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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786910/agathisflavone-isolated-from-anacardium-occidentale-suppresses-sirt1-mediated-neuroinflammation-in-bv2-microglia-and-neurotoxicity-in-appswe-transfected-sh-sy5y-cells
#1
Ravikanth Velagapudi, Olusiji O Ajileye, Uchechukwu Okorji, Priya Jain, Mutalib A Aderogba, Olumayokun A Olajide
Agathisflavone is a bioactive compound in Anacardium occidentale. In this study, we investigated inhibition neuroinflammation in BV2 microglia by agathisflavone. Neuroprotective activity of the compound was investigated in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Experiments in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglia showed that pretreatment with agathisflavone (5-20 μM) produced significant reduction in the release of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, NO, and PGE2 from the cells. Immunoblotting experiments also revealed that agathisflavone reduced levels of iNOS and COX-2 protein...
May 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782001/a-simple-and-reproducible-method-to-prepare-membrane-samples-from-freshly-isolated-rat-brain-microvessels
#2
Hrvoje Brzica, Wazir Abdullahi, Bianca G Reilly, Patrick T Ronaldson
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic barrier tissue that responds to various pathophysiological and pharmacological stimuli. Such changes resulting from these stimuli can greatly modulate drug delivery to the brain and, by extension, cause considerable challenges in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Many BBB changes that affect pharmacotherapy, involve proteins that are localized and expressed at the level of endothelial cells. Indeed, such knowledge on BBB physiology in health and disease has sparked considerable interest in the study of these membrane proteins...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780305/comparing-effects-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-on-microglia-from-rat-and-mouse-transcriptional-profiles-and-potassium-channels
#3
Starlee Lively, Doris Lam, Raymond Wong, Lyanne C Schlichter
The cytokine, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), is up-regulated after central nervous system (CNS) injuries or diseases involving microglial activation, and it has been proposed as a therapeutic agent for treating neuroinflammation. Microglia can produce and respond to TGFβ1. While rats and mice are commonly used for studying neuroinflammation, very few reports directly compare them. Such studies are important for improving pre-clinical studies and furthering translational progress in developing therapeutic interventions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777220/re-evaluating-microglia-expression-profiles-using-ribotag-and-cell-isolation-strategies
#4
Zhana Haimon, Alon Volaski, Johannes Orthgiess, Sigalit Boura-Halfon, Diana Varol, Anat Shemer, Simon Yona, Binyamin Zuckerman, Eyal David, Louise Chappell-Maor, Ingo Bechmann, Martin Gericke, Igor Ulitsky, Steffen Jung
Transcriptome profiling is widely used to infer functional states of specific cell types, as well as their responses to stimuli, to define contributions to physiology and pathophysiology. Focusing on microglia, the brain's macrophages, we report here a side-by-side comparison of classical cell-sorting-based transcriptome sequencing and the 'RiboTag' method, which avoids cell retrieval from tissue context and yields translatome sequencing information. Conventional whole-cell microglial transcriptomes were found to be significantly tainted by artifacts introduced by tissue dissociation, cargo contamination and transcripts sequestered from ribosomes...
May 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773101/-microvesicles-derived-from-lps-induced-microglia-aggravate-the-injury-of-tight-junction-in-rat-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-under-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#5
Yanni Lyu, Longsheng Fu, Yanming Li, Jinhua Wen, Xiaohua Wei, Yisong Qian
Objective To study the effect of the administration of the circulating microvesicles (MV) obtained from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia supernatant into rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs) on the injury of tight junction in RBECs under the condition of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) as well as the underlying mechanism. Methods The circulating MV was isolated from the supernatant of microglia stimulated with LPS 1 mg/L for 24 hours and subjected to morphological identification. The expression of miR-27a in MV was detected by real-time PCR...
