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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797292/the-ethanol-extract-of-aquilariae-lignum-ameliorates-hippocampal-oxidative-stress-in-a-repeated-restraint-stress-mouse-model
#1
Hyun-Yong Lee, Jin-Seok Lee, Hyeong-Geug Kim, Won-Yong Kim, Seung-Bae Lee, Yung-Hyun Choi, Chang-Gue Son
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress contributes to the development of brain disorders, such as neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Oxidative damage is well known as a causative factor for pathogenic process in brain tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of a 30% ethanol extract of Aquilariae Lignum (ALE) in repeated stress-induced hippocampal oxidative injury. METHODS: Fifty BALB/c male mice (12 weeks old) were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10)...
August 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782716/treatment-with-an-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-mitigates-neuroinflammation-and-brain-damage-after-polytrauma
#2
Mujun Sun, Rhys D Brady, David K Wright, Hyun Ah Kim, Shenpeng R Zhang, Christopher G Sobey, Maddison R Johnstone, Terence J O'Brien, Bridgette D Semple, Stuart J McDonald, Sandy R Shultz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and long bone fracture are common in polytrauma. This injury combination in mice results in elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and exacerbated neuropathology when compared to isolated-TBI. Here we examined the effect of treatment with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in mice given a TBI and a concomitant tibial fracture (i.e., polytrauma). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were given sham-injuries or polytrauma and treated with saline-vehicle or IL-1ra (100 mg/kg)...
August 3, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774571/activation-of-neonatal-microglia-can-be-influenced-by-other-neural-cells
#3
Alexandra Turano, Jennifer H Lawrence, Jaclyn M Schwarz
During development, microglial progenitor cells migrate into the brain from the periphery, a process critical to the maturation of the developing brain. Although they perform functions similar to mature, adult microglia, immature microglia are distinct from mature microglia. Activation of immature microglia, via an early-life immune challenge, can lead to persistent changes in microglial function, resulting in long-term neuronal and cognitive dysfunction. Early-life immune activation is associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, ADHD, schizophrenia, and cerebral palsy - disorders with known or suspected immune etiologies, and strong sex biases for males...
July 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772190/an-antigen-specific-semi-therapeutic-treatment-with-local-delivery-of-tolerogenic-factors-through-a-dual-sized-microparticle-system-blocks-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Jonathan J Cho, Joshua M Stewart, Theodore T Drashansky, Maigan A Brusko, Ashley N Zuniga, Kyle J Lorentsen, Benjamin G Keselowsky, Dorina Avram
Antigen-specific treatments are highly desirable for autoimmune diseases in contrast to treatments which induce systemic immunosuppression. A novel antigen-specific therapy has been developed which, when administered semi-therapeutically, is highly efficacious in the treatment of the mouse model for multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The treatment uses dual-sized, polymeric microparticles (dMPs) loaded with specific antigen and tolerizing factors for intra- and extra-cellular delivery, designed to recruit and modulate dendritic cells toward a tolerogenic phenotype without systemic release...
July 24, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755749/increased-expression-of-m1-and-m2-phenotypic-markers-in-isolated-microglia-after-four-day-binge-alcohol-exposure-in-male-rats
#5
Hui Peng, Chelsea R Geil Nickell, Kevin Y Chen, Justin A McClain, Kimberly Nixon
Microglia activation and neuroinflammation are common features of neurodegenerative conditions, including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). When activated, microglia span a continuum of diverse phenotypes ranging from classically activated, pro-inflammatory (M1) microglia/macrophages to alternatively activated, growth-promoting (M2) microglia/macrophages. Identifying microglia phenotypes is critical for understanding the role of microglia in the pathogenesis of AUDs. Therefore, male rats were gavaged with 25% (w/v) ethanol or isocaloric control diet every 8 h for 4 days and sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, and 7 days after alcohol exposure (e...
