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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437540/characterization-of-gene-expression-phenotype-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-monocytes
#1
Weihua Zhao, David R Beers, Kristopher G Hooten, Douglas H Sieglaff, Aijun Zhang, Shanker Kalyana-Sundaram, Christopher M Traini, Wendy S Halsey, Ashley M Hughes, Ganesh M Sathe, George P Livi, Guo-Huang Fan, Stanley H Appel
Importance: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Patients with ALS have persistent peripheral and central inflammatory responses including abnormally functioning T cells and activated microglia. However, much less is known about the inflammatory gene profile of circulating innate immune monocytes in these patients. Objective: To characterize the transcriptomics of peripheral monocytes in patients with ALS...
April 24, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434692/immune-hyperreactivity-of-a%C3%AE-plaque-associated-microglia-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Zhuoran Yin, Divya Raj, Nasrin Saiepour, Debby Van Dam, Nieske Brouwer, Inge R Holtman, Bart J L Eggen, Thomas Möller, Joseph A Tamm, Aicha Abdourahman, Elly M Hol, Willem Kamphuis, Thomas A Bayer, Peter P De Deyn, Erik Boddeke
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is strongly associated with microglia-induced neuroinflammation. Particularly, Aβ plaque-associated microglia take on an "activated" morphology. However, the function and phenotype of these Aβ plaque-associated microglia are not well understood. We show hyperreactivity of Aβ plaque-associated microglia upon systemic inflammation in transgenic AD mouse models (i.e., 5XFAD and APP23). Gene expression profiling of Aβ plaque-associated microglia (major histocompatibility complex II(+) microglia) isolated from 5XFAD mice revealed a proinflammatory phenotype...
March 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427424/microglial-depletion-alters-the-brain-neuroimmune-response-to-acute-binge-ethanol-withdrawal
#3
T Jordan Walter, Fulton T Crews
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have implicated microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Indeed, post-mortem alcoholic brains show increased microglial markers and increased immune gene expression; however, the effects of ethanol on microglial functioning and how this impacts the brain remain unclear. In this present study, we investigate the effects of acute binge ethanol on microglia and how microglial depletion changes the brain neuroimmune response to acute binge ethanol withdrawal...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410218/6-shogaol-attenuates-lps-induced-inflammation-in-bv2-microglia-cells-by-activating-ppar-%C3%AE
#4
Qinghe Han, Qinghai Yuan, Xiaolin Meng, Junyuan Huo, Yuxin Bao, Guanghong Xie
6-Shogaol, a pungent agent isolated from Zingiber officinale Roscoe, has been known to have anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects and biological mechanism of 6-Shogaol in LPS-activated BV2 microglia remains largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of 6-Shogaol in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. 6-Shogaol was administrated 1 h before LPS treatment. The production of inflammatory mediators were detected by ELISA. The expression of NF-κB and PPAR-γ were detected by western blot analysis...
March 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409447/isolation-of-peroxisomes-from-mouse-brain-using-a-continuous-nycodenz-gradient-a-comparison-to-the-isolation-of-liver-and-kidney-peroxisomes
#5
Miriam J Schönenberger, Werner J Kovacs
In the central nervous system (CNS) peroxisomes are present in all cell types, namely neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and endothelial cells. Brain peroxisomes are smaller in size compared to peroxisomes from other tissues and are therefore referred to as microperoxisomes. We have established a purification procedure to isolate highly purified peroxisomes from the central nervous system that are well separated from the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria and are free of myelin contamination...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402228/complement-components-are-expressed-by-infiltrating-macrophages-activated-microglia-early-following-viral-infection
#6
Jane E Libbey, Matthew F Cusick, Daniel J Doty, Robert S Fujinami
The individual innate immune components, interleukin-6 and complement component C3, play a role in the development of acute seizures in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced seizure model. We examined the mRNA expression of various other complement components, cytokines, chemokines, and major histocompatibility complex antigens both within brain and in isolated ramified microglial and infiltrating macrophage/activated microglial cell populations over a time course covering the first 3 days postinfection...
April 12, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398520/injury-leads-to-the-appearance-of-cells-with-characteristics-of-both-microglia-and-astrocytes-in-mouse-and-human-brain
#7
Ulrika Wilhelmsson, Daniel Andersson, Yolanda de Pablo, Roy Pekny, Anders Ståhlberg, Jan Mulder, Nicholas Mitsios, Tibor Hortobágyi, Milos Pekny, Marcela Pekna
Microglia and astrocytes have been considered until now as cells with very distinct identities. Here, we assessed the heterogeneity within microglia/monocyte cell population in mouse hippocampus and determined their response to injury, by using single-cell gene expression profiling of cells isolated from uninjured and deafferented hippocampus. We found that in individual cells, microglial markers Cx3cr1, Aif1, Itgam, and Cd68 were co-expressed. Interestingly, injury led to the co-expression of the astrocyte marker Gfap in a subpopulation of Cx3cr1-expressing cells from both the injured and contralesional hippocampus...
