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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903237/leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2-lrrk2-regulates-%C3%AE-synuclein-clearance-in-microglia
#1
Tatsunori Maekawa, Toshikuni Sasaoka, Sadahiro Azuma, Takafumi Ichikawa, Heather L Melrose, Matthew J Farrer, Fumiya Obata
BACKGROUND: α-Synuclein (αSYN) has been genetically implicated in familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), and is associated with disease susceptibility, progression and pathology. Excess amounts of αSYN are toxic to neurons. In the brain, microglial αSYN clearance is closely related to neuronal survival. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the one of the other genes implicated in familial and sporadic PD. While LRRK2 is known to be expressed in microglia, its true function remains to be elucidated...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888557/adoptive-transfer-of-t-regulatory-cells-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-in-fetal-brain-tissue-in-a-late-pregnancy-preterm-birth-mouse-model
#2
Fan Wang, Mi Xiao, Ru-Juan Chen, Xiao-Jie Lin, Muhammad Siddiq, Li Liu
To evaluate the effect of regulatory T cells (Tregs) on the inflammation resulting from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in prenatal brain tissue, Tregs isolated from pregnant mice were transferred into model mice, and the expression levels of fork head family transcription factor (Foxp3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), CD68 (a marker of microglia), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) were assessed in the fetal brain tissue. Foxp3, IL-6 and TLR-4 expression were detected by polymerase chain reaction and western blot; CD68 expression level was detected using immunochemical analysis...
November 26, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883038/anti-high-mobility-group-box-1-hmgb1-antibody-attenuates-delayed-cerebral-vasospasm-and-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#3
Jun Haruma, Kiyoshi Teshigawara, Tomohito Hishikawa, Dengli Wang, Keyue Liu, Hidenori Wake, Shuji Mori, Hideo Kohka Takahashi, Kenji Sugiu, Isao Date, Masahiro Nishibori
Although delayed cerebral vasospasm (DCV) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is closely related to the progression of brain damage, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying its development. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) plays an important role as an initial inflammatory mediator in SAH. In this study, an SAH rat model was employed to evaluate the effects of anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) on DCV after SAH. A vasoconstriction of the basilar artery (BA) associated with a reduction of nuclear HMGB1 and its translocation in vascular smooth muscle cells were observed in SAH rats, and anti-HMGB1 mAb administration significantly suppressed these effects...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881779/allergic-inflammation-leads-to-neuropathic-pain-via-glial-cell-activation
#4
Ryo Yamasaki, Takayuki Fujii, Bing Wang, Katsuhisa Masaki, Mizuho A Kido, Mari Yoshida, Takuya Matsushita, Jun-Ichi Kira
: Allergic and atopic disorders have increased over the past few decades and have been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder and asthmatic amyotrophy. Myelitis presenting with neuropathic pain can occur in patients with atopic disorder; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation and neuropathic pain, and the underlying mechanism, remains to be established. We studied whether allergic inflammation affects the spinal nociceptive system...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875748/piperine-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-bv2-microglia
#5
Chen Wang-Sheng, An Jie, Li Jian-Jun, Hong Lan, Xing Zeng-Bao, Li Chang-Qing
Piperine, the chief alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum, has been known to have anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effects of piperine on neuroinflammation have not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of piperine on neuroinflammation in BV2 microglia and investigated the molecular mechanism. The results showed that piperine significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and PGE2 production in BV2 cells. Western blot analysis showed that piperine dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation...
November 19, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845861/apigetrin-from-scutellaria-baicalensis-georgi-inhibits-neuroinflammation-in-bv-2-microglia-and-exerts-neuroprotective-effect-in-ht22-hippocampal-cells
#6
Hye-Sun Lim, Ohn-Soon Kim, Bu-Yeo Kim, Soo-Jin Jeong
Apigetrin is a flavonoid isolated from various herbal medicines such as Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Matricaria chamomilla, Stachys tibetica Vatke, and Teucrium gnaphalodes. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of apigetrin on neuroinflammation using the BV-2 microglia cell line. Our data revealed that apigetrin significantly reduced secretion and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 mouse microglia...
November 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830533/analysis-of-the-impact-of-cd200-on-phagocytosis
#7
Anthony Lyons, Aedín M Minogue, Raasay S Jones, Orla Fitzpatrick, Janis Noonan, Veronica A Campbell, Marina A Lynch
One factor that impacts on microglial activation is the interaction between the ubiquitously expressed CD200 and CD200R, which is expressed only on microglia in the brain. Decreased signalling through CD200R, when CD200 expression is reduced, results in microglial activation and may, at least in part, explain the increased cell activity that is observed with age, in models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease as well as in the human diseases. There is evidence of increased microglial activation in CD200-deficient mice, and isolated microglia prepared from these mice are more reactive to inflammatory stimuli like Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 agonists, and interferon-γ...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818218/role-of-microglia-in-a-mouse-model-of-paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Vibol Chhor, Raffaella Moretti, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Stephanie Sigaut, Sophie Lebon, Leslie Schwendimann, Marie-Virginie Oré, Chiara Zuiani, Valentina Milan, Julien Josserand, Regina Vontell, Julien Pansiot, Vincent Degos, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou, Luigi Titomanlio, Henrik Hagberg, Pierre Gressens, Bobbi Fleiss
The cognitive and behavioural deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the immature brain are more severe and persistent than TBI in the mature brain. Understanding this developmental sensitivity is critical as children under four years of age sustain TBI more frequently than any other age group. Microglia (MG), resident immune cells of the brain that mediate neuroinflammation, are activated following TBI in the immature brain. However, the type and temporal profile of this activation and the consequences of altering it are still largely unknown...
