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Isolation microglia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092020/early-life-social-isolation-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats-results-in-microglial-activation-and-neuronal-histone-methylation-that-are-mitigated-by-minocycline
#1
Hong-Tao Wang, Fu-Lian Huang, Zhao-Lan Hu, Wen-Juan Zhang, Xiao-Qing Qiao, Yan-Qing Huang, Ru-Ping Dai, Fang Li, Chang-Qi Li
Early-life stress is a potent risk factor for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used the early-life social isolation (ESI) model of early-life stress in rats to characterize development of depressive-like behavior, the role of microglia, levels of histone methylation, as well as expression of glutamate receptor subunits in the hippocampus. We found that depressive-like behavior was induced after ESI as determined by sucrose preference and forced swimming tests...
January 16, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089559/microglia-derived-neuregulin-expression-in-psychiatric-disorders
#2
Daisuke Ikawa, Manabu Makinodan, Keiko Iwata, Masahiro Ohgidani, Takahiro A Kato, Yasunori Yamashita, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Sohei Kimoto, Michihiro Toritsuka, Takahira Yamauchi, Shin-Ichi Fukami, Hiroki Yoshino, Kazuki Okumura, Tatsuhide Tanaka, Akio Wanaka, Yuji Owada, Masatsugu Tsujii, Toshiro Sugiyama, Kenji Tsuchiya, Norio Mori, Ryota Hashimoto, Hideo Matsuzaki, Shigenobu Kanba, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Several studies have revealed that neuregulins (NRGs) are involved in brain function and psychiatric disorders. While NRGs have been regarded as neuron- or astrocyte-derived molecules, our research has revealed that microglia also express NRGs, levels of which are markedly increased in activated microglia. Previous studies have indicated that microglia are activated in the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, we investigated microglial NRG mRNA expression in multiple lines of mice considered models of ASD...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074397/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-secondary-metabolites-isolated-from-the-marine-derived-fungal-strain-penicillium-sp-sf-5629
#3
Nguyen Thi Thanh Ngan, Tran Hong Quang, Kwan-Woo Kim, Hye Jin Kim, Jae Hak Sohn, Dae Gill Kang, Ho Sub Lee, Youn-Chul Kim, Hyuncheol Oh
After the chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium sp. SF-5629, the isolation and structural elucidation of eight secondary metabolites, including (3R,4S)-6,8-dihydroxy-3,4,7-trimethylisocoumarin (1), (3S,4S)-sclerotinin A (2), penicitrinone A (3), citrinin H1 (4), emodin (5), ω-hydroxyemodin (6), 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (7), and 3,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (8) were carried out. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of these metabolites showed that 4 inhibited nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia, with IC50 values of 8...
January 10, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063055/isolation-of-microglia-and-immune-infiltrates-from-mouse-and-primate-central-nervous-system
#4
Thais F Galatro, Ilia D Vainchtein, Nieske Brouwer, Erik W G M Boddeke, Bart J L Eggen
Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, providing neural support and neuroprotection. Microglia constantly survey their environment and quickly respond to homeostatic perturbations. Microglia are increasingly implicated in neuropathological and neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and glioma progression. Here, we describe a detailed isolation protocol for microglia and immune infiltrates, optimized for large amounts of post mortem tissue from human and rhesus macaque, as well as smaller tissue amounts from mouse brain and spinal cord, that yield a highly purified microglia population (up to 98 % purity)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053038/large-soluble-oligomers-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-from-alzheimer-brain-are-far-less-neuroactive-than-the-smaller-oligomers-to-which-they-dissociate
#5
Ting Yang, Shaomin Li, Huixin Xu, Dominic M Walsh, Dennis J Selkoe
: Soluble oligomers of amyloid β-protein (oAβ) isolated from the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have been shown experimentally (in the absence of amyloid plaques) to impair hippocampal synaptic plasticity, decrease synapses, induce tau hyperphosphorylation and neuritic dystrophy, activate microglial inflammation, and impair memory in normal adult rodents. Nevertheless, there has been controversy about what types of oligomers actually confer these AD-like phenotypes. Here, we show that the vast majority of soluble Aβ species obtained from brains of humans who died with confirmed AD elute at high molecular weight (HMW) on nondenaturing size-exclusion chromatography...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035965/anti-neuroinflammatory-ent-kaurane-diterpenoids-from-pteris-multifida-roots
#6
Jung Wha Kim, Ji Yeon Seo, Won Keun Oh, Sang Hyun Sung
Activated microglia are known to be a major source of cellular neuroinflammation which causes various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. In our continuing efforts to search for new bioactive phytochemicals against neuroinflammatory diseases, the 80% methanolic extract of Pteris multifida (Pteridaceae) roots was found to exhibit significant NO inhibitory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 microglia cells. Three new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, pterokaurane M₁ 2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), 2β,16α-dihydroxy-ent-kaurane 2,16-di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10), and 2β,16α,17-trihydroxy-ent-kaurane 2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (12), were isolated along with nine other known compounds from P...
