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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943558/the-serum-level-of-kl-6-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-insulin-resistance-and-new-onset-diabetes-mellitus-the-tanno-sobetsu-study
#1
Hiroshi Akasaka, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Yoshifumi Narita, Masami Kameda, Takayuki Miki, Hiroki Takahashi, Wari Yamamoto, Hitoshi Sohma, Naoya Masumori, Tetsuji Miura
Objective Inflammatory cytokines generated in visceral fat have been shown to contribute to the development of insulin resistance. The involvement of pulmonary inflammation in insulin resistance remains unclear, but smoking is known to be a risk factor for diabetes as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We herein examined the hypothesis that increased serum levels of lung interstitial injury biomarkers (SP-A, SP-D and KL-6) are associated with the risk of diabetes development. Methods For cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, we enrolled 750 apparently healthy non-diabetic subjects who received annual examinations in 2011 or 2012 in the Tanno-Sobetsu cohort...
September 25, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933581/peak-inspiratory-flow-rate-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-implications-for-dry-powder-inhalers
#2
Sohini Ghosh, Jill A Ohar, M Bradley Drummond
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the United States with a significant economic burden related to hospital admissions for exacerbations. One of the primary treatment modalities for COPD is medications delivered through breath-actuated dry powdered inhalers (DPIs). For users to successfully receive inhaled medication, they must inhale with enough flow to overcome the internal resistance of the device, leading to deaggregation of the medication powder. Peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) is the maximal flow rate obtained during an inspiratory maneuver...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878693/brain-activation-during-perception-and-anticipation-of-dyspnea-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Roland W Esser, Maria C Stoeckel, Anne Kirsten, Henrik Watