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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632189/phenolic-glycosides-from-capsella-bursa-pastoris-l-medik-and-their-anti-inflammatory-activity
#1
Joon Min Cha, Won Se Suh, Tae Hyun Lee, Lalita Subedi, Sun Yeou Kim, Kang Ro Lee
A new sesquilignan glycoside 1, together with seven known phenolic glycosides 2-8 were isolated from the aerial parts of Capsella bursa-pastoris. The chemical structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data (¹H- and (13)C-NMR, ¹H-¹H correlation spectroscopy (¹H-¹H COSY), heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), and nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY)) and HR-FABMS analysis. The anti-inflammatory effects of 1-8 were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglia BV-2 cells...
June 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628214/unconventional-role-of-voltage-gated-proton-channels-vsop-hv1-in-regulation-of-microglial-ros-production
#2
Takafumi Kawai, Yoshifumi Okochi, Tomohiko Ozaki, Yoshio Imura, Schuichi Koizumi, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Toshihide Yamashita, Yasushi Okamura
It has been established that voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1), encoded by Hvcn1, support reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytic activities of neutrophils (El Chemaly et al. 2010) and antibody production in B lymphocytes (Capasso et al. 2010). VSOP/Hv1 is a potential therapeutic target for brain ischemia, since Hvcn1 deficiency reduces microglial ROS production and protects brain from neuronal damage (Wu et al. 2012). In the present study, we report that VSOP/Hv1 has paradoxical suppressive role in ROS production in microglia...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623717/baicalein-exerts-anti-neuroinflammatory-effects-to-protect-against-rotenone-induced-brain-injury-in-rats
#3
Xue Zhang, Yulin Yang, Lida Du, Wen Zhang, Guanhua Du
Baicalein, a major bioactive flavone constituent isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to be neuroprotective in several Parkinson's disease (PD) animal models. Since neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of PD, potential explanation for the neuroprotective action of anti-PD compounds involves among others reduced inflammation. Our study investigated that one of the mechanisms of protection afforded by baicalein in rotenone-induced parkinsonian rats was associated with anti-inflammatory action and explored its underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro...
June 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622577/hyperoside-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-microglial-cells-via-p38-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#4
Hui-Hui Fan, Lan-Bing Zhu, Ting Li, Hui Zhu, Ya-Nan Wang, Xiao-Li Ren, Bei-Lei Hu, Chen-Ping Huang, Jian-Hong Zhu, Xiong Zhang
Hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside) is an active compound isolated from herbs. Neuroinflammation is a key mechanism involved in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potentiality of hyperoside in inhibiting microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. BV2 microglial cells were pretreated with hyperoside and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that hyperoside significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase...
June 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609584/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-triggers-inflammatory-responses-in-the-brain-of-male-rats-exposed-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
Rosaria Greco, Chiara Demartini, Anna Maria Zanaboni, Fabio Blandini, Diana Amantea, Cristina Tassorelli
Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a role in preserving and maintaining the brain's microcirculation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, and migration. Inhibition of eNOS activity results in exacerbation of neuronal injury after ischemia by triggering diverse cellular mechanisms, including inflammatory responses. To examine the relative contribution of eNOS in stroke-induced neuroinflammation, we analyzed the effects of systemic treatment with l-N-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine (L-NIO), a relatively selective eNOS inhibitor, on the expression of MiR-155-5p, a key mediator of innate immunity regulation and endothelial dysfunction, in the cortex of male rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) followed by 24 hr of reperfusion...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606377/comparative-morphology-and-phagocytic-capacity-of-primary-human-adult-microglia-with-time-lapse-imaging
#6
Natalie Levtova, Luke M Healy, Catalina Marysol Carvajal Gonczi, Brandon Stopnicki, Manon Blain, Timothy E Kennedy, Craig S Moore, Jack P Antel, Peter J Darlington
Microglia provide immune surveillance within the brain and spinal cord. Various microglial morphologies include ramified, amoeboid, and pseudopodic. The link between form and function is not clear, especially for human adult microglia which are limited in availability for study. Here, we examined primary human microglia isolated from normal-appearing white matter. Pseudopodic and amoeboid microglia were effective phagocytes, taking up E. coli bioparticles using ruffled cell membrane sheets and retrograde transport...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603455/tetramethylpyrazine-attenuates-periorbital-allodynia-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Zhijing Wang, Qi Wang, Cuijie Wang, Xiuzhen Xu, Hongmei Yu
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health issue. As the major complaint in 51% of TBI patients, chronic pain is an important aspect in TBI treatment. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is an important compound in Ligustrazine, an analgesic drug in traditional Chinese medicine, but its potential in relieving pain symptom in TBI has not been tested. We established a TBI mouse model with controlled cortical impact (CCI), and measured periorbital hypersensitivity with von Frey monofilaments...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588487/gyf-21-an-epoxide-2-2-phenethyl-chromone-derivative-suppresses-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-via-inhibiting-stat1-3-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#8
Ran Guo, Yun-Fang Zhao, Jun Li, Yu-Fan Gu, Hui-Xia Huo, Shan-Shan Li, Yue-Lin Song, Zhi-Xiang Zhu, Peng-Fei Tu
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by demyelinating plaques and axonal loss. Inhibition on over activation of innate and adaptive immunity provides a rationale strategy for treatment of multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of GYF-21, an epoxide 2-(2-phenethyl)-chromone derivative isolated from Chinese agarwood, on innate and adaptive immunity for revealing its potential to treat multiple sclerosis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583797/penicillospirone-from-a-marine-isolate-of-penicillium-sp-sf-5292-with-anti-inflammatory-activity
#9
Seungjun Lee, Dong-Cheol Kim, Jin-Soo Park, Jae-Young Son, Jae Hak Sohn, Ling Liu, Yongsheng Che, Hyuncheol Oh
Chemical investigation of the EtOAc extract of a marine-derived fungal isolate Penicillium sp. SF-5292 yielded a new polyketide-type metabolite, penicillospirone (1). The structure of 1 was determined by analysis of spectroscopic data such as 1D and 2D NMR spectra and MS data, and the final structure including absolute configuration was unambiguously established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the evaluation of its anti-inflammatory effects, 1 inhibited the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264...