March 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761389/isolation-and-phenotyping-of-adult-mouse-microglial-cells
#6
Kathleen Grabert, Barry W McColl
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system parenchyma and fulfill crucial roles in brain development, homeostasis, and inflammation. The isolation of a pure microglia population from brain tissue enables the examination of microglial phenotypes without the interference of other cell populations. Microglial extractions from the neonatal brain have been described in various protocols, yet the more established and complex adult mouse brain poses a greater challenge. Here we describe a refined protocol including enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of adult mouse brain tissue and removal of myelin by Percoll density gradient...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760177/epigenetic-promoter-dna-methylation-of-mir-124-promotes-hiv-1-tat-mediated-microglial-activation-via-mecp2-stat3-axis
#7
Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ming-Lei Guo, Guoku Hu, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
The present study demonstrates HIV-1 Tat-mediated epigenetic downregulation of microglial miR-124 and its association with microglial activation. Exposure of mouse primary microglia isolated from newborn pups of either sex to HIV-1 Tat resulted in decreased expression of primary miR-124-1, primary miR-124-2 as well as the mature miR-124. In parallel, HIV-1 Tat exposure to mouse primary microglial cells resulted in increased expression of DNA methylation enzymes, such as DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B that were also accompanied by increased global DNA methylation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759078/transcriptome-analysis-of-alcohol-treated-microglia-reveals-downregulation-of-beta-amyloid-phagocytosis
#8
Sergey Kalinin, Marta González-Prieto, Hannah Scheiblich, Lucia Lisi, Handojo Kusumo, Michael T Heneka, Jose L M Madrigal, Subhash C Pandey, Douglas L Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Microglial activation contributes to the neuropathology associated with chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal, including the expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes. In the current study, we examined the transcriptome of primary rat microglial cells following incubation with alcohol alone, or alcohol together with a robust inflammatory stimulus. METHODS: Primary microglia were prepared from mixed rat glial cultures. Cells were incubated with 75 mM ethanol alone or with proinflammatory cytokines ("TII": IL1β, IFNγ, and TNFα)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757273/isolation-and-rna-extraction-of-neurons-macrophages-and-microglia-from-larval-zebrafish-brains
#9
Julie Mazzolini, Kelda Chia, Dirk Sieger
To gain a detailed understanding of the role of different CNS cells during development or the establishment and progression of brain pathologies, it is important to isolate these cells without changing their gene expression profile. The zebrafish model provides a large number of transgenic fish lines in which specific cell types are labelled; for example neurons in the NBT:DsRed line or macrophages/microglia in the mpeg1:eGFP line. Furthermore, antibodies have been developed to stain specific cells, such as microglia with the 4C4 antibody...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751760/regional-microglia-are-transcriptionally-distinct-but-similarly-exacerbate-neurodegeneration-in-a-culture-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Eric Wildon Kostuk, Jingli Cai, Lorraine Iacovitti
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) while neighboring ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons are relatively spared. Mechanisms underlying the selective protection of the VTA and susceptibility of the SN are still mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrate the importance of balance between astrocytes and microglia in the susceptibility of SN DA neurons to the PD mimetic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ )...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734055/kynurenine-pathway-metabolic-balance-influences-microglia-activity-targeting-kynurenine-monooxygenase-to-dampen-neuroinflammation
#11
Allison M Garrison, Jennifer M Parrott, Arnulfo Tuñon, Jennifer Delgado, Laney Redus, Jason C O'Connor
Chronic stress or inflammation increases tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway (KP), and the generation of neuroactive kynurenine metabolites contributes to subsequent depressive-like behaviors. Microglia regulate KP balance by preferentially producing oxidative metabolites, including quinolinic acid. Research has focused on the interplay between cytokines and HPA axis-derived corticosteroids in regulating microglial activity and effects of KP metabolites directly on neurons; however, the potential role that KP metabolites have directly on microglial activity is unknown...
April 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731673/astrocytes-microglia-and-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Eun-Hye Joe, Dong-Joo Choi, Jiawei An, Jin-Hwa Eun, Ilo Jou, Sangmyun Park
Astrocytes and microglia support well-being and well-function of the brain through diverse functions in both intact and injured brain. For example, astrocytes maintain homeostasis of microenvironment of the brain through up-taking ions and neurotransmitters, and provide growth factors and metabolites for neurons, etc. Microglia keep surveying surroundings, and remove abnormal synapses or respond to injury by isolating injury sites and expressing inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, their loss and/or functional alteration may be directly linked to brain diseases...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722320/the-rho-associated-kinase-inhibitors-y27632-and-fasudil-promote-microglial-migration-in-the-spinal-cord-via-the-erk-signaling-pathway
#13
Pei-Cai Fu, Rong-Hua Tang, Zhi-Yuan Yu, Min-Jie Xie, Wei Wang, Xiang Luo
Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) is a key regulatory protein involved in inflammatory secretion in microglia in the central nervous system. Our previous studies showed that ROCK inhibition enhances phagocytic activity in microglia through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, but its effect on microglial migration was unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of the ROCK inhibitors Y27632 and fasudil on the migratory activity of primary cultured microglia isolated from the spinal cord, and we examined the underlying mechanisms...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705403/a-refined-rat-primary-neonatal-microglial-culture-method-that-reduces-time-cost-and-animal-use
#14
Marieta Georgieva, Alasdair Leeson-Payne, Maria Dumitrascuta, Ann Rajnicek, Marzia Malcangio, Wenlong Huang
BACKGROUND: Primary microglial cultures have been used extensively to facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for a variety of CNS disorders including neurodegeneration and neuropathic pain. However, existing techniques for culturing these cells are slow and costly. NEW METHOD: Here, we report a refined protocol based on our previously published methods described by Clark et al., which reduces in the time, reagents and the number of animals used for each culture whilst yielding high number and excellent quality microglial cells...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702566/preferential-and-increased-uptake-of-hydroxyl-terminated-pamam-dendrimers-by-activated-microglia-in-rabbit-brain-mixed-glial-culture
#15
Yossef Alnasser, Siva P Kambhampati, Elizabeth Nance, Labchan Rajbhandari, Shiva Shrestha, Arun Venkatesan, Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Sujatha Kannan
Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are multifunctional nanoparticles with tunable physicochemical features, making them promising candidates for targeted drug delivery in the central nervous system (CNS). Systemically administered dendrimers have been shown to localize in activated glial cells, which mediate neuroinflammation in the CNS. These dendrimers delivered drugs specifically to activated microglia, producing significant neurological improvements in multiple brain injury models, including in a neonatal rabbit model of cerebral palsy...
