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Clint Wermes, Robert Cannon, Sytze Haasnoot, Hans Colstee, Cor Niedeveld, Gijs Koopmanschap, Neil C Da Costa
Thiols are often highly odor active molecules and as such can significantly contribute to aroma while being present at extremely low concentrations. This paper details the identification of thiols in yellow onion juice by solvent extraction followed by thiol enrichment using a mercuric agarose gel column. Due to the inherent thermal instability and low concentrations of thiols in onion, chromatographic analysis utilized larger volume solvent elimination injections. New sulfur compounds in onion included 1,1-propanedithiol, bis-(1-sulfanylpropyl)-sulfide, 1-methylsulfanyl-1-propanethiol, 1-propylsulfanyl-1-propanethiol, and 1-allylsulfanyl-1-propanethiol...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Stefania Lettieri, Marta d'Amora, Adalberto Camisasca, Alberto Diaspro, Silvia Giordani
Multishell fullerenes, known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs), have emerged as a platform for bioimaging because of their cell-penetration properties and minimal systemic toxicity. Here, we describe the covalent functionalization of CNOs with a π-extended distyryl-substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye with on/off modulated fluorescence emission activated by an acidic environment. The switching properties are linked to the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) characteristics of the dimethylamino functionalities attached to the BODIPY core...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Guodong Zhu, Yin Luo, Ming Xue, Haipeng Zhao, Xia Sun, Xinhui Wang, John Trumble
Bradysia odoriphaga Yang et Zhang, the Chinese chive root maggot, is a devastating pest of agricultural plants causing significant losses in vegetable crops, edible mushrooms, and humus. To determine the effects of feeding on different host plants and diets on the life parameters of B. odoriphaga and its tolerance to stressful conditions, we analyzed the life-table data of B. odoriphaga reared on Chinese chive (Allium hookeri), Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum), garlic (Allium sativum), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), and humus and assayed its tolerance to heat and insecticides...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Shuangshuang Chen, Xiaojiao Han, Jie Fang, Zhuchou Lu, Wenmin Qiu, Mingying Liu, Jian Sang, Jing Jiang, Renying Zhuo
The plant natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family plays an important role in tolerance to heavy metal stress. However, few Nramps have been functionally characterized in the heavy metal-accumulating plant Sedum alfredii. Here, Nramp6 was cloned and identified from S. alfredii and its function analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. SaNramp6 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1, 638 bp encoding 545 amino acids. SaNramp6's expression can be induced by cadmium (Cd) stress, and, after treatment, it peaked at one week and 12 h in the roots and leaves, respectively...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rita Metrani, G K Jayaprakasha, Bhimanagouda S Patil
The present study describes the rapid microplate method to determine pyruvic acid content in different varieties of onions. Onion juice was treated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to obtain hydrazone, which was further treated with potassium hydroxide to get stable colored complex. The stability of potassium complex was enhanced up to two hours and the structures of hydrazones were confirmed by LC-MS for the first time. The developed method was optimized by testing different bases, acids with varying concentrations of dinitrophenyl hydrazine to get stable color and results were comparable to developed method...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mariel Gullian-Klanian, Maria José Sánchez-Solis
Despite the increasing reports on the incidence of fresh vegetables and fruits as a possible vehicle for human pathogens, there is currently limited knowledge on the growth potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on different plant substrates. This study analyzed the selective adhesion and growth of E. coli O157:H7 on chili habanero (Capsicum chinense L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), radish (Raphanus sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris), and onion (Allium cepa L.) under laboratory conditions...
August 30, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
W A Wells
Finding the missing 4 million tuberculosis (TB) patients is one of the greatest challenges facing the TB community. The optimal approaches to this will vary by country, but there is no consistent process for analyzing the potential benefit of different strategies, or for deciding which approaches are most appropriate for a given setting. Here, I bring together the Onion Model-as a way to think through health system structures-and evidence from prevalence surveys. The result is a structured process for prioritizing different strategies for case finding...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Chun Guo, Rui-Juan Yang, Ke Jang, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Yu-Zhen Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Quercetin, a flavonoid found in onions and other vegetables, has potential inhibitory effects on bone resorption in vivo and in vitro. In our previous study, we found that quercetin treatment reversed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in MC3T3-E1 cells. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of pretreatment with quercetin on apoptosis and the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells induced by LPS...
