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Qian Zhou, Xiaolong Fu, Xueting Wang, Qin Wu, Yuanfu Lu, Jingshan Shi, James E Klaunig, Shaoyu Zhou
Excessive environmental or occupational exposure to manganese (Mn) is associated with increased risk of neuron degenerative disorders. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the main mechanisms of Mn mediated neurotoxicity. Selective removal of damaged mitochondria by autophagy has been proposed as a protective mechanism against neuronal toxicant-induced neurotoxicity. Whether autophagic flux plays a role in Mn-induced cytotoxicity remains to be fully elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Mn exposure on autophagy, and how modulation of autophagic flux alters the sensitivities of cells to Mn-elicited cytotoxicity...
December 5, 2017: Toxicology
Yadessa Melaku, Tefera Worku, Yemane Tadesse, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Juergen Schmidt, Norbert Arnold, Ermias Dagne
Background: Dodonaea angustifolia is used in Ethiopian traditional medicine to treat malaria. The objective of this work was to conduct bioassay guided fractionation of the leaves of D. angustifolia using Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Method: The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts and pure compounds was evaluated using the standard Peter's four-day suppressive method. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using chemi-cal and spectroscopic methods...
September 2017: Current Bioactive Compounds
Julien Villeneuve, Laia Bassaganyas, Sebastien Lepreux, Marioara Chiritoiu, Pierre Costet, Jean Ripoche, Vivek Malhotra, Randy Schekman
An appreciation of the functional properties of the cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has advanced with the recent demonstration that an extracellular form secreted by adipocytes regulates a wide range of physiological functions. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms that mediate the unconventional secretion of FABP4. Here, we demonstrate that FABP4 secretion is mediated by a membrane-bounded compartment, independent of the conventional endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. We show that FABP4 secretion is also independent of GRASP proteins, autophagy, and multivesicular bodies but involves enclosure within endosomes and secretory lysosomes...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Qicheng Chen, Li Ye, Jiajun Fan, Xuyao Zhang, Huan Wang, Siyang Liao, Ping Song, Ziyu Wang, Shaofei Wang, Yubin Li, Jingyun Luan, Yichen Wang, Wei Chen, Wenjing Zai, Ping Yang, Zhonglian Cao, Dianwen Ju
Asparaginase has been reported to be effective in the treatment of various leukemia and several malignant solid cancers. However, the anti-tumor effect of asparaginase is always restricted due to complicated mechanisms. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms of how glioblastoma resisted asparaginase treatment and reported a novel approach to enhance the anti-glioblastoma effect of asparaginase. We found that asparaginase could induce growth inhibition and caspase-dependent apoptosis in U87MG/U251MG glioblastoma cells...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
Heqing Yi, Ting Ye, Minghua Ge, Mengdi Yang, Lijun Zhang, Shui Jin, Xuemei Ye, Bin Long, Linfa Li
The multi-target kinase inhibitor sorafenib has been approved for the treatment of patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancer. However, different sensitivities to sorafenib have been observed, and few patients have benefited from sorafenib treatment in the long term. In the event of acquired resistance to sorafenib it is not beneficial to continue treatment in most patients. Autophagy can be induced in a variety of cancer treatments and plays an important role in cancer treatment. The role of autophagy in sorafenib treatment of thyroid cancer has not been fully demonstrated...
November 28, 2017: Oncology Reports
Dongdong Chen, Xiaoxiao Wu, Jie Zheng, Ruijie Dai, Zhichao Mo, Fahad Munir, Xiaolong Ni, Yunfeng Shan
Hepatic oval cells (HOCs) are thought to possess self‑renewal ability and a bipotential capacity for differentiation, which allows them to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Autophagy serves an important role in self‑renewal and differentiation of stem cells; however, how autophagy contributes to proliferation and differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, autophagy was regulated by rapamycin (Rapa) and chloroquine (Chlo) administration. The results demonstrated that Chlo‑treated HOCs exhibited decreased autophagic activity alongside a decreased tendency to proliferate, as determined by Cell Counting Kit‑8...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Justin Hartupee, Gabor D Szalai, Wei Wang, Xiucui Ma, Abhinav Diwan, Douglas L Mann
BACKGROUND: Sustained inflammation in the heart is sufficient to provoke left ventricular dysfunction and left ventricular remodeling. Although inflammation has been linked to many of the biological changes responsible for adverse left ventricular remodeling, the relationship between inflammation and protein quality control in the heart is not well understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: To study the relationship between chronic inflammation and protein quality control, we used a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy driven by cardiac restricted overexpression of TNF (tumor necrosis factor; Myh6-sTNF)...