December 26, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034294/probiotic-properties-of-lactobacillus-fermentum-strains-isolated-from-human-oral-samples-and-description-of-their-antibacterial-activity
#7
Virginia Fuochia, Giovanni Li Volti, Pio Maria Furneri
BACKGROUND: Gram positive bacteria produce peptides, defined bacteriocins which exhibit good antibacterial activity. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the ability of L. fermentum to produce bacteriocins having therefore, good probiotic features and finally, be safe towards microglial cells. METHOD: Eight wild strains, identified using molecular techniques, were investigated for the evaluation of resistance to bile salts, low pH, H2O2 production, biofilm formation, antibacterial activity and safety on microglia cells (BV2)...
December 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032996/suppression-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-by-morin-via-mapk-pi3k-akt-and-pka-ho-1-signaling-pathway-modulation
#8
Ji-Sun Jung, Min-Ji Choi, Yu Young Lee, Byung-In Moon, Jin-Sun Park, Hee-Sun Kim
Morin is a flavonoid isolated from certain fruits and Chinese herbs and is known to possess various medicinal properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of morin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation, both in vitro and in vivo. We found that morin inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Furthermore, morin suppressed the microglial activation and cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-stimulated mice...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011393/astragaloside-iv-attenuates-cognitive-impairments-induced-by-transient-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-mice-via-anti-inflammatory-mechanisms
#9
Min Li, Hongyan Li, Fang Fang, Xueyang Deng, Shiping Ma
Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is the main active component isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Astragalus membranaceus. Studies have demonstrated that AS-IV has neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemic models. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of AS-IV on memory impairment induced by transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in mice, as well as the associated signaling mechanisms. Severe memory deficits were induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice as indicated in the Morris water maze test in this study...
December 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003864/virus-infections-on-prion-diseased-mice-exacerbate-inflammatory-microglial-response
#10
Nara Lins, Luiz Mourão, Nonata Trévia, Aline Passos, José Augusto Farias, Jarila Assunção, Amanda Quintairos, João Bento-Torres, Marcia Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, José Antonio Picanço Diniz, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz
We investigated possible interaction between an arbovirus infection and the ME7 induced mice prion disease. C57BL/6, females, 6-week-old, were submitted to a bilateral intrahippocampal injection of ME7 prion strain (ME7) or normal brain homogenate (NBH). After injections, animals were organized into two groups: NBH (n = 26) and ME7 (n = 29). At 15th week after injections (wpi), animals were challenged intranasally with a suspension of Piry arbovirus 0.001% or with NBH. Behavioral changes in ME7 animals appeared in burrowing activity at 14 wpi...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003047/bioactive-isopimarane-diterpenoids-from-the-stems-of-euonymus-oblongifolius
#11
Fei Li, Jie Ma, Chuang-Jun Li, Jing-Zhi Yang, Dan Zhang, Xiao-Guang Chen, Dong-Ming Zhang
Seven isopimarane diterpenes and one abietane diterpene, together with six known sesquiterpene derivatives, were isolated from the stems of Euonymus oblongifolius. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configuration of euonymusisopimaric acid A was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis using anomalous scattering of Cu Kα radiation. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide production in the murine microglia BV2 cell line, and for their cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines...
December 18, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936099/characterization-of-arginase-expression-in-glioma-associated-microglia-and-macrophages
#12
Ian Zhang, Darya Alizadeh, Junling Liang, Leying Zhang, Hang Gao, Yanyan Song, Hui Ren, Mao Ouyang, Xiwei Wu, Massimo D'Apuzzo, Behnam Badie
Microglia (MG) and macrophages (MPs) represent a significant component of the inflammatory response to gliomas. When activated, MG/MP release a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines, however, they also secrete anti-inflammatory factors that limit their cytotoxic function. The balance between pro and anti-inflammatory functions dictates their antitumor activity. To evaluate potential variations in MG and MP function in gliomas, we isolated these cells (and other Gr1+ cells) from intracranial GL261 murine gliomas by FACS and evaluated their gene expression profiles by microarray analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932954/neuronal-release-of-cytokine-il-3-triggered-by-mechanosensitive-autostimulation-of-the-p2x7-receptor-is-neuroprotective
#13
Jason C Lim, Wennan Lu, Jonathan M Beckel, Claire H Mitchell
Mechanical strain due to increased pressure or swelling activates inflammatory responses in many neural systems. As cytokines and chemokine messengers lead to both pro-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions, understanding the signaling patterns triggered by mechanical stress may help improve overall outcomes. While cytokine signaling in neural systems is often associated with glial cells like astrocytes and microglia, the contribution of neurons themselves to the cytokine response is underappreciated and has bearing on any balanced response...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929069/th1-cells-downregulate-connexin-43-gap-junctions-in-astrocytes-via-microglial-activation