April 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398146/protective-action-of-b1r-antagonist-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-suppressing-mir-200c-expression-of-microglia-derived-microvesicles
#8
Min Tang, Ping Liu, Xia Li, Jian-Wen Wang, Xiong-Chao Zhu, Fang-Ping He
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common side-effect for cerebral ischemic disease and its therapeutic regimen is limited. Kinin is pro-inflammatory peptide that is released and acts at the site of injury and inflammation such as brain and it works through bradykinin 1 receptor (B1R). The present study was to examine the effect of B1R antagonist on cerebral I/R injury and the potential mechanism. METHODS: Cerebral I/R injury was induced in mice by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
April 11, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387682/exendin-4-treatment-improves-lps-induced-depressive-like-behavior-without-affecting-pro-inflammatory-cytokines
#9
Filip Ventorp, Cecilie Bay-Richter, Analise Sauro Nagendra, Shorena Janelidze, Viktor Sjödahl Matsson, Jack Lipton, Ulrika Nordström, Åsa Westrin, Patrik Brundin, Lena Brundin
BACKGROUND: Exendin-4 is a peptide agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor, currently in clinical trials as a potential disease-modifying therapy for Parkinson's disease. In light of this, it is important to understand potential modes of action of exendin-4 in the brain. Exendin-4 is neuroprotective and has been proposed to be directly anti-inflammatory, and that this is one way it reduces neurodegeneration. However, prior studies have focused on animal models involving both neurodegeneration and inflammation, therefore, it is also possible that the observed decreased inflammation is secondary to reduced neurodegeneration...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386671/alzheimer-s-senile-plaque-as-shown-by-microcryodissection-a-new-technique-for-dissociating-tissue-structures
#10
Manon Thierry, Serge Marty, Susana Boluda, Charles Duyckaerts
Extracellular accumulation of Aβ peptides and intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins are the two hallmark lesions of Alzheimer disease (AD). The senile plaque is made of a core of extracellular Aβ surrounded by phospho-tau positive neurites. It includes multiple components such as axons, synapses, glial fibers and microglia. To visualize the relationships of those elements, an original technique was developed, based on the dilation of interstitial water during freezing. Samples of neocortex, hippocampus and striatum were taken from formalin-fixed brains (one control case; three cases with severe Alzheimer disease)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382728/concurrent-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p38-mapk-and-reactive-oxygen-species-formation-underlies-the-effect-of-a-novel-compound-isolated-from-curcuma-comosa-roxb-in-lps-activated-microglia
#11
Nittaya Jiamvoraphong, Nattinee Jantaratnotai, Pantip Sanvarinda, Patoomratana Tuchinda, Pawinee Piyachaturawat, Anusorn Thampithak, Pimtip Sanvarinda
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of (3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol, also known as compound 092, isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated highly aggressive proliferating immortalized (HAPI) microglial cell lines. METHOD: Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined using the Griess reaction, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381236/microglia-activation-is-essential-for-bmp7-mediated-retinal-reactive-gliosis
#12
Subramanian Dharmarajan, Debra L Fisk, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani, Teri L Belecky-Adams
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that BMP7 is able to trigger activation of retinal macroglia. However, these studies showed the responsiveness of Müller glial cells and retinal astrocytes in vitro was attenuated in comparison to those in vivo, indicating other retinal cell types may be mediating the response of the macroglial cells to BMP7. In this study, we test the hypothesis that BMP7-mediated gliosis is the result of inflammatory signaling from retinal microglia. METHODS: Adult mice were injected intravitreally with BMP7 and eyes harvested 1, 3, or 7 days postinjection...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379213/energy-dense-diet-triggers-changes-in-gut-microbiota-reorganization-of-gut%C3%A2-brain-vagal-communication-and-increases-body-fat-accumulation
#13
Alexandra C Vaughn, Erin M Cooper, Patricia M DiLorenzo, Levi J O'Loughlin, Michael E Konkel, James H Peters, Andras Hajnal, Tanusree Sen, Sun Hye Lee, Claire B de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja
Obesity is associated with consumption of energy-dense diets and development of systemic inflammation. Gut microbiota play a role in energy harvest and inflammation and can influence the change from lean to obese phenotypes. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a brain target for gastrointestinal signals modulating satiety and alterations in gut-brain vagal pathway may promote overeating and obesity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet‑induced changes in gut microbiota alter vagal gut-brain communication associated with increased body fat accumulation...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373076/fty720-fingolimod-regulates-key-target-genes-essential-for-inflammation-in-microglial-cells-as-defined-by-high-resolution-mrna-sequencing
#14
Amitabh Das, Sarder Arifuzzaman, Sun Hwa Kim, Young Seek Lee, Kyoung Hwa Jung, Young Gyu Chai
Although microglial cells have an essential role in the host defense of the brain, the abnormal activation of microglia can lead to devastating outcomes, such as neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Emerging evidence indicates that FTY720 (fingolimod), an FDA-approved drug, has beneficial effects on brain cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and, more recently, immunosuppressive activities in microglia via modulation of the sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) 1 receptor. However, the exact molecular aspects of FTY720 contribution in microglia remain largely unaddressed...