November 4, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807399/electric-stimulation-of-the-vagus-nerve-reduced-mouse-neuroinflammation-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#9
G Meneses, M Bautista, A Florentino, G Díaz, G Acero, H Besedovsky, D Meneses, A Fleury, A Del Rey, G Gevorkian, G Fragoso, E Sciutto
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation (NI) is a key feature in the pathogenesis and progression of infectious and non-infectious neuropathologies, and its amelioration usually improves the patient outcome. Peripheral inflammation may promote NI through microglia and astrocytes activation, an increased expression of inflammatory mediators and vascular permeability that may lead to neurodegeneration. Several anti-inflammatory strategies have been proposed to control peripheral inflammation. Among them, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve (VNS) recently emerged as an alternative to effectively attenuate peripheral inflammation in a variety of pathological conditions with few side effects...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793054/cranial-irradiation-induces-transient-microglia-accumulation-followed-by-long-lasting-inflammation-and-loss-of-microglia
#10
Wei Han, Takashi Umekawa, Kai Zhou, Xing-Mei Zhang, Makiko Ohshima, Cecilia A Dominguez, Robert A Harris, Changlian Zhu, Klas Blomgren
The relative contribution of resident microglia and peripheral monocyte-derived macrophages in neuroinflammation after cranial irradiation is not known. A single dose of 8 Gy was administered to postnatal day 10 (juvenile) or 90 (adult) CX3CR1GFP/+ CCR2RFP/+ mouse brains. Microglia accumulated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal granule cell layer, where progenitor cell death was prominent. The peak was earlier (6 h vs. 24 h) but less pronounced in adult brains. The increase in juvenile, but not adult, brains was partly attributed to proliferation...
October 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790920/four-new-c10-polyacetylene-glycosides-from-the-rhizomes-of-atractylodes-lancea
#11
Kuo Xu, Zi-Ming Feng, Ya-Nan Yang, Jian-Shuang Jiang, Pei-Cheng Zhang
An ongoing phytochemical investigation of the rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea resulted in the isolation of four new C10-type polyacetylene glycosides (1-4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS). The absolute configurations of compounds 2-4 were determined by comparing the specific rotations of their aglycones. Notably, compounds 2 and 3 exhibited significant hepatoprotective activities against APAP-induced HepG2 cell injury at a concentration of 10 μM...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786595/cocaine-mediated-downregulation-of-microglial-mir-124-expression-involves-promoter-dna-methylation
#12
Ming-Lei Guo, Palsamy Periyasamy, Ke Liao, Yeon Hee Kook, Fang Niu, Shannon E Callen, Shilpa Buch
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the development of reward-related behavior in cocaine self-administration rodents. Cocaine, one of most commonly abused drugs, has been shown to activate microglia both in vitro and in vivo. Detailed molecular mechanisms underlying cocaine-mediated microglial activation remain poorly understood. microRNAs (miRs), belonging to a class of small noncoding RNA superfamily have been shown to modulate the activation status of microglia. miR-124, one of the microglia-enriched miRs, functions as an anti-inflammatory regulator that maintains microglia in a quiescent state...
October 27, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757989/identification-of-a-conserved-and-acute-neurodegeneration-specific-microglial-transcriptome-in-the-zebrafish
#13
Nynke Oosterhof, Inge R Holtman, Laura E Kuil, Herma C van der Linde, Erik W G M Boddeke, Bart J L Eggen, Tjakko J van Ham
Microglia are brain resident macrophages important for brain development, connectivity, homeostasis and disease. However, it is still largely unclear how microglia functions and their identity are regulated at the molecular level. Although recent transcriptomic studies have identified genes specifically expressed in microglia, the function of most of these genes in microglia is still unknown. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on microglia acutely isolated from healthy and neurodegenerative zebrafish brains...
