-Zhou Du
Liriomyza chinensis is a serious pest of onions in many countries, especially in East Asia. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this species and compared it with five other Agromyzidae species. The L. chinensis mitogenome is a double-stranded 16,175 bp circular molecule with an A + T content of 78.3%. It contains 37 genes and a control region as do the sequenced Liriomyza species. The mitogenomes of L. chinensis and other Agromyzidae species showed a clear bias in nucleotide composition with a positive AT-skew...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ioannis Mourtzinos, Prodromos Prodromidis, Spyros Grigorakis, Dimitris P Makris, Costas G Biliaderis, Thomas Moschakis
The valorization of onion (Allium cepa) solid wastes, a 450,000 tonnes/year waste in Europe, by a green extraction method is presented. Polyphenols of onion solid wastes were extracted using eco-friendly solvents, such as water and glycerol. The 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was also used as a co-solvent for the augmentation of the extraction yield. The process has been optimized by implementing a central composite face centered design of experiments, with two replicates in the central point, taking into consideration the following independent variables: glycerol concentration, cyclodextrin concentration and temperature...
June 10, 2018: Electrophoresis
Diego P Sangi, Yuri G Meira, Natália M Moreira, Thais A Lopes, Mathias P Leite, Milton E Pereira-Flores, Elson S Alvarenga
BACKGROUND: Despite the need to develop new herbicides with different modes of action, due to weed resistance, there are many important classes of compounds, which have been studied poorly for this purpose. Benzoxazoles are considered privileged structures for their biological activities, but their phytotoxic activities have not received a lot of attention until now. RESULTS: Double vinylic substitution reactions were accomplished to furnish four 2-nitromethylbenzoxazoles and one oxazolidine...
June 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Olga Drăghici, Mariana-Liliana Păcală, Simona Oancea
Cold pressed parsley seed oil gained special interest for the development of new functional foods. Similar to other edible oils it needs protection against oxidation. The present study evaluated the protective effects of anthocyanins extracted from outer skins of red onion on parsley seed oil. The natural extract-oil samples and control have been subjected to storage at 45 °C for 10 days. The results of thermal analysis by DSC showed an optimal concentration of anthocyanins of 3 mL/100 g oil. Kinetic studies using the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods were performed on the sample optimally prepared...
November 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Amit Kumar Singh, Anupam Bishayee, Abhay K Pandey
Cancer initiation and progression are the result of genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. Acetylation-mediated histone/non-histone protein modification plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Histone modification is controlled by the balance between histone acetyltransferase and (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. Imbalance between the activities of these two enzymes is associated with various forms of cancer. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) regulate the activity of HDACs and are being used in cancer treatment either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs/radiotherapy...
June 6, 2018: Nutrients
Alexander Conant, Julian Curiel, Amy Pizzino, Parisa Sabetrasekh, Jennifer Murphy, Miriam Bloom, Sarah H Evans, Guy Helman, Ryan J Taft, Cas Simons, Matthew T Whitehead, Steven A Moore, Adeline Vanderver
Leukodystrophies and genetic leukoencephalopathies are a heterogeneous group of heritable disorders that affect the glial-axonal unit. As more patients with unsolved leukodystrophies and genetic leukoencephalopathies undergo next generation sequencing, causative mutations in genes leading to central hypomyelination are being identified. Two such individuals presented with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy, and central hypomyelination with early respiratory failure. Whole exome sequencing identified biallelic mutations in the CNTNAP1 gene: homozygous c...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
Shigeki Takeda, Kiyoshi Onda, Yuichi Yoshida
Neuropathological examinations of the brain in cases of brain death are usually insufficient because of autolysis. We examined a case of sporadic-type cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related hemorrhage (sCAA-H) in a 74-year-old Japanese woman who had been clinically established as brain dead 7 days before cardiac arrest. The brain was macerated, and a huge hematoma was evident in the right parieto-occipital region. Ordinary neuropathological examination was unable to clarify where the hematoma was located in the brain parenchyma or the subarachnoid space (SAS)...
