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Birgit Arndt, Slavica Janevska, Robin Schmid, Florian Hübner, Bettina Tudzynski, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
The range of secondary metabolites (SMs) produced by the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi is quite broad. Several polyketides, nonribosomal peptides and terpenes have been identified. However, no products of dimethylallyltryptophan synthases (DMATSs) have been elucidated, although two putative DMATS genes are present in the F. fujikuroi genome. In this study, the in vivo product derived from one of the DMATSs (DMATS1, FFUJ_09179) was identified with the help of the software MZmine 2. Detailed structure elucidation showed that this metabolite is a reversely N-prenylated tryptophan with a rare form of prenylation...
March 10, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Katja Backhaus, Lena Ludwig-Radtke, Xiulan Xie, Shu-Ming Li
The tryptophan derivative 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) is present in many plants and foods including fermentation products of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MTCA is formed from tryptophan and acetaldehyde via a Pictet-Spengler reaction. In this study, up to 9 mg/L of MTCA were detected as a mixture of (1S,3S) and (1R,3S) isomers in a ratio of 2.2:1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of MTCA in laboratory baker's yeast cultures...
March 2, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
Jakub Gunera, Florian Kindinger, Shu-Ming Li, Peter Kolb
Prenyltransferases of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) superfamily catalyze the attachment of prenyl or prenyl-like moieties to diverse acceptor compounds. These acceptor molecules are generally aromatic in nature and mostly indole or indole-like. Their catalytic transformation represents a major skeletal diversification step in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including the indole alkaloids. DMATS enzymes thus contribute significantly to the biological and pharmacological diversity of small molecule metabolites...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kyung Min Kim, Jaeho Lim, Jae Jung Lee, Byung-Serk Hurh, Inhyung Lee
Initially, we screened 18 Aspergillus sojae-like strains from Aspergillus spp. isolated from meju (Korean traditional fermented soybean brick) according to their morphological characteristics. Because members of Aspergillus section Flavi are often incorrectly identified because of their phylogenetic similarity, we re-identified these strains at the morphological and molecular genetic levels. Fourteen strains were finally identified as A. sojae. The isolates produced protease and α-amylase with ranges of 2...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Julia Winkelblech, Xiulan Xie, Shu-Ming Li
Prenylated secondary metabolites including indole derivatives usually demonstrate improved biological and pharmacological activities, which make them promising candidates for drug discovery and development. The transfer reactions of a prenyl moiety from a prenyl donor, e.g. dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), to an acceptor is catalysed by prenyltransferases. One special group of such enzymes uses DMAPP and tryptophan as substrates with dimethylallyltryptophans as reaction products and functions therefore as dimethylallyltryptophan synthases (DMATSs)...
October 18, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Yuzuru Kawashima, Daisuke Nishi, Hiroko Noguchi, Masato Usuki, Akihiro Yamashita, Yuichi Koido, Yoshiro Okubo, Yutaka J Matsuoka
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and burnout 4 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake among medical rescue workers in Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs). METHODS: We examined participants' background characteristics, prior health condition, rescue work experiences, and the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) score at 1 month after the earthquake. Current psychological condition was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and Maslach Burnout Inventory administered 4 years after the earthquake...
December 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Kentaro Morikawa, Keiki Shimizu
Disaster medical system in Japan has been changing after huge disaster attack. Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) was established on 1995 after the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and played important role in the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on 2011. The action of DMAT is specialized within acute phase. Continual medical aid activity is required from acute phase to chronic phase. After DMAT evacuation, Japan Medical Association Team (JMAT), Japanese Red Cross Teams, Medical university teams and many other medical teams work sequentially in the disaster area...
February 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Masato Homma
After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, the Japanese national disaster medical system (NDMS) was developed. It mainly consists of four components, namely, a disaster base hospital, an emergency medical information system, a disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), and national aeromedical evacuation (AE). The NDMS was tested for the first time in a real disaster situation during the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. Two airports and one base were appointed as DMAT gathering places, and approximately 393 DMAT members divided into 78 teams were transported by Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) aircrafts to two AE staging bases the following day...
June 2015: Yonago Acta Medica
Kang Zhou, Xia Yu, Xiulan Xie, Shu-Ming Li
Flavonoids are found mainly in plants and exhibit diverse biological and pharmacological activities, which can often be enhanced by prenylations. In plants, such reactions are catalyzed by membrane-bound prenyltransferases. In this study, the prenylation of nine flavonoids from different classes by a soluble fungal prenyltransferase (AnaPT) involved in the biosynthesis of the prenylated indole alkaloid acetylaszonalenin is demonstrated. The behavior of AnaPT toward flavonoids regarding substrate acceptance and prenylation positions clearly differs from that of the indole prenyltransferase 7-DMATS...
September 25, 2015: Journal of Natural Products
Aili Fan, Julia Winkelblech, Shu-Ming Li
Prenylated compounds are ubiquitously found in nature and demonstrate interesting biological and pharmacological activities. Prenyltransferases catalyze the attachment of prenyl moieties from different prenyl donors to various acceptors and contribute significantly to the structural and biological diversity of natural products. In the last decade, significant progress has been achieved for the prenyltransferases of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) superfamily. More than 40 members of these soluble enzymes are identified in microorganisms and characterized biochemically...
September 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Julia Winkelblech, Aili Fan, Shu-Ming Li
Attachment of isoprene units to various acceptors by prenylation plays an important role in primary and secondary metabolism of living organisms. Protein prenylation belongs to posttranslational modification and is involved in cellular regulation process. Prenylated secondary metabolites usually demonstrate promising biological and pharmacological activities. Prenyl transfer reactions catalyzed by prenyltransferases represent the key steps in the biosynthesis and contribute significantly to the structural and biological diversity of these compounds...
