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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043587/investigating-the-pros-and-cons-of-browns-gas-and-varying-egr-on-combustion-performance-and-emission-characteristics-of-diesel-engine
#1
Suja Thangaraj, Nagarajan Govindan
The significance of mileage to the fruitful operation of a trucking organization cannot be downplayed. Fuel is one of the biggest variable expenses in a trucking wander. An attempt is made in this research to improve the combustion efficiency of a diesel engine for better fuel economy by introducing hydroxy gas which is also called browns gas or HHO gas in the suction line, without compromising performance and emission. Brown's gas facilitates the air-fuel mixture to ignite faster and efficient combustion. By considering safety and handling issues in automobiles, HHO gas generation by electrolysis of water in the presence of sodium bicarbonate electrolytes (NaHCO3) and usage was explored in this research work over compressed pure hydrogen, due to generation and capacity of immaculate hydrogen as of now confines the application in diesel engine operation...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037503/growth-kinetics-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-on-the-epicarp-of-fresh-vegetables-and-fruits
#2
Mariel Gullian-Klanian, Maria José Sánchez-Solis
Despite the increasing reports on the incidence of fresh vegetables and fruits as a possible vehicle for human pathogens, there is currently limited knowledge on the growth potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on different plant substrates. This study analyzed the selective adhesion and growth of E. coli O157:H7 on chili habanero (Capsicum chinense L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), radish (Raphanus sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris), and onion (Allium cepa L.) under laboratory conditions...
August 30, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031547/forebrain-activation-during-social-exposure-in-wild-type-guppies
#3
María J Cabrera-Álvarez, William T Swaney, Simon M Reader
The neural mechanisms regulating social behaviour have received extensive attention in recent years, with much focus on 'complex' forms of sociality. Comparatively little research has addressed fundamental social behaviour, such as grouping, which impacts multiple determinants of fitness, such as foraging and avoiding predation. We are interested in the degree to which brain areas that regulate other forms of sociality are also involved in grouping behaviour, and so we investigated shoal-elicited activation of the brain in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030124/targeting-nitric-oxide-and-nmda-receptor-associated-pathways-in-treatment-of-high-grade-glial-tumors-hypotheses-for-nitro-memantine-and-nitrones
#4
REVIEW
Meric A Altinoz, İlhan Elmaci
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer with no curative treatment. Targeting Nitric Oxide (NO) and glutamatergic pathways may help as adjunctive treatments in GBM. NO at low doses promotes tumorigenesis, while at higher levels (above 300 nM) triggers apoptosis. Gliomas actively secrete high amounts of glutamate which activates EGR signaling and mediates degradation of peritumoral tissues via excitotoxic injury. Memantine inhibits NMDA-subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and induces autophagic death of glioma cells in vitro and blocks glioma growth in vivo...
October 10, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991232/the-extracellular-matrix-protein-mindin-attenuates-colon-cancer-progression-by-blocking-angiogenesis-via-egr-1-mediated-regulation
#5
L-F Wang, Y-S Liu, B Yang, P Li, X-S Cheng, C-X Xiao, J-J Liu, S Li, J-L Ren, B Guleng
Mindin, a secreted, highly conserved extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, exerts a broad spectrum of effects on the innate immune system. However, its function in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression is not well established, and its upstream regulation mechanisms remain unclear. Contrary to previous reports, this study used two different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits to show that the serum level of mindin was significantly decreased in CRC patients and that this decreased level is more significantly associated with the early stages of the disease...
October 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987007/honey-bee-foraging-induces-upregulation-of-early-growth-response-protein-1-hormone-receptor-38-and-candidate-downstream-genes-of-the-ecdysteroid-signalling-pathway
#6
A S Singh, A Shah, A Brockmann
In honey bees, continuous foraging at an artificial feeder induced a sustained upregulation of the immediate early genes early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) and hormone receptor 38 (Hr38). This gene expression response was accompanied by an upregulation of several Egr-1 candidate downstream genes: ecdysone receptor (EcR), dopamine/ecdysteroid receptor (DopEcR), dopamine decarboxylase and dopamine receptor 2. Hr38, EcR and DopEcR are components of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway, which is highly probably involved in learning and memory processes in honey bees and other insects...
October 7, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939554/abc294640-a-novel-sphingosine-kinase-2-inhibitor-induces-oncogenic-virus-infected-cell-autophagic-death-and-represses-tumor-growth
#7
Lu Dai, Aiping Bai, Charles D Smith, Paulo C Rodriguez, Fangyou Yu, Zhiqiang Qin
Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several malignancies, including Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which preferentially arise in HIV+ patients and lack effective treatment. Sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) is a key factor within sphingolipid metabolism, responsible for the conversion of pro-apoptotic ceramides to anti-apoptotic sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). We have previously demonstrated that targeting SphK2 using a novel selective inhibitor, ABC294640, leads to the accumulation of intracellular ceramides and induces apoptosis in KSHV-infected primary endothelial cells and PEL tumor cells but not in uninfected cells...