August 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754560/correlation-of-cellular-factors-and-differential-scrapie-prion-permissiveness-in-ovine-microglia
#6
Kelcey D Dinkel, David A Schneider, Juan F Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Valerie R McElliott, James B Stanton
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders by which the native cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is misfolded into an accumulating, disease-associated isoform (PrP(D)). To improve the understanding of prion pathogenesis and develop effective treatments, it is essential to elucidate factors contributing to cellular permissiveness. We previously isolated five clones from an immortalized subline of ovine microglia, two of which had demonstrated differential permissiveness to a natural isolate of sheep scrapie and distinct transcriptomic profiles...
July 25, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752431/effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-systemic-inflammation-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-aged-rats
#7
Daiki Yamanaka, Takashi Kawano, Atsushi Nishigaki, Bun Aoyama, Hiroki Tateiwa, Marie Shigematsu-Locatelli, Fabricio M Locatelli, Masataka Yokoyama
PURPOSE: In this study, we examined the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol, on sepsis-induced neurocognitive abnormity in aged rats. METHODS: Aged rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline. Animals were further divided into three groups: control, low-dose EGCG (4.0 mg/kg), and high-dose EGCG (20 mg/kg). EGCG was i.p. injected at the same time, 24 and 48 h after LPS administration...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733218/esculentoside-a-inhibits-lps-induced-bv2-microglia-activation-through-activating-ppar-%C3%AE
#8
Dong Li-Hua, Li Yan, Wang Shi-Ji, Wang Guang, Sheng Lu-Lu, Pan Xue-Feng, Sun Pengda
Neuroinflammation has been recognized as a factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Esculentoside A (EsA), a saponin isolated from Phytolacca esculenta, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. However, little research has been reported on the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of EsA. EsA concentration-dependently suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, and PGE2 production. LPS-induced NF-κB activation was inhibited by treatment of EsA. Furthermore, EsA concentration-dependently up-regulated the expression of PPAR-γ...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723550/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-primitive-macrophages-provide-a-platform-for-modeling-tissue-resident-macrophage-differentiation-and-function
#9
Kazuyuki Takata, Tatsuya Kozaki, Christopher Zhe Wei Lee, Morgane Sonia Thion, Masayuki Otsuka, Shawn Lim, Kagistia Hana Utami, Kerem Fidan, Dong Shin Park, Benoit Malleret, Svetoslav Chakarov, Peter See, Donovan Low, Gillian Low, Marta Garcia-Miralles, Ruizhu Zeng, Jinqiu Zhang, Chi Ching Goh, Ahmet Gul, Sandra Hubert, Bernett Lee, Jinmiao Chen, Ivy Low, Nurhidaya Binte Shadan, Josephine Lum, Tay Seok Wei, Esther Mok, Shohei Kawanishi, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Anis Larbi, Michael Poidinger, Laurent Renia, Lai Guan Ng, Yochai Wolf, Steffen Jung, Tamer Önder, Evan Newell, Tara Huber, Eishi Ashihara, Sonia Garel, Mahmoud A Pouladi, Florent Ginhoux
Tissue macrophages arise during embryogenesis from yolk-sac (YS) progenitors that give rise to primitive YS macrophages. Until recently, it has been impossible to isolate or derive sufficient numbers of YS-derived macrophages for further study, but data now suggest that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be driven to undergo a process reminiscent of YS-hematopoiesis in vitro. We asked whether iPSC-derived primitive macrophages (iMacs) can terminally differentiate into specialized macrophages with the help of growth factors and organ-specific cues...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716092/the-role-of-microglial-p2x7-modulation-of-cell-death-and-cytokine-release
#10
Yingbo He, Natalie Taylor, Lawrence Fourgeaud, Anindya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: ATP-gated P2X7 is a non-selective cation channel, which participates in a wide range of cellular functions as well as pathophysiological processes including neuropathic pain, immune response, and neuroinflammation. Despite its abundant expression in microglia, the role of P2X7 in neuroinflammation still remains unclear. METHODS: Primary microglia were isolated from cortices of P0-2 C57BL/6 wild-type or P2X7 knockout (P2X7(-/-)) mouse pups. Lipopolysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide plus IFNγ, or IL4 plus IL13 were used to polarize microglia to pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory states...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713239/increased-white-matter-inflammation-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#11
Divya Raj, Zhuoran Yin, Marjolein Breur, Janine Doorduin, Inge R Holtman, Marta Olah, Ietje J Mantingh-Otter, Debby Van Dam, Peter P De Deyn, Wilfred den Dunnen, Bart J L Eggen, Sandra Amor, Erik Boddeke