December 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
Ali Ramazani, Behnam Khosravani, Jafar Taran, Ali Ramazani
Because of expanding resistance to efficient and affordable antimalarial drugs like chloroquine, the search is continuing for more effective drugs against this disease. In-vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of α-(acyloxy)-α-(quinolin-4-yl) acetamides on Plasmodiumfalciparum and structure-activity relationships of this new class of Passerini adducts is described. The in-vitro antiplasmodial activity of compounds was tested against chloroquine sensitive 3D7 strain. Toxicity of active compounds was investigated on HepG2 cell line...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Juan Sebastian Yakisich, Yogesh Kulkarni, Neelam Azad, Anand Krishnan V Iyer
The presence of highly resistant cancer cells and the toxicity to normal cells are key factors that limit chemotherapy. Here, we used two models of highly resistant lung cancer cells: (1) adherent cells growing under prolonged periods of serum starvation (PPSS) and (2) cells growing as floating tumorspheres (FTs) to evaluate the effect of Verapamil (VP) in combination with Sorafenib (SF). Compared to cells growing under routine culture conditions (RCCs), PPPS cells or FTs were highly sensitive to short-term exposure (24 h) to VP 100 μM + SF 5 μM (VP100 + SF5)...
2017: Stem Cells International
Xiao-Cheng Li, Qi-Kuan Hu, Ling Chen, Si-Yang Liu, Shi Su, Hong Tao, Lin-Na Zhang, Tao Sun, Lan-Jie He
Although autophagy has been proposed to play an emerging role in diabetic neuropathy, autophagy and its possible role remains unclear. Moreover, only few studies about diabetes have explored the autophagy mediated by heat shock protein beta-8 (HSPB8) and Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3). In the present study, we examined the autophagy induced by high glucose levels in an in vivo rat model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and an in vitro model of retinal ganglion cell-5 (RGC5) cells under high glucose conditions...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Thuany de Moura Cordeiro, Fabian Borghetti, Sarah C Caldas Oliveira, Izabela Marques Dourado Bastos, Jaime Martins de Santana, Philippe Grellier, Sébastien Charneau
Background: The rapid spread of drug-resistant strains of protozoan parasites required the urgent need for new effective drugs. Natural products offer a variety of chemical structures, which make them a valuable source of lead compounds for the development of such new drugs. Cerrado is the second largest biome in Brazil and has the richest flora of all the world savannahs. We selected Qualea grandiflora, a plant species known for its proprieties in folk medicine and its antibacterial activity...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Yasukazu Takanezawa, Ryosuke Nakamura, Ryohei Harada, Yuka Sone, Shimpei Uraguchi, Masako Kiyono
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a widely distributed environmental pollutant that causes a series of cytotoxic effects. However, molecular mechanisms underlying MeHg toxicity are not fully understood. Here, we report that sequestosome1/p62 protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) against low-dose MeHg cytotoxicity via clearance of MeHg-induced ubiquitinated proteins. p62 mRNA and protein expression in MEFs were temporally induced by MeHg exposure p62-deficient MEFs exhibited higher sensitivity to MeHg exposure compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nicoletta Basilico, Silvia Parapini, Anna Sparatore, Sergio Romeo, Paola Misiano, Livia Vivas, Vanessa Yardley, Simon L Croft, Annette Habluetzel, Leonardo Lucantoni, Laurent Renia, Bruce Russell, Rossarin Suwanarusk, Francois Nosten, Giulio Dondio, Chiara Bigogno, Daniela Jabes, Donatella Taramelli
Natural products are a prolific source for the identification of new biologically active compounds. In the present work, we studied the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial efficacy and ADME-Tox profile of a molecular hybrid (AM1) between 4-aminoquinoline and a quinolizidine moiety derived from lupinine (Lupinus luteus). The aim was to find a compound endowed with the target product profile-1 (TCP-1: molecules that clear asexual blood-stage parasitaemia), proposed by the Medicine for Malaria Venture to accomplish the goal of malaria elimination/eradication...