September 22, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928640/hdac3-inhibitor-rgfp966-modulates-neuronal-memory-for-vocal-communication-signals-in-a-songbird-model
#8
Mimi L Phan, Mark M Gergues, Shafali Mahidadia, Jorge Jimenez-Castillo, David S Vicario, Kasia M Bieszczad
Epigenetic mechanisms that modify chromatin conformation have recently been under investigation for their contributions to learning and the formation of memory. For example, the role of enzymes involved in histone acetylation are studied in the formation of long-lasting memories because memory consolidation requires gene expression events that are facilitated by an open state of chromatin. We recently proposed that epigenetic events may control the entry of specific sensory features into long-term memory by enabling transcription-mediated neuronal plasticity in sensory brain areas...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923595/attentional-deficits-and-altered-neuronal-activation-in-medial-prefrontal-and-posterior-parietal-cortices-in-mice-with-reduced-dopamine-transporter-levels
#9
Anita Cybulska-Klosowicz, Marta Laczkowska, Renata Zakrzewska, Aleksandra Kaliszewska
The executive control function of attention is regulated by the dopaminergic (DA) system. Dopamine transporter (DAT) likely plays a role in controlling the influence of DA on cognitive processes. We examined the effects of DAT depletion on cognitive processes related to attention. Mice with the DAT gene genetically deleted (DAT+/- heterozygotes) were compared to wild type (WT) mice on the Attentional Set-Shifting Task (ASST). Changes in neuronal activity during the ASST were shown with early growth response genes 1 and 2 (egr-1 and egr-2) immunohistochemistry in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC)...
September 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919046/fgf23-activates-injury-primed-renal-fibroblasts-via-fgfr4-dependent-signalling-and-enhancement-of-tgf-%C3%AE-autoinduction
#10
Edward R Smith, Stephen G Holt, Tim D Hewitson
Bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an important endocrine regulator of mineral homeostasis with effects transduced by cognate FGF receptor (FGFR)1-α-Klotho complexes. Circulating FGF23 levels rise precipitously in patients with kidney disease and portend worse renal and cardiovascular outcomes. De novo expression of FGF23 has been found in the heart and kidney following injury but its significance remains unclear. Studies showing that exposure to chronically high FGF23 concentrations activates hypertrophic gene programs in the cardiomyocyte has spawned intense interest in other pathological off-target effects of FGF23 excess...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916625/transcriptional-correlates-of-memory-maintenance-following-long-term-sensitization-of-aplysia-californica
#11
Catherine Conte, Samantha Herdegen, Saman Kamal, Jency Patel, Ushma Patel, Leticia Perez, Marissa Rivota, Robert J Calin-Jageman, Irina E Calin-Jageman
We characterized the transcriptional response accompanying maintenance of long-term sensitization (LTS) memory in the pleural ganglia of Aplysia californica using microarray (N = 8) and qPCR (N = 11 additional samples). We found that 24 h after memory induction there is strong regulation of 1198 transcripts (748 up and 450 down) in a pattern that is almost completely distinct from what is observed during memory encoding (1 h after training). There is widespread up-regulation of transcripts related to all levels of protein production, from transcription (e...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886753/depletion-of-adult-neurogenesis-exacerbates-cognitive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-compromising-hippocampal-inhibition
#12
Carolyn Hollands, Matthew Kyle Tobin, Michael Hsu, Kianna Musaraca, Tzong-Shiue Yu, Rachana Mishra, Steven G Kernie, Orly Lazarov
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanism underlying progressive memory loss in Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is a dynamic process that continuously changes the dentate gyrus and is important for hippocampal plasticity, learning and memory. However, whether impairments in neurogenesis affect the hippocampal circuitry in a way that leads to memory deficits characteristic of Alzheimer's disease is unknown. Controversial results in that regard were reported in transgenic mouse models of amyloidosis...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860938/early-growth-response-2-and-egr3-are-unique-regulators-in-immune-system
#13
REVIEW
Sina Taefehshokr, Yashar Azari Key, Mansour Khakpour, Pourya Dadebighlu, Amin Oveisi
The immune system is evolved to defend the body against pathogens and is composed of thousands of complicated and intertwined pathways, which are highly controlled by processes such as transcription and repression of cellular genes. Sometimes the immune system malfunctions and a break down in self-tolerance occurs. This lead to the inability to distinguish between self and non-self and cause attacks on host tissues, a condition also known as autoimmunity, which can result in chronic debilitating diseases. Early growth response genes are family of transcription factors comprising of four members, Egr1, Egr2, Egr3 and Egr4...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851720/fully-transradial-versus-transfemoral-approach-for-percutaneous-intervention-of-coronary-chronic-total-occlusions-applying-the-hybrid-algorithm-insights-from-recharge-registry
#14
Erik Jan Bakker, Joren Maeremans, Carlo Zivelonghi, Benjamin Faurie, Alexandre Avran, Simon Walsh, James C Spratt, Paul Knaapen, Colm G Hanratty, Erwan Bressollette, Peter Kayaert, Alan J Bagnall, Mohaned Egred, David Smith, Margaret B McEntegart, William H T Smith, Paul Kelly, John Irving, Elliot J Smith, Julian W Strange, Joseph Dens, Pierfrancesco Agostoni
BACKGROUND: Small observational studies demonstrate the feasibility of transradial approach for chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention. The aim of the current study is to assess technical success, complication rates, and procedural efficiency in fully transradial approach (fTRA) and transfemoral approach (TFA) in a large prospective European registry adopting the hybrid algorithm for CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (Registry of CrossBoss and Hybrid Procedures in France, the Netherlands, Belgium and United Kingdom, RECHARGE registry)...