Chronic neuroinflammation, which is primarily mediated by microglia, plays an essential role in aging and neurodegeneration. It is still unclear whether this microglia-induced neuroinflammation occurs globally or is confined to distinct brain regions. In this study, we investigated microglia activity in various brain regions upon healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology in both human and mouse samples. In purified microglia isolated from aging mouse brains, we found a profound gene expression pattern related to pro-inflammatory processes, phagocytosis, and lipid homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712890/amburana-cearensis-seed-extract-protects-brain-mitochondria-from-oxidative-stress-and-cerebellar-cells-from-excitotoxicity-induced-by-glutamate
#12
Érica Patrícia Lima Pereira, Cleide Santos Souza, Jessika Amparo, Rafael Short Ferreira, Yanier Nuñez-Figueredo, Luzimar Gonzaga Fernandez, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro, Suzana Braga-de-Souza, Victor Diogenes Amaral da Silva, Silvia Lima Costa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Amburana cearensis (Allemao) A.C.Sm. is a medicinal plant of the Brazilian Caatinga reported to present antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the extracts obtained from the seeds of A. cearensis in primary cultures of cerebellar cells subjected to excitotoxicity induced by glutamate and brain mitochondria submitted to oxidative stress. MATERIALS: and methods: Primary cultures of cerebellar cells were treated with the ethanol (ETAC), hexane (EHAC), dichloromethane (EDAC) and ethyl acetate (EAAC) extracts of the seeds of A...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708050/hyperinvasiveness-and-increased-intercellular-spread-of-listeria-monocytogenes-sequence-type-1-are-independent-of-listeriolysin-s-internalin-f-and-internalin-j1
#13
Sebastian Rupp, Michelle Bärtschi, Joachim Frey, Anna Oevermann
PURPOSE: Listeria monocytogenes is a genetically heterogeneous species, which is divided into evolutionary lineages and clonal complexes (CCs). Not all L. monocytogenes isolates are equally likely to cause disease, with CC1, and in particular sequence type (ST) 1, being the most prevalent complex in human and ruminant infections and more specifically in neurolisteriosis. While the major factors that determine neurotropism are unknown, the L. monocytogenes CC1 strains harbour listeriolysin S (lls) and particular alleles of internalin (inl) F and inlJ, which are not present in CCs commonly isolated from food and the environment...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700991/strain-differences-and-effects-of-environmental-manipulation-on-astrocytes-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-microglia-iba1-immunoreactivity-between-wistar-kyoto-and-wistar-females
#14
Guergana R Mileva, Carinna Moyes, Shaezeen Syed, Catherine Bielajew
BACKGROUND: Depression is often associated with an increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity and immune response. To investigate this relationship, we examined the consequences of environmental manipulation on the neural correlates of the HPA axis and immune response in an animal model of depression, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. Additionally, female animals are often overlooked in preclinical research because of the hormone fluctuations inherent in the estrous cycle...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700589/ank1-is-up-regulated-in-laser-captured-microglia-in-alzheimer-s-brain-the-importance-of-addressing-cellular-heterogeneity
#15
Diego Mastroeni, Shobana Sekar, Jennifer Nolz, Elaine Delvaux, Katie Lunnon, Jonathan Mill, Winnie S Liang, Paul D Coleman
Recent epigenetic association studies have identified a new gene, ANK1, in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although strong associations were observed, brain homogenates were used to generate the data, introducing complications because of the range of cell types analyzed. In order to address the issue of cellular heterogeneity in homogenate samples we isolated microglial, astrocytes and neurons by laser capture microdissection from CA1 of hippocampus in the same individuals with a clinical and pathological diagnosis of AD and matched control cases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697890/stress-induced-neuronal-colony-stimulating-factor-1-provokes-microglia-mediated-neuronal-remodeling-and-depressive-like-behavior
#16
Eric S Wohleb, Rosemarie Terwilliger, Catharine H Duman, Ronald S Duman
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress exposure causes neuronal atrophy and synaptic deficits in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), contributing to development of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Concomitantly, microglia in the PFC undergo morphological and functional changes following stress exposure, suggesting that microglia contribute to synaptic deficits underlying behavioral consequences. METHODS: Male and female mice were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to examine the role of neuron-microglia interactions in the medial PFC during development of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors...