May 23, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554197/a-new-neolignan-derivative-balanophonin-isolated-from-firmiana-simplex-delays-the-progress-of-neuronal-cell-death-by-inhibiting-microglial-activation
#10
Soo Young Lim, Lalita Subedi, Dongyun Shin, Chung Sub Kim, Kang Ro Lee, Sun Yeou Kim
Excessive activation of microglia causes the continuous production of neurotoxic mediators, which further causes neuron degeneration. Therefore, inhibition of microglial activation is a possible target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Balanophonin, a natural neolignoid from Firmiana simplex, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and mechanism of Balanophonin in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells...
May 30, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546318/an-environment-dependent-transcriptional-network-specifies-human-microglia-identity
#11
David Gosselin, Dylan Skola, Nicole G Coufal, Inge R Holtman, Johannes C M Schlachetzki, Eniko Sajti, Baptiste N Jaeger, Carolyn O'Connor, Conor Fitzpatrick, Martina P Pasillas, Monique Pena, Amy Adair, David G Gonda, Michael L Levy, Richard M Ransohoff, Fred H Gage, Christopher K Glass
Microglia play essential roles in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and influence diverse aspects of neuronal function. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that specify human microglia phenotypes are largely unknown. We examined the transcriptomes and epigenetic landscapes of human microglia isolated from surgically resected brain tissue ex vivo and following transition to an in vitro environment. Transfer to a tissue culture environment results in rapid and extensive downregulation of microglia-specific genes that are induced in primitive mouse macrophages following migration into the fetal brain...
May 25, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534246/microglia-housekeeper-of-the-central-nervous-system
#12
REVIEW
John Alimamy Kabba, Yazhou Xu, Handson Christian, Wenchen Ruan, Kitchen Chenai, Yun Xiang, Luyong Zhang, Juan M Saavedra, Tao Pang
Microglia, of myeloid origin, play fundamental roles in the control of immune responses and the maintenance of central nervous system homeostasis. These cells, just like peripheral macrophages, may be activated into M1 pro-inflammatory or M2 anti-inflammatory phenotypes by appropriate stimuli. Microglia do not respond in isolation, but form part of complex networks of cells influencing each other. This review addresses the complex interaction of microglia with each cell type in the brain: neurons, astrocytes, cerebrovascular endothelial cells, and oligodendrocytes...