October 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yoonjee Chang, Soo-Hyun Lee, Ja Hyun Na, Pahn-Shick Chang, Jaejoon Han
The purpose of this study was to develop an anti-insect pest repellent sachet to prevent Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) contamination in grain packaging. The anti-insect pest activities of essential oils (EOs) from garlic (Allium Sativum), ginger (Zingiber Officinalis), black pepper (Piper nigrum), onion (Allium cepa), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) as well as major compounds (allyl disulfide, AD; allyl mercaptan, AM) isolated from of garlic and onion (AD and AM) were measured against S...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Jane Ogoamaka Okwuzu, Peter Odeiga, Olubunmi AdetoroOtubanjo, Oliver Chukwujekwu Ezechi
BACKGROUND: The unrefined nature of the herbal preparations from Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and toxicity potentials of Sniper may both have severe consequences on the biochemical and genetic systems. OBJECTIVES: To assess the microscopic and macroscopic effects of these substances. METHODS: VA leafs and Sniper were prepared and dissolved in distilled water to give different concentrations. Series of baseline tests were carried out to establish concentration range for root growth...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
Cao Guan, Afriyanti Sumboja, Haijun Wu, Weina Ren, Ximeng Liu, Hong Zhang, Zhaolin Liu, Chuanwei Cheng, Stephen J Pennycook, John Wang
Highly active and durable air cathodes to catalyze both the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are urgently required for rechargeable metal-air batteries. In this work, an efficient bifunctional oxygen catalyst comprising hollow Co3 O4 nanospheres embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon nanowall arrays on flexible carbon cloth (NC-Co3 O4 /CC) is reported. The hierarchical structure is facilely derived from a metal-organic framework precursor. A carbon onion coating constrains the Kirkendall effect to promote the conversion of the Co nanoparticles into irregular hollow oxide nanospheres with a fine scale nanograin structure, which enables promising catalytic properties toward both OER and ORR...
October 12, 2017: Advanced Materials
A T Djami-Tchatchou, K Ntushelo
BACKGROUND: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) is a soft rot bacterium which upon entry into the plant macerates plant tissues by producing plant cell wall degrading enzymes. It has a wide host range which includes carrot, potato, tomato, leafy greens, squash and other cucurbits, onion, green peppers and cassava. During plant-microbe interactions, one of the ways of plant response to pathogen infection is through the small RNA silencing mechanism. Under pathogen attack the plant utilizes microRNAs to regulate gene expression by means of mediating gene silencing at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Érica Castro Ferro, Claudia A L Cardoso, Gilberto J Arruda
This study describes a novel electrochemical method to determine the herbicide trifluralin in samples of water, fruit juice, and vegetable extracts in the presence of surfactants, using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In acidic media, trifluralin was irreversible on the glassy carbon electrode surface at -0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Surfactant presence on the electrode-solution interface modified current intensities and shifted the reduction peak potential of trifluralin. Different types of surfactant and their concentrations were investigated...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Hong Sub Lee, Kwang Jae Lee
Background/Aims: The role of dietary factors in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to compare IgG4 levels to common food antigens between patients with IBS and healthy controls. Methods: Thirty-two patients diagnosed as IBS according to the Rome III criteria (12 diarrhea subgroup; 20 non-diarrhea subgroup) and 32 sex and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Serum IgG4 titers to 90 common foods were measured in each subject...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Bin Tean Teh, Kevin Lim, Chern Han Yong, Cedric Chuan Young Ng, Sushma Ramesh Rao, Vikneswari Rajasegaran, Weng Khong Lim, Choon Kiat Ong, Ki Chan, Vincent Kin Yuen Cheng, Poh Sheng Soh, Sanjay Swarup, Steven G Rozen, Niranjan Nagarajan, Patrick Tan
Durian (Durio zibethinus) is a Southeast Asian tropical plant known for its hefty, spine-covered fruit and sulfury and onion-like odor. Here we present a draft genome assembly of D. zibethinus, representing the third plant genus in the Malvales order and first in the Helicteroideae subfamily to be sequenced. Single-molecule sequencing and chromosome contact maps enabled assembly of the highly heterozygous durian genome at chromosome-scale resolution. Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits...