#14
Mitsuru Watanabe, Katsuhisa Masaki, Ryo Yamasaki, Jun Kawanokuchi, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Takuya Matsushita, Akio Suzumura, Jun-Ichi Kira
We previously reported early and extensive loss of astrocytic connexin 43 (Cx43) in acute demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Because it is widely accepted that autoimmune T cells initiate MS lesions, we hypothesized that infiltrating T cells affect Cx43 expression in astrocytes, which contributes to MS lesion formation. Primary mixed glial cell cultures were prepared from newborn mouse brains, and microglia were isolated by anti-CD11b antibody-conjugated magnetic beads. Next, we prepared astrocyte-rich cultures and astrocyte/microglia-mixed cultures...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903237/leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2-lrrk2-regulates-%C3%AE-synuclein-clearance-in-microglia
#15
Tatsunori Maekawa, Toshikuni Sasaoka, Sadahiro Azuma, Takafumi Ichikawa, Heather L Melrose, Matthew J Farrer, Fumiya Obata
BACKGROUND: α-Synuclein (αSYN) has been genetically implicated in familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), and is associated with disease susceptibility, progression and pathology. Excess amounts of αSYN are toxic to neurons. In the brain, microglial αSYN clearance is closely related to neuronal survival. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the one of the other genes implicated in familial and sporadic PD. While LRRK2 is known to be expressed in microglia, its true function remains to be elucidated...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888557/adoptive-transfer-of-t-regulatory-cells-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-in-fetal-brain-tissue-in-a-late-pregnancy-preterm-birth-mouse-model
#16
Fan Wang, Mi Xiao, Ru-Juan Chen, Xiao-Jie Lin, Muhammad Siddiq, Li Liu
To evaluate the effect of regulatory T cells (Tregs) on the inflammation resulting from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in prenatal brain tissue, Tregs isolated from pregnant mice were transferred into model mice, and the expression levels of fork head family transcription factor (Foxp3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), CD68 (a marker of microglia), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) were assessed in the fetal brain tissue. Foxp3, IL-6, and TLR-4 expression were detected by polymerase chain reaction and Western blot; CD68 expression level was detected using immunochemical analysis...
November 26, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883038/anti-high-mobility-group-box-1-hmgb1-antibody-attenuates-delayed-cerebral-vasospasm-and-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#17
Jun Haruma, Kiyoshi Teshigawara, Tomohito Hishikawa, Dengli Wang, Keyue Liu, Hidenori Wake, Shuji Mori, Hideo Kohka Takahashi, Kenji Sugiu, Isao Date, Masahiro Nishibori
Although delayed cerebral vasospasm (DCV) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is closely related to the progression of brain damage, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying its development. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) plays an important role as an initial inflammatory mediator in SAH. In this study, an SAH rat model was employed to evaluate the effects of anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) on DCV after SAH. A vasoconstriction of the basilar artery (BA) associated with a reduction of nuclear HMGB1 and its translocation in vascular smooth muscle cells were observed in SAH rats, and anti-HMGB1 mAb administration significantly suppressed these effects...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881779/allergic-inflammation-leads-to-neuropathic-pain-via-glial-cell-activation
#18
Ryo Yamasaki, Takayuki Fujii, Bing Wang, Katsuhisa Masaki, Mizuho A Kido, Mari Yoshida, Takuya Matsushita, Jun-Ichi Kira
: Allergic and atopic disorders have increased over the past few decades and have been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder and asthmatic amyotrophy. Myelitis presenting with neuropathic pain can occur in patients with atopic disorder; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation and neuropathic pain, and the underlying mechanism, remains to be established. We studied whether allergic inflammation affects the spinal nociceptive system...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875748/piperine-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-bv2-microglia
#19
Chen Wang-Sheng, An Jie, Li Jian-Jun, Hong Lan, Xing Zeng-Bao, Li Chang-Qing
Piperine, the chief alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum, has been known to have anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effects of piperine on neuroinflammation have not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of piperine on neuroinflammation in BV2 microglia and investigated the molecular mechanism. The results showed that piperine significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and PGE2 production in BV2 cells. Western blot analysis showed that piperine dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation...
January 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845861/apigetrin-from-scutellaria-baicalensis-georgi-inhibits-neuroinflammation-in-bv-2-microglia-and-exerts-neuroprotective-effect-in-ht22-hippocampal-cells
#20
Hye-Sun Lim, Ohn-Soon Kim, Bu-Yeo Kim, Soo-Jin Jeong
Apigetrin is a flavonoid isolated from various herbal medicines such as Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Matricaria chamomilla, Stachys tibetica Vatke, and Teucrium gnaphalodes. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of apigetrin on neuroinflammation using the BV-2 microglia cell line. Our data revealed that apigetrin significantly reduced secretion and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 mouse microglia...
November 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
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