October 19, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738803/preventive-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-on-the-development-of-cognitive-dysfunction-following-systemic-inflammation-in-aged-rats
#14
Daiki Yamanaka, Takashi Kawano, Atsushi Nishigaki, Bun Aoyama, Hiroki Tateiwa, Marie Shigematsu-Locatelli, Fabricio M Locatelli, Masataka Yokoyama
PURPOSE: In the present study, we examined whether and by what mechanisms dexmedetomidine (DMED) prevents the development of systemic inflammation (SI)-induced cognitive dysfunction in aged rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either 5.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle. LPS-treated rats were further divided into three groups: early DMED, late DMED, or midazolam (MDZ) treatment (n = 12 each). Seven days after LPS injection, cognitive function was evaluated using a novel object recognition task, followed by measurement of hippocampal levels of proinflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) expression...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714837/extracellular-atp-induces-graded-reactive-response-of-astrocytes-and-strengthens-their-antioxidative-defense-in-vitro
#15
Marija Adzic, Ivana Stevanovic, Natasa Josipovic, Danijela Laketa, Irena Lavrnja, Ivana M Bjelobaba, Iva Bozic, Marija Jovanovic, Milena Milosevic, Nadezda Nedeljkovic
It is widely accepted that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as a universal danger-associated molecular pattern with several known mechanisms for immune cell activation. In the central nervous system, ATP activates microglia and astrocytes and induces a neuroinflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to describe responses of isolated astrocytes to increasing concentrations of ATP (5 µM to 1 mM), which were intended to mimic graded intensity of the extracellular stimulus. The results show that ATP induces graded activation response of astrocytes in terms of the cell proliferation, stellation, shape remodeling, and underlying actin and GFAP filament rearrangement, although the changes occurred without an apparent increase in GFAP and actin protein expression...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714688/purine-signaling-and-microglial-wrapping
#16
Bernardo Castellano, Mar Bosch-Queralt, Beatriz Almolda, Nàdia Villacampa, Berta González
Microglial cells are highly dynamic cells with processes continuously moving to survey the surrounding territory. Microglia possess a broad variety of surface receptors and subtle changes in their microenvironment cause microglial cell processes to extend, retract, and interact with neuronal synaptic contacts. When the nervous system is disturbed, microglia activate, proliferate, and migrate to sites of injury in response to alert signals. Released nucleotides like ATP and UTP are among the wide range of molecules promoting microglial activation and guiding their migration and phagocytic function...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700070/wasabisides-a-e-lignan-glycosides-from-the-roots-of-wasabia-japonica
#17
Chung Sub Kim, Lalita Subedi, Oh Wook Kwon, Hyun Bong Park, Sun Yeou Kim, Sang Un Choi, Kang Ro Lee
Five new lignan glycosides, wasabisides A-E (1-5), and four known phenolic compounds (6-9), were isolated from the roots of Wasabia japonica. The chemical structures of the new compounds (1-5) were determined through spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. All isolated compounds (1-9) were evaluated for their potential neuroprotective effects through induction of nerve growth factor in C6 glioma cells, for their effects on nitric oxide levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells, and for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and BT549)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699230/a-cord-blood-monocyte-derived-cell-therapy-product-accelerates-brain-remyelination
#18
Arjun Saha, Susan Buntz, Paula Scotland, Li Xu, Pamela Noeldner, Sachit Patel, Amy Wollish, Aruni Gunaratne, Tracy Gentry, Jesse Troy, Glenn K Matsushima, Joanne Kurtzberg, Andrew E Balber
Microglia and monocytes play important roles in regulating brain remyelination. We developed DUOC-01, a cell therapy product intended for treatment of demyelinating diseases, from banked human umbilical cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells. Immunodepletion and selection studies demonstrated that DUOC-01 cells are derived from CB CD14(+) monocytes. We compared the ability of freshly isolated CB CD14(+) monocytes and DUOC-01 cells to accelerate remyelination of the brains of NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ(null) mice following cuprizone feeding-mediated demyelination...
August 18, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697289/spontaneous-ca-2-transients-in-mouse-microglia
#19
Laura Korvers, Amanda de Andrade Costa, Martin Mersch, Vitali Matyash, Helmut Kettenmann, Marcus Semtner
Microglia are the resident immune cells in the central nervous system and many of their physiological functions are known to be linked to intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling. Here we show that isolated and purified mouse microglia-either freshly or cultured-display spontaneous and transient Ca(2+) elevations lasting for around ten to twenty seconds and occurring at frequencies of around five to ten events per hour and cell. The events were absent after depletion of internal Ca(2+) stores, by phospholipase C (PLC) inhibition or blockade of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), but not by removal of extracellular Ca(2+), indicating that Ca(2+) is released from endoplasmic reticulum intracellular stores...
September 22, 2016: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658543/platelet-cd40l-induces-activation-of-astrocytes-and-microglia-in-hypertension
#20
Shahnawaz Ali Bhat, Ruby Goel, Rakesh Shukla, Kashif Hanif
Studies have demonstrated separately that hypertension is associated with platelet activation in the periphery (resulting in accumulation and localized inflammatory response) and glial activation in the brain. We investigated the contribution of platelets in brain inflammation, particularly glial activation in vitro and in a rat model of hypertension. We found that HTN increased the expression of adhesion molecules like JAM-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 on brain endothelium and resulted in the deposition of platelets in the brain...
September 19, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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