September 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Katharina Kieslich, Peter Littlejohns
INTRODUCTION: Clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) in England are tasked with making difficult decisions on which healthcare services to provide against the background of limited budgets. The question is how to ensure that these decisions are fair and legitimate. Accounts of what constitutes fair and legitimate priority setting in healthcare include Daniels' and Sabin's accountability for reasonableness (A4R) and Clark's and Weale's framework for the identification of social values. This study combines these accounts and asks whether the decisions of those CCGs that adhere to elements of such accounts are perceived as fairer and more legitimate by key stakeholders...
2015: BMJ Open
Aili Fan, Xiulan Xie, Shu-Ming Li
Tryptophan prenyltransferases FgaPT2, 5-DMATS, 6-DMATSSv and 7-DMATS catalyse regiospecific C-prenylations on the indole ring, while tyrosine prenyltransferases SirD and TyrPT catalyse the O-prenylation of the phenolic hydroxyl group. In this study, we report the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of L-o-tyrosine by these enzymes. Surprisingly, no conversion was detected with SirD and three tryptophan prenyltransferases showed significantly higher activity than another tyrosine prenyltransferase TyrPT. C5-prenylated L-o-tyrosine was identified as a unique product of these enzymes...
July 21, 2015: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Xi Yin, Qian Wang, Ting Chen, Junwei Niu, Rui Ban, Jiexiao Liu, Yanling Mao, Chuanqiang Pu
OBJECTIVE: Dysferlin is a sarcolemmal protein that plays an important role in membrane repair by regulating vesicle fusion with the sarcolemma. Mutations in the dysferlin gene (DYSF) lead to multiple clinical phenotypes, including Miyoshi myopathy (MM), limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD 2B), and distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset (DMAT). Patients with dysferlinopathy also show muscle inflammation, which often leads to a misdiagnosis as inflammatory myopathy. In this study, we examined and analyzed the dyferlinopathy-associated immunological features...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Marina Pryadkina, William Lostal, Nathalie Bourg, Karine Charton, Carinne Roudaut, Matthew L Hirsch, Isabelle Richard
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is currently the best vector for gene delivery into the skeletal muscle. However, the 5-kb packaging size of this virus is a major obstacle for large gene transfer. This past decade, many different strategies were developed to circumvent this issue (concatemerization-splicing, overlapping vectors, hybrid dual or fragmented AAV). Loss of function mutations in the DYSF gene whose coding sequence is 6.2kb lead to progressive muscular dystrophies (LGMD2B: OMIM_253601; MM: OMIM_254130; DMAT: OMIM_606768)...
2015: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Huili Yu, Mike Liebhold, Xiulan Xie, Shu-Ming Li
Prenyltransferases of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) superfamily are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and contribute as modification enzymes significantly to structural diversity of natural products. They show usually broad specificity toward their aromatic substrates with regiospecific prenylations on aromatic rings. However, most members of this superfamily exhibit a high specificity toward their prenyl donors and usually accept exclusively dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP)...
September 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hong Zhao, Christopher R Chiaro, Limin Zhang, Philip B Smith, Chung Yu Chan, Anthony M Pedley, Raymond J Pugh, Jarrod B French, Andrew D Patterson, Stephen J Benkovic
Enzymes in the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway are recruited to form a dynamic metabolic complex referred to as the purinosome. Previous studies have demonstrated that purinosome assembly responds to purine levels in culture medium. Purine-depleted medium or 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT) treatment stimulates the purinosome assembly in HeLa cells. Here, several metabolomic technologies were applied to quantify the static cellular levels of purine nucleotides and measure the de novo biosynthesis rate of IMP, AMP, and GMP...
March 13, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Aili Fan, Georg Zocher, Edyta Stec, Thilo Stehle, Shu-Ming Li
The tryptophan prenyltransferases FgaPT2 and 7-DMATS (7-dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase) from Aspergillus fumigatus catalyze C(4)- and C(7)-prenylation of the indole ring, respectively. 7-DMATS was found to accept l-tyrosine as substrate as well and converted it to an O-prenylated derivative. An acceptance of l-tyrosine by FgaPT2 was also observed in this study. Interestingly, isolation and structure elucidation revealed the identification of a C(3)-prenylated l-tyrosine as enzyme product. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis led to creation of a mutant FgaPT2_K174F, which showed much higher specificity toward l-tyrosine than l-tryptophan...
January 16, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kevin K K Leung, Brian H Shilton
Quinone reductase 2 (NQO2) exhibits off-target interactions with two protein kinase CK2 inhibitors, 4,5,6,7-1H-tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz) and 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT). TBBz and DMAT induce apoptosis in cells expressing an inhibitor-resistant CK2, suggesting that the interaction with NQO2 may mediate some of their pharmacological effects. In this study, we have fully characterized the binding of TBBz and DMAT to NQO2. Fluorescence titrations showed that TBBz and DMAT bind oxidized NQO2 in the low nanomolar range; in the case of TBBz, the affinity for NQO2 was 40-fold greater than its affinity for CK2...
January 13, 2015: Biochemistry
Christopher T Walsh
The indole side chain of tryptophan has latent nucleophilic reactivity at both N1 and all six (nonbridgehead) carbons, which is not generally manifested in post-translational reactions of proteins. On the other hand, all seven positions can be prenylated by the primary metabolite Δ(2)-isopentenyl diphosphate by dimethyallyl transferase (DMATs) family members as initial steps in biosynthetic pathways to bioactive fungal alkaloids including ergots and tremorgens. These are formulated as regioselective capture of isopentenyl allylic cationic transition states by the indole side chain as a nucleophile...
December 19, 2014: ACS Chemical Biology
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