September 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814471/novelty-and-fear-conditioning-induced-gene-expression-in-high-and-low-states-of-anxiety
#15
Melanie P Donley, Jeffrey B Rosen
Emotional states influence how stimuli are interpreted. High anxiety states in humans lead to more negative, threatening interpretations of novel information, typically accompanied by activation of the amygdala. We developed a handling protocol that induces long-lasting high and low anxiety-like states in rats to explore the role of state anxiety on brain activation during exposure to a novel environment and fear conditioning. In situ hybridization of the inducible transcription factor Egr-1 found increased gene expression in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) following exposure to a novel environment and contextual fear conditioning in high anxiety-like rats...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803849/characteristics-of-ethanol-induced-behavioral-sensitization-in-rats-molecular-mediators-and-cross-sensitization-between-ethanol-and-cocaine
#16
Shijie Xu, Ung Gu Kang
Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse can induce a progressive increase in locomotor activity, known as behavioral sensitization. However, little is known about behavioral sensitization to ethanol. We examined whether ethanol could induce behavioral sensitization and investigated several molecular changes accompanying sensitization. We also assessed whether "cross-sensitization" occurred between ethanol and cocaine, another abused drug. Ethanol-induced sensitization was examined in rats after ethanol treatment (0...
August 10, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791474/acetylcholine-nicotinic-receptor-subtypes-in-chromaffin-cells
#17
REVIEW
Manuel Criado
In the adrenal gland, acetylcholine released on stimulation of the sympathetic splanchnic nerve activates neuronal-type nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in chromaffin cells and triggers catecholamine secretion. At least two subtypes of nAChRs have been described in bovine chromaffin cells. The main subtype, a heteromeric assembly of α3, β4 and perhaps α5 subunits, is involved in the activation step of the catecholamine secretion process and is not blocked by the snake toxin α-bungarotoxin. The other is α-bungarotoxin-sensitive, and its functional role has not yet been well defined...
August 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771625/inhibition-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-ameliorates-cardiac-ischemia-and-systolic-dysfunction-by-up-regulating-the-fgf-2-egr-1-pathway
#18
Masayoshi Suda, Ippei Shimizu, Yohko Yoshida, Yuka Hayashi, Ryutaro Ikegami, Goro Katsuumi, Takayuki Wakasugi, Yutaka Yoshida, Shujiro Okuda, Tomoyoshi Soga, Tohru Minamino
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors are used worldwide in the management of diabetes, but their role in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disorders has yet to be defined. We found that linagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, suppressed capillary rarefaction in the hearts of mice with dietary obesity. Metabolomic analysis performed with capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed that linagliptin promoted favorable metabolic remodeling in cardiac tissue, which was characterized by high levels of citrulline and creatine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752362/necrostatin-1-protects-against-d-galactosamine-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-hepatic-injury-by-preventing-tlr4-and-rage-signaling
#19
Seok-Joo Kim, Sun-Mee Lee
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome results in massive inflammation and hepatocyte death. Necroptosis is a regulated form of necrotic cell death that is emerging as a crucial control point for inflammatory diseases. The kinases receptor interacting protein (RIP) 1 and RIP3 are known as key modulators of necroptosis. In this study, we investigated the impact of necroptosis in the pathogenesis of FHF and molecular mechanisms, particularly its linkage to damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP)-mediated pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling pathways...
July 27, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750434/-26-years-of-the-erlangen-glaucoma-registry-demographic-and-perimetric-characteristics-of-patients-through-the-ages
#20
Bettina Hohberger, Edith Monczak, Christian Yahya Mardin
Background The history of the Erlangen Glaucoma Registry goes back 26 years. In this study, we present retrospective demographic and perimetric data on the initial visit of patients with ocular hypertension (OHT), pre-perimetric (prePOAG) and perimetric primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and secondary open-angle glaucoma (SOAG) and correlate these results with the latest perimetric data. Material and Methods 1406 (754 patients) of the Erlangen Glaucoma Registry (EGR; NTC00494923) were investigated retrospectively between 1991 and 2016 covering: demographic data (age, visual acuity, intraocular pressure [IOP]), diagnosis and perimetric characteristics (mean defect [MD], loss variance [LV]) at the initial visit and the latest perimetric data...
July 27, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
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