May 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521131/diverse-requirements-for-microglial-survival-specification-and-function-revealed-by-defined-medium-cultures
#13
Christopher J Bohlen, F Chris Bennett, Andrew F Tucker, Hannah Y Collins, Sara B Mulinyawe, Ben A Barres
Microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, engage in various CNS-specific functions that are critical for development and health. To better study microglia and the properties that distinguish them from other tissue macrophage populations, we have optimized serum-free culture conditions to permit robust survival of highly ramified adult microglia under defined-medium conditions. We find that astrocyte-derived factors prevent microglial death ex vivo and that this activity results from three primary components, CSF-1/IL-34, TGF-β2, and cholesterol...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508369/spike-in-silac-approach-for-proteomic-analysis-of-ex-vivo-microglia
#14
Joao Paulo Costa Pinho, Harris Bell-Temin, Bin Liu, Stanley M Stevens
Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a versatile mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach that can achieve accurate relative protein quantitation on a global scale. In this approach, proteins are labeled while being synthesized by the cell due to the presence of certain amino acids exclusively as heavier mass analogs than their regular (light) counterparts. This differential labeling allows for the identification of heavy and light forms of each peptide corresponding to two or more different experimental groups upon mass spectrometric analysis, the intensities of which reflect their abundance in the sample analyzed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495139/high-yield-primary-microglial-cultures-using-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-from-embryonic-murine-cerebral-cortical-tissue
#15
Adam C Yu, Sarah E Neil, Jacqueline A Quandt
BACKGROUND: Microglia play vital roles in neurotrophic support and modulating immune or inflammatory responses to pathogens or damage/stressors during disease. This study describes the ability to establish large numbers of microglia from embryonic tissues with the addition of granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and characterizes their similarities to adult microglia examined ex vivo as well as their responses to inflammatory mediators. METHOD: Microglia were seeded from a primary embryonic mixed cortical suspension with the addition of GM-CSF...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494583/isolation-identification-and-biological-evaluation-of-phenolic-compounds-from-a-traditional-north-american-confectionery-maple-sugar
#16
Yongqiang Liu, Kenneth N Rose, Nicholas A DaSilva, Shelby L Johnson, Navindra P Seeram
Maple sap, collected from the sugar maple (Acer saccharum) tree, is boiled to produce the popular plant-derived sweetener, maple syrup, which can then be further evaporated to yield a traditional North American confectionery, maple sugar. Although maple sap and maple syrup have been previously studied, the phytochemical constituents of maple sugar are unknown. Herein, 30 phenolic compounds, 1-30, primarily lignans, were isolated and identified (by HRESIMS and NMR) from maple sugar. The isolates included the phenylpropanoid-based lignan tetramers (erythro,erythro)-4″,4‴-dihydroxy-3,3',3″,3‴,5,5'-hexamethoxy-7,9';7',9-diepoxy-4,8″;4',8‴-bisoxy-8,8'-dineolignan-7″,7‴,9″,9‴-tetraol, 29, and (threo,erythro)-4″,4‴-dihydroxy-3,3',3″,3‴,5,5'-hexamethoxy-7,9';7',9-diepoxy-4,8″;4',8‴-bisoxy-8,8'-dineolignan-7″,7‴,9″,9‴-tetraol, 30, neither of which have been identified from maple sap or maple syrup before...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486838/brain-microglial-cells-are-highly-susceptible-to-hiv-1-infection-and-spread
#17
Jennifer J Cenker, Ryan D Stultz, David McDonald
Macrophages are a target of HIV-1 infection and may serve as an important reservoir of the virus in the body, particularly after depletion of CD4+ T cells in HIV/AIDS. Recently, sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) was identified as the major restriction factor of HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. SAMHD1 is targeted for proteolytic degradation by Vpx, a viral protein encoded by HIV-2 and many SIVs but not HIV-1. In this study, we assessed SAMHD1 restriction in in vitro differentiated macrophages and in freshly isolated macrophages from the lungs, abdomen, and brain...
May 9, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482909/characteristics-of-primary-rat-microglia-isolated-from-mixed-cultures-using-two-different-methods
#18
Li Lin, Rakhi Desai, Xiaoying Wang, Eng H Lo, Changhong Xing
BACKGROUND: Microglial cultures comprise a critically important model system for investigating inflammatory mechanisms in almost all CNS disorders. Mild trypsinization and shaking are the two most commonly used methods to isolate primary microglia from mixed glial cultures. In this study, we characterized and compared microglia obtained using these two methods. METHODS: Primary rat microglia cultures were prepared from cerebral cortices of 1-2-day-old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474151/alismol-a-sesquiterpenoid-isolated-from-vladimiria-souliei-suppresses-proinflammatory-mediators-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-microglia
#19
Dongdong Shi, Xiaoqiang Song, Yuanqiang Guo, Jing Xu, Yu Liu, Jingling Zhang, Chun-Ai Cui, Da-Qing Jin
Microglia activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases by producing neurotoxic factors, such as proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO); therefore, suppression of microglia activation is a potential therapeutic approach against these diseases. Previous study showed that alismol, a sesquiterpenoid isolated from the roots of Vladimiria souliei inhibits interferon-γ-induced NO production in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. In the present study, we found that alismol reduced NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels and suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary and cultured microglia...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458018/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-novel-polygonum-multiflorum-compound-via-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mapk-and-upregulating-the-nrf2-pathways-in-lps-stimulated-microglia
#20
Sun Young Park, Mei Ling Jin, Nam Jun Kang, Geuntae Park, Young-Whan Choi
The incorporation of Polygonum multiflorum into the diet can result in anti-aging effects owing to its wide range of biological and pharmaceutical properties. We investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory properties of CRPE56IGIH isolated from P. multiflorum by focusing on its role in the induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes and the modulation of upstream signaling pathways. In microglia, CRPE56IGIH significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production with nonspecific cytotoxicity...
April 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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