October 9, 2017: Nature Genetics
G Williamson
Polyphenols are found in plant-based foods and beverages, notably apples, berries, citrus fruit, plums, broccoli, cocoa, tea and coffee and many others. There is substantial epidemiological evidence that a diet high in polyphenol-rich fruit, vegetables, cocoa and beverages protects against developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The absorption and metabolism of these compounds have been well described and, for many, the gut microbiota play a critical role in absorption; taking into consideration the parent compound and the metabolites from colon bacteria catabolism, more than 80% of a dose can be absorbed and ultimately excreted in the urine...
September 2017: Nutrition Bulletin
R R Ferreira, C A F Santos, V R Oliveira
The objective of this study was the identification of the cytoplasmic types and the genotyping for the fertility restoration nuclear locus (Ms) in 59 onion accessions, aiming at the selection of 'A' and 'B' lines essential for the obtainment of hybrids. Three markers were used to identify the cytoplasm 5' cob, orfA501, and orf725, and two were used for the Ms locus (AcSKP1 and AcPMS1). The two types of male-sterile cytoplasm ('S' and 'T'), as well as fertile cytoplasm ('N'), and the Ms and ms alleles in both homozygosity and heterozygosity were detected in the 59 genotypes evaluated in the experiment...
September 21, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Shubao Hu, Yao Yu, Qiuhong Chen, Guangmao Mu, Zhenguo Shen, Luqing Zheng
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metal elements in nature, and it causes serious damage to plant cells. Here, we report that a transcription factor OsMYB45 is involved in Cd stress response in rice. OsMYB45 is highly expressed in rice leaves, husks, stamens, pistils, and lateral roots, and its expression is induced by Cd stress. OsMYB45 fused to green fluorescent protein localized to the cell nucleus in onion epidermal cells. Mutation of OsMYB45 resulted in hypersensitivity to Cd treatment, and the concentration of H2O2 in the leaves of mutant nearly doubled, while catalase (CAT) activity was halved compared with the wild-type...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Mhamad Aly Moussawi, Mohamed Haouas, Sébastien Floquet, William E Shepard, Pavel A Abramov, Maxim N Sokolov, Vladimir P Fedin, Stéphane Cordier, Anne Ponchel, Eric Monflier, Jérôme Marrot, Emmanuel Cadot
In this communication, we report on a noteworthy hybrid supramolecular assembly built from three functional components hierarchically organized through noncovalent interactions. The one-pot synthesis procedure leads to the formation of large Mo-blue ring-shaped anion {Mo154}, which contains the supramolecular adduct based on the symmetric encapsulation of the Dawson-type [P2W18O62](6-) anion by two γ-cyclodextrin units. Such a nanoscopic onion-like structure, noted [P2W18O62]@2γ-CD@{Mo154} has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thus demonstrating the capability of the giant inorganic torus to develop relevant supramolecular chemistry, probing the strong affinity of the inner and outer faces of the γ-CD for the polyoxometalate surfaces...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jinkwan Jo, Preethi M Purushotham, Koeun Han, Heung-Ryul Lee, Gyoungju Nah, Byoung-Cheorl Kang
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play important roles as molecular markers in plant genomics and breeding studies. Although onion (Allium cepa L.) is an important crop globally, relatively few molecular marker resources have been reported due to its large genome and high heterozygosity. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) offers a greater degree of complexity reduction followed by concurrent SNP discovery and genotyping for species with complex genomes. In this study, GBS was employed for SNP mining in onion, which currently lacks a reference genome...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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