December 1, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Johan Georg Visser, Carine Smith
One of the limiting factors in tissue regeneration, particularly in the context of chronic disease such as myodystrophy, motor neuron disease, sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease, is limited availability of stem cells. We propose employing autologous macrophages to deliver stem cells, thereby facilitating tissue regeneration, by a novel and relatively non-invasive therapeutic intervention. Circulatory monocytic cells of M1 phenotype have capacity for transendothelial migration to infiltrate damaged tissue, making them ideal delivery vehicles...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Priyanka Patel, Praveen K Bharti, Devendra Bansal, Nazia A Ali, Rajive K Raman, Pradyumna K Mohapatra, Rakesh Sehgal, Jagadish Mahanta, Ali A Sultan, Neeru Singh
Antimalarial drug resistance is a major global challenge in malaria control and elimination. Mutations in six different genes of Plasmodium falciparum (crt, mdr1, dhfr, dhps, ATPase6 and K-13 propeller) that confer resistance to chloroquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and artemisinin-based combination therapy were analyzed in samples from Chhattisgarh. Seventy-eight percent of the samples were found to have a pfcrt mutation (53% double, 24% triple and 1% single mutant), and 59% of pfmdr1 genes were found to have an N86Y mutation...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yabing Mi, Wangsheng Wang, Jiangwen Lu, Chuyue Zhang, Yawei Wang, Hao Ying, Kang Sun
Rupture of fetal membranes (ROM) can initiate parturition at both term and preterm. Collagen III in the compact layer of the amnion contributes to the tensile strength of fetal membranes. However, the upstream signals triggering collagen III degradation remain mostly elusive. In this study we investigated the role of cortisol regenerated by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) in collagen III degradation in human amnion fibroblasts with an aim to seek novel targets for the prevention of preterm premature ROM (PPROM)-elicited preterm birth...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Qiaohua Peng, Jiale Qin, Yanan Zhang, Xiaodong Cheng, Xinyu Wang, Weiguo Lu, Xing Xie, Songfa Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are regarded as the main cell type responsible for the initiation, metastasis, drug resistance, and recurrence of cancer. But the mechanism by which cancer stem cells maintain their stemness remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) were revealed to have an enhanced autophagic flux. Furthermore, their chemoresistance and ability to self-renewal in vitro were decreased when autophagy was inhibited by Bafilomycin A1(BafA1), Chloroquine(CQ) or autophagy related 5(ATG5) knockdown...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Mukesh C Joshi, John Okombo, Samkele Nsumiwa, Jeffrey Ndove, Dale Taylor, Lubbe Wiesner, Roger Hunter, Kelly Chibale, Timothy J Egan
Emergence of drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum including artemisinin-tolerant parasites highlights the need for new antimalarials. We have previously shown that dibemequines, 4-amino-7-chloroquinolines with dibenzylmethylamine (dibemethin) side chains, are efficacious. In this study, analogues in which the terminal phenyl group of the dibemethin was replaced with a 2-pyridyl group and the 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline was either maintained or replaced with a 4-aminoquinoline-7-carbonitrile were synthesized in an effort to improve drug-likeness...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Emil Yu Yamansarov, Dmitri V Kazakov, Natal'ya I Medvedeva, Elmira F Khusnutdinova, Oxana B Kazakova, Yuliya V Legostaeva, Gumer Yu Ishmuratov, Le Mai Huong, Tran Thi Hong Ha, Do Thi Huong, Kyrill Yu Suponitsky
A series of new steroidal peroxides - 3'-trifluoromethylated 1,2,4-trioxolanes and 1,2,4,5-tetraoxanes based on deoxycholic acid were prepared via the reactions of the Griesbaum coozonolysis and peroxycondensation, respectively. 1,2,4-Trioxolanes were synthesized by the interaction of methyl O-methyl-3-oximino-12α-acetoxy-deoxycholate with CF3C(O)CH3 or CF3C(O)Ph and O3 as the mixtures of four possible stereoisomers at ratios of 1:2:2:1 and in yields of 50% and 38%, respectively. The major diastereomer of methyl 12α-acetoxy-5β-cholan-24-oate-3-spiro-5'-(3'-methyl-3'-trifluoromethyl-1',2',4'-trioxolane) was isolated via crystallization of a mixture of stereoisomers from hexane and its (3S,3'R)-configuration was determined using X-ray crystallographic analysis...
November 24, 2017: Steroids
Yingting Liu, Zhi-Chun Hua, Fenfei Leng
DNA supercoiling plays critical roles in several essential DNA metabolic pathways, such as replication, transcription and recombination. Typically plasmid DNA molecules are used to measure DNA supercoiling status inside bacterial cells. In this chapter, we describe how to isolate plasmid DNA molecules from E. coli cells and determine DNA supercoiling density by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis containing chloroquine using plasmid pACYC184 as an example.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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