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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327816/brain-cortex-microglia-derived-exosomes-novel-nanoparticles-for-glioma-therapy
#1
Adriana-Natalia Murgoci, Dasa Cizkova, Petra Majerova, Eva Petrovova, Lubomir Medvecky, Isabelle Fournier, Michel Salzet
The function and integrity of nervous system require interactive exchanges among neurons and glial cells. Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as a key mediator of intercellular communication, capable to transfer nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, influencing numerous functional and pathological aspects of both donor and recipient cells. The immune response mediated by microglia derived exosomes are most prominently involved in the spread of neuroinflammation, neurodegenerative disorders and brain cancer...
January 12, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323698/xist-accelerates-neuropathic-pain-progression-through-regulation-of-mir-150-and-zeb1-in-cci-rat-models
#2
Xue-Tao Yan, Jing-Min Lu, Yu Wang, Xiao-Li Cheng, Xiang-Hu He, Wen-Zhong Zheng, Hu Chen, Yan-Lin Wang
LncRNAs are reported to participate in neuropathic pain development. LncRNA X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) is involved in the progression of various cancers. However, the role of XIST in neuropathic pain remains unclear. In our present study, we established a chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model and XIST was found to be greatly upregulated both in the spinal cord tissues and in the isolated microglias of CCI rats. Inhibition of XIST inhibited neuropathic pain behaviors including mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323194/human-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-modify-microglial-response-and-improve-clinical-outcomes-in-experimental-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Katherine A Ruppert, Tin T Nguyen, Karthik S Prabhakara, Naama E Toledano Furman, Amit K Srivastava, Matthew T Harting, Charles S Cox, Scott D Olson
No current clinical intervention can alter the course of acute spinal cord injury (SCI), or appreciably improve neurological outcome. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to modulate the injury sequelae of SCI largely via paracrine effects, although the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. One potential modality is through secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs). In this study, we investigate whether systemic administration of EVs isolated from human MSCs (MSCEv) has the potential to be efficacious as an alternative to cell-based therapy for SCI...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323027/micrornas-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-emerging-therapeutic-targets
#4
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, with the clinical main symptoms caused by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, corpus striatum and brain cortex. Over 90% of patients with PD have sporadic PD and occur in people with no known family history of the disorder. Currently there is no cure for PD. Treatment with medications to increase dopamine relieves the symptoms but does not slow down or reverse the damage to neurons in the brain. Increasing evidence points to inflammation as a chief mediator of PD with inflammatory response mechanisms, involving microglia and leukocytes, activated following loss of dopaminergic neurons...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311515/secoiridoid-glycosides-from-the-twigs-of-ligustrum-obtusifolium-possess-anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects
#5
Won Se Suh, Oh Kil Kwon, Tae Hyun Lee, Lalita Subedi, Sun Yeou Kim, Kang Ro Lee
Two new secoiridoid glycosides, obtusifolisides A and B (1, 2), together with 7 known secoiridoid glycosides (3-9) were isolated from the twigs of Ligustrum obtusifolium. The chemical structures of new compounds were determined by a spectroscopic data analysis, including one and two dimensional (1D-, 2D)-NMR, High resolution-MS, and experiments involving chemical reactions. The isolated secoiridoid glycosides were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 murine microglia cells...
2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284508/inflammatory-dysregulation-of-monocytes-in-pediatric-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Natalia Rodríguez, Astrid Morer, E Azucena González-Navarro, Carles Serra-Pages, Daniel Boloc, Teresa Torres, Susana García-Cerro, Sergi Mas, Patricia Gassó, Luisa Lázaro
BACKGROUND: Although the exact etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown, there is growing evidence of a role for immune dysregulation in the pathophysiology of the disease, especially in the innate immune system including the microglia. To test this hypothesis, we studied inflammatory markers in monocytes from pediatric patients with OCD and from healthy controls. METHODS: We determined the percentages of total monocytes, CD16+ monocytes, and classical (CD14highCD16-), intermediate (CD14highCD16low), and non-classical (CD14lowCD16high) monocyte subsets in 102 patients with early-onset OCD and in 47 healthy controls...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283550/spatiotemporal-characteristics-of-intercellular-calcium-waves-communication-in-micropatterned-assemblies-of-single-cells
#7
Fulin Xing, Ping Zhang, Pengchong Jiang, Ziyuan Chen, Jianyu Yang, Fen Hu, Irena Drevenšek-Olenik, Xinzheng Zhang, Leiting Pan, Jingjun Xu
Micropatterned substrates offer a unique possibility to define and control spatial organization of biological cells at the microscale, which greatly facilitates investigations of the cell-to-cell communication in vitro. Here, we developed a simple micropatterning strategy to resolve various spatiotemporal characteristics of intercellular calcium waves (ICWs) communication among isolated BV-2 microglial cells. By using a single ring assembly, we found that the direction of the initial transmitter secretion was strongly correlated with the site of the cell at which the mechanical stimulus triggering the ICWs was imposed...