April 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685293/anti-il-6-receptor-antibody-improves-pain-symptoms-in-mice-with-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#16
Kenichi Serizawa, Haruna Tomizawa-Shinohara, Mayu Magi, Kenji Yogo, Yoshihiro Matsumoto
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic pain is a prevalent symptom in patients with autoimmune encephalomyelitis such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Although IL-6 is involved in various inflammatory and immune diseases, the roles of IL-6 in autoimmune-related pain have not been clarified. Therefore, we examined the effect of anti-IL-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1) on the pain sensitivity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EAE was induced in female C57BL/6J mice by subcutaneous immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 emulsified in adjuvant (Day 0)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678518/pattern-recognition-receptors-mediate-pro-inflammatory-effects-of-extracellular-mitochondrial-transcription-factor-a-tfam
#17
Stephanie M Schindler, Matthew G Frank, Jessica L Annis, Steven F Maier, Andis Klegeris
Neuroinflammation is a common pathogenic mechanism for a number of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, contribute to the onset and progression of the neuroinflammation observed in these diseases. Microglia become activated and initiate an inflammatory response by interacting with a diverse set of molecules, including the group of endogenous proteins released upon cell damage, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
April 17, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675872/identification-and-quantification-of-blood-brain-barrier-transporters-in-isolated-rat-brain-microvessels
#18
Hajar Al Feteisi, Zubida M Al-Majdoub, Brahim Achour, Narciso Couto, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan, Jill Barber
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains brain homeostasis by tightly regulating the exchange of molecules with systemic circulation. It consists primarily of microvascular endothelial cells surrounded by astrocytic endfeet, pericytes, and microglia. Understanding the make-up of transporters in rat BBB is essential to the translation of pharmacological and toxicological observations into humans. In this study, experimental workflows are presented in which the optimization of (a) isolation of rat brain microvessels, (b) enrichment of endothelial cells, and (c) extraction and digestion of proteins were evaluated, followed by identification and quantification of BBB proteins...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670526/taraxasterol-inhibits-lps-induced-inflammatory-response-in-bv2-microglia-cells-by-activating-lxr%C3%AE
#19
Bin Liu, Zhaoqi He, Jingjing Wang, Zhuoyuan Xin, Jiaxin Wang, Fan Li, Yunhe Fu
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic-triterpene isolated from Taraxacum officinale , has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of taraxasterol in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. BV2 microglia cells were treated with taraxasterol 12 h before LPS stimulation. The effects of taraxasterol on LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production were detected by ELISA...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669946/pravastatin-therapy-during-preeclampsia-prevents-long-term-adverse-health-effects-in-mice
#20
Nicola Garrett, Joaquim Pombo, Michelle Umpierrez, James E Clark, Mark Simmons, Guillermina Girardi
Preeclampsia (PE), associates with long-term increased risk for cardiovascular disease in women, suggesting that PE is not an isolated disease of pregnancy. It is not known if increased risk for long-term diseases is due to PE-specific factors or to prepregnancy renal and cardiovascular risk factors. We used a mouse model in which a WT female with normal prepregnancy health develops PE to investigate if preeclampsia causes long-term cardiovascular consequences after pregnancy for mothers and offspring. Mothers exhibited endothelial dysfunction and hypertension after PE and had glomerular injury that not only persisted but deteriorated, leading to fibrosis...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
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