March 31, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365473/pioglitazone-treatment-following-spinal-cord-injury-maintains-acute-mitochondrial-integrity-and-increases-chronic-tissue-sparing-and-functional-recovery
#15
Samir P Patel, David H Cox, Jenna L Gollihue, William M Bailey, Werner J Geldenhuys, John C Gensel, Patrick G Sullivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Pioglitazone is an FDA-approved PPAR-γ agonist drug used to treat diabetes, and it has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in multiple models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Acute treatment after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats is reported to suppress neuroinflammation, rescue injured tissues, and improve locomotor recovery. In the current study, we additionally assessed the protective efficacy of pioglitazone treatment on acute mitochondrial respiration, as well as functional and anatomical recovery after contusion SCI in adult male C57BL/6 mice...
March 30, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365213/alternative-activation-skewed-microglia-macrophages-promote-hematoma-resolution-in-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#16
Che-Feng Chang, Jieru Wan, Qiang Li, Stephen C Renfroe, Nicola M Heller, Jian Wang
Microglia/macrophages (MMΦ) are highly plastic phagocytes that can promote both injury and repair in diseased brain through the distinct function of classically activated and alternatively activated subsets. The role of MMΦ polarization in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unknown. Herein, we comprehensively characterized MMΦ dynamics after ICH in mice and evaluated the relevance of MMΦ polarity to hematoma resolution. MMΦ accumulated within the hematoma territory until at least 14days after ICH induction...
March 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358502/bioactive-triterpenoids-from-the-twigs-of-chaenomeles-sinensis
#17
Chung Sub Kim, Lalita Subedi, Joonseok Oh, Sun Yeou Kim, Sang Un Choi, Kang Ro Lee
Chaenomeles sinensis has been consumed traditionally for the treatment of throat diseases, diarrhea, inflammatory diseases, and dry beriberi. Repeated chromatography of the CHCl3-soluble fraction from the 80% MeOH extract of C. sinensis twigs led to the isolation of three new triterpenoids, sinenic acid A (1), 3β-O-cis-feruloyl-2α,19α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), and 3β-O-cis-caffeoylbetulin (3), together with 20 analogues. The chemical structures of 1-3 were determined using diverse NMR techniques and HRMS data analysis, chemical methods, and computational approaches supported by advanced statistics (CP3)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352106/bioactive-secondary-metabolites-produced-by-an-endophytic-fungus-gaeumannomyces-sp-js0464-from-a-maritime-halophyte-phragmites-communis
#18
Changyeol Lee, Soonok Kim, Wei Li, Sunghee Bang, Hanna Lee, Hyun-Jung Lee, Eun-Young Noh, Jung-Eun Park, Woo Young Bang, Sang Hee Shim
Endophytes, important plant-associated mycobionts, have attracted a great deal of attention because of their bioactive secondary metabolites. Even though halophytes have been reported to overcome salt stress via associations with their endophytes, few studies have investigated the metabolites produced by the endophytes from halophytes. In this study, a dark septate endophytic fungal strain (JS0464), identified as Gaeumannomyces sp. by ITS sequencing, was isolated from the rhizome of a halophyte, Phragmites communis, in Suncheon bay, South Korea...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351411/activation-of-fxr-pathway-does-not-alter-glial-cell-function
#19
Stefanie Albrecht, Ann-Katrin Fleck, Ina Kirchberg, Stephanie Hucke, Marie Liebmann, Luisa Klotz, Tanja Kuhlmann
BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is expressed not only in the liver, gut, kidney and adipose tissue but also in the immune cells. FXR has been shown to confer protection in several animal models of inflammation, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). FXR agonists are currently tested in clinical trials for treatment of human metabolic diseases. The beneficial effect of FXR agonists in EAE suggests that FXR might represent a potential target in inflammatory-demyelinating CNS diseases, such as MS...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317180/anti-acsa-2-defines-a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-for-prospective-isolation-of-living-neonatal-and-adult-astrocytes
#20
Christina G Kantzer, Camille Boutin, Ina D Herzig, Carolina Wittwer, Sandy Reiß, Marie Catherine Tiveron, Jan Drewes, Thomas D Rockel, Stefanie Ohlig, Jovica Ninkovic, Harold Cremer, Sandra Pennartz, Melanie Jungblut, Andreas Bosio
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type of the central nervous system and cover a broad range of functionalities. We report here the generation of a novel monoclonal antibody, anti-astrocyte cell surface antigen-2 (Anti-ACSA-2). Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry revealed that Anti-ACSA-2 reacted specifically with a not yet identified glycosylated surface molecule of murine astrocytes at all developmental stages. It did not show any labeling of non-astroglial cells such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, NG2(+) cells, microglia, endothelial cells, leukocytes, or erythrocytes...
March 20, 2017: Glia
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