December 28, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283442/myeloid-cell-plasticity-in-the-evolution-of-central-nervous-system-autoimmunity
#8
David A Giles, Jesse M Washnock-Schmid, Patrick C Duncker, Somiah Dahlawi, Gerald Ponath, David Pitt, Benjamin M Segal
OBJECTIVE: Myeloid cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, are a prominent component of central nervous system (CNS) infiltrates during multiple sclerosis (MS) and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although myeloid cells are generally thought to be pro-inflammatory, alternatively-polarized subsets can serve non-inflammatory and/or reparative functions. Here we investigate the heterogeneity and biological properties of myeloid cells during central nervous system autoimmunity...
December 28, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247774/regulation-of-microglia-identity-from-an-epigenetic-and-transcriptomic-point-of-view
#9
Bart Jl Eggen, Erik Wgm Boddeke, Susanne M Kooistra
Microglia have long been recognized as the endogenous innate immune elements in the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma. Besides fulfilling local immune related functions, they provide cross-talk between the CNS and the immune system at large. In the adult CNS, microglia are involved in maintaining brain homeostasis, modulating synaptic transmission and clearance of apoptotic cells. During embryonic development, microglia are responsible for the removal of supernumerary synapses and neurons, and neuronal network formation...
December 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246456/scavenger-receptor-a-deficiency-impairs-immune-response-of-microglia-and-astrocytes-potentiating-alzheimer-s-disease-pathophysiology
#10
Francisca Cornejo, Marianne Vruwink, Claudia Metz, Paola Muñoz, Nicole Salgado, Joaquín Poblete, María Estela Andrés, Jaime Eugenín, Rommy von Bernhardi
Late onset Alzheimer disease's (LOAD) main risk factor is aging. Although it is not well known which age-related factors are involved in its development, evidence points out to the involvement of an impaired amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance in the aged brain among possible causes. Glial cells are the main scavengers of the brain, where Scavenger Receptor class A (SR-A) emerges as a relevant player in AD because of its participation in Aβ uptake and in the modulation of glial cell inflammatory response. Here, we show that SR-A expression is reduced in the hippocampus of aged animals and APP/PS1 mice...
December 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241552/a-single-cell-rna-sequencing-study-reveals-cellular-and-molecular-dynamics-of-the-hippocampal-neurogenic-niche
#11
Benedetta Artegiani, Anna Lyubimova, Mauro Muraro, Johan H van Es, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Hans Clevers
Adult neurogenesis in the murine dentate gyrus occurs in a specialized microenvironment that sustains the generation of neurons during life. To fully understand adult neurogenesis, it is essential to determine the neural stem cell (NSC) and progenitor developmental stages, their molecular determinants, and the niche cellular and molecular composition. We report on a single-cell RNA sequencing study of the hippocampal niche, performed by isolating all the non-neuronal cell populations. Our analysis provides a comprehensive description of the dentate gyrus cells, and it allows the identification of exclusive cell-type-specific markers...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237453/human-microglia-and-astrocytes-constitutively-express-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-and-functionally-respond-to-substance-p
#12
Amanda R Burmeister, M Brittany Johnson, Vinita S Chauhan, Megan J Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Ada D Young, Ian D Cooley, Alejandra N Martinez, Geeta Ramesh, Mario T Philipp, Ian Marriott
BACKGROUND: The tachykinin substance P (SP) is recognized to exacerbate inflammation at peripheral sites via its target receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), expressed by leukocytes. More recently, SP/NK-1R interactions have been associated with severe neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. We have previously demonstrated that NK-1R antagonists can limit neuroinflammatory damage in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis. Furthermore, we have since shown that these agents can attenuate bacteria-induced neuronal and glial inflammatory mediator production in nonhuman primate (NHP) brain explants and isolated neuronal cells, and following in vivo infection...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234401/trans-cinnamaldehyde-inhibits-microglial-activation-and-improves-neuronal-survival-against-neuroinflammation-in-bv2-microglial-cells-with-lipopolysaccharide-stimulation
#13
Yan Fu, Pin Yang, Yang Zhao, Liqing Zhang, Zhangang Zhang, Xianwen Dong, Zhongping Wu, Ying Xu, Yongjun Chen
Background: Microglial activation contributes to neuroinflammation and neuronal damage in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. It has been suggested that neurodegenerative disorders may be improved if neuroinflammation can be controlled. trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) isolated from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia possesses potent anti-inflammatory capability; we thus tested whether TCA presents neuroprotective effects on improving neuronal survival by inhibiting neuroinflammatory responses in BV2 microglial cells...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228214/oestrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-ligand-acts-on-cd11c-cells-to-mediate-protection-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#14
Roy Y Kim, Darian Mangu, Alexandria S Hoffman, Rojan Kovash, Eunice Jung, Noriko Itoh, Rhonda Voskuhl