June 6, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Lennie K Y Cheung, Haruo Tomita, Toshikazu Takemori
Despite growing demand for more healthful frozen pizza, current technologies for increasing potential healthfulness such as reformulation or enrichment of raw ingredients may lead to undesirable changes in the final product. This study evaluated alternative heat treatments of selected frozen pizza ingredients as methods for increasing the healthfulness of frozen pizza. Four common vegetable toppings (i.e., onion, corn, Japanese green pepper, and red pepper) were heated on a 250°C hot plate, and commercially available par-baked pizza base was reheated at 500°C for 50 s to induce browning...
May 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
P James B Dyck, Jennifer A Tracy
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is probably the best recognized progressive immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy. It is characterized by a symmetrical, motor-predominant peripheral neuropathy that produces both distal and proximal weakness. Large-fiber abnormalities (weakness and ataxia) predominate, whereas small-fiber abnormalities (autonomic and pain) are less common. The pathophysiology of CIDP is inflammatory demyelination that manifests as slowed conduction velocities, temporal dispersion, and conduction block on nerve conduction studies and as segmental demyelination, onion-bulb formation, and endoneurial inflammatory infiltrates on nerve biopsies...
June 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Urs C Steiner, Lea Kölliker, Christina Weber-Chrysochoou, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier, Elsbeth Probst, Walter A Wuillemin, Arthur Helbling
BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare inherited disease. In most HAE-affected subjects, defined trigger factors precede angioedema attacks. Mechanisms of how trigger factors stimulate the contact activation pathway with bradykinin generation are not well elucidated. In recent studies, hypersensitivity reactions and food were stated as relevant triggers. We investigated HAE affected people for possible hypersensitivity reactions or intolerances and their relation in triggering angioedema attacks...
June 5, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Fawzi Mahomoodally, Simla Ramcharun, Gokhan Zengin
INTRODUCTION: Onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) extracts are traditionally used in many cultures as antimicrobial agents. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of scientific validation pertaining to the antibacterial and possible antibiotic potentiating activity of these plants. METHODS: Decoction as traditionally used and methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and acetone extracts of onion and garlic were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 15 bacterial strains (6 ATCC strains and 9 clinical isolates) using the broth microdilution method to establish the minimum inhibitory concentration...
June 3, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Lifeng Cui, Jialing Song, Allister F McGuire, Shifei Kang, Xueyou Fang, Junjie Wang, Chaochuang Yin, Xi Li, Yangang Wang, Bianxiao Cui
The introduction of microstructure to the metal-free graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) photocatalyst holds promise in enhancing its catalytic performance. However, producing such microstructured g-C3N4 remains technically challenging due to a complicated synthetic process and high cost. In this study, we develop a facile and in-air chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method that produces onion-ring-like g-C3N4 microstructures in a simple, reliable, and economical manner. This method involves the use of randomly packed 350 nm SiO2 microspheres as a hard template and melamine as a CVD precursor for the deposition of a thin layer of g-C3N4 in the narrow space between the SiO2 microspheres...
June 4, 2018: ACS Nano
Nelson L Mwando, Amanuel Tamiru, Johnson O Nyasani, Meshack A O Obonyo, John C Caulfield, Toby J A Bruce, Sevgan Subramanian
Maize lethal necrosis is one of the most devastating diseases of maize causing yield losses reaching up to 90% in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by a combination of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and any one of cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group such as sugarcane mosaic virus. MCMV has been reported to be transmitted mainly by maize thrips (Frankliniella williamsi) and onion thrips (Thrips tabaci). To better understand the role of thrips vectors in the epidemiology of the disease, we investigated behavioral responses of F...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jiwei Zhang, Siqing Dai, Jinzhan Zhong, Teli Xi, Chaojie Ma, Ying Li, Jianglei Di, Jianlin Zhao
Surface plasmon holographic microscopy (SPHM), which combines surface plasmon microscopy with digital holographic microscopy, can be applied for amplitude- and phase-contrast surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. In this paper, we propose an improved SPHM with the wavelength multiplexing technique based on two laser sources and a common-path hologram recording configuration. Through recording and reconstructing the SPR images at two wavelengths simultaneously employing the improved SPHM, tiny variation of dielectric refractive index in near field is quantitatively monitored with an extended measurement range while maintaining the high sensitivity...
May 14, 2018: Optics Express
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