June 12, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687495/extracellular-vesicles-novel-promising-delivery-systems-for-therapy-of-brain-diseases
#17
REVIEW
David Rufino-Ramos, Patrícia R Albuquerque, Vitor Carmona, Rita Perfeito, Rui Jorge Nobre, Luis Pereira de Almeida
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane vesicles virtually secreted by all cells, including brain cells. EVs are a major term that includes apoptotic bodies, microvesicles and exosomes. The release of EVs has been recognized as an important modulator in cross-talking between neurons, astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes, not only in central nervous system (CNS) physiology but also in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disease states as well as in brain tumors, such as glioma. EVs are able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), spread to body fluids and reach distant tissues...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671693/transcriptomic-analysis-of-purified-human-cortical-microglia-reveals-age-associated-changes
#18
Thais F Galatro, Inge R Holtman, Antonio M Lerario, Ilia D Vainchtein, Nieske Brouwer, Paula R Sola, Mariana M Veras, Tulio F Pereira, Renata E P Leite, Thomas Möller, Paul D Wes, Mari C Sogayar, Jon D Laman, Wilfred den Dunnen, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Sueli M Oba-Shinjo, Erik W G M Boddeke, Suely K N Marie, Bart J L Eggen
Microglia are essential for CNS homeostasis and innate neuroimmune function, and play important roles in neurodegeneration and brain aging. Here we present gene expression profiles of purified microglia isolated at autopsy from the parietal cortex of 39 human subjects with intact cognition. Overall, genes expressed by human microglia were similar to those in mouse, including established microglial genes CX3CR1, P2RY12 and ITGAM (CD11B). However, a number of immune genes, not identified as part of the mouse microglial signature, were abundantly expressed in human microglia, including TLR, Fcγ and SIGLEC receptors, as well as TAL1 and IFI16, regulators of proliferation and cell cycle...
August 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668091/amplification-and-propagation-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-signaling-by-murine-brain-endothelial-and-glial-cells
#19
Stephanie M Krasnow, J Gabriel Knoll, Santhosh Chakkaramakkil Verghese, Peter R Levasseur, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: During acute infections and chronic illnesses, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) acts within the brain to elicit metabolic derangements and sickness behaviors. It is unknown which cells in the brain are the proximal targets for IL-1β with respect to the generation of these illness responses. We performed a series of in vitro experiments to (1) investigate which brain cell populations exhibit inflammatory responses to IL-1β and (2) examine the interactions between different IL-1β-responsive cell types in various co-culture combinations...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666870/a-novel-role-for-earthworm-peptide-lumbricusin-as-a-regulator-of-neuroinflammation
#20
Minchul Seo, Joon Ha Lee, Minhee Baek, Mi-Ae Kim, Mi-Young Ahn, Seong Hyun Kim, Eun-Young Yun, Jae-Sam Hwang
Recently, we reported that Lumbricusin, an antimicrobial peptide isolated from earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, enhanced neuronal proliferation and ameliorated motor dysfunction and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Accumulating evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is the primary pathological feature of acute or chronic inflammation mediated by microglia, the resident macrophage of the central nervous system. Therefore, microglial activation inhibitors may be useful as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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