Oestrogen treatments are neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disease models. Selective oestrogen receptor modifiers are needed to optimize beneficial effects while minimizing adverse effects to achieve neuroprotection in chronic diseases. Oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) ligands are potential candidates. In the multiple sclerosis model chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, ERβ-ligand treatment is neuroprotective, but mechanisms underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Specifically, whether there are direct effects of ERβ-ligand on CD11c+ microglia, myeloid dendritic cells or macrophages in vivo during disease is unknown...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222772/culture-of-neonatal-rodent-microglia-astrocytes-and-oligodendrocytes-from-the-cortex-spinal-cord-and-cerebellum
#15
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci
The protocol described in this chapter covers the preparation and culture of enriched populations of microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes from the cortex and spinal cord of neonatal rat and mouse. The procedure is based on enzymatic digestion of the tissue, followed by the culture of a mixed glial cell population which is then utilized as the starting point for the isolation, via differential attachment, of the different cell types.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207498/steppogenin-isolated-from-cudrania-tricuspidata-shows-antineuroinflammatory-effects-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-pathways-in-lps-stimulated-bv2-and-primary-rat-microglial-cells
#16
Dong-Cheol Kim, Tran Hong Quang, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim
Excessive microglial stimulation has been recognized in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS), HIV-associated dementia (HAD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and stroke. When microglia are stimulated, they produce proinflammatory mediators and cytokines, including nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) derived from cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
December 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189936/p2y14-receptor-activation-decreases-interleukin-6-production-and-glioma-gl261-cell-proliferation-in-microglial-transwell-cultures
#17
Marjorie A Curet, Jyoti J Watters
Gliomas are rich in extracellular nucleotides that modulate glioma cell production of multiple cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, which strongly contributes to glioma cell proliferation. However, little is known about how nucleotide signaling modulates microglial/macrophage (MG/MP) cytokine production in the context of gliomas, nor how MG/MP purinergic P2 receptor expression changes in the tumor micro-environment. We hypothesized that: (1) expression of key P2Y receptors will be augmented in glioma-derived MG/MP, and (2) selective activation of these receptors in vitro will regulate microglial production of IL-6 and glioma cell proliferation...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187851/modulation-of-p2x7-receptor-during-inflammation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Susanna Amadio, Chiara Parisi, Eleonora Piras, Paola Fabbrizio, Savina Apolloni, Cinzia Montilli, Sabina Luchetti, Serena Ruggieri, Claudio Gasperini, Franco Laghi-Pasini, Luca Battistini, Cinzia Volonté
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by macrophage accumulation and inflammatory infiltrates into the CNS contributing to demyelination. Because purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is known to be abundantly expressed on cells of the hematopoietic lineage and of the nervous system, we further investigated its phenotypic expression in MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis conditions. By quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, we analyzed the P2X7R expression in human mononuclear cells of peripheral blood from stable and acute relapsing-remitting MS phases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174381/anti-neuroinflammatory-effect-of-6-8-1-tri-o-methylaverantin-a-metabolite-from-a-marine-derived-fungal-strain-aspergillus-sp-via-upregulation-of-heme-oxygenase-1-in-lipopolysaccharide-activated-microglia
#19
Kwan-Woo Kim, Hye Jin Kim, Jae Hak Sohn, Joung Han Yim, Youn-Chul Kim, Hyuncheol Oh
In the course of searching for anti-neuroinflammatory metabolites from marine-derived fungi, three fungal metabolites, 6,8,1'-tri-O-methylaverantin, 6,8-di-O-methylaverufin, and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin were isolated from a marine-derived fungal strain Aspergillus sp. SF-6796. Among these, 6,8,1'-tri-O-methylaverantin induced the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 protein in BV2 microglial cells. The induction of HO-1 protein was mediated by the activation of nuclear transcription factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), and was regulated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathways...
November 21, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149899/selective-depletion-of-microglial-progranulin-in-mice-is-not-sufficient-to-cause-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-or-neuroinflammation
#20
Terri L Petkau, Natalia Kosior, Kathleen de Asis, Colúm Connolly, Blair R Leavitt
BACKGROUND: Progranulin deficiency due to heterozygous null mutations in the GRN gene are a common cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), while homozygous loss-of-function GRN mutations are thought to be a rare cause of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). Aged progranulin-knockout (Grn-null) mice display highly exaggerated lipofuscinosis, microgliosis, and astrogliosis, as well as mild cell loss in specific brain regions. In the brain, progranulin is predominantly expressed in neurons and microglia, and previously, we demonstrated that neuronal-specific depletion of progranulin does not recapitulate the neuropathological phenotype of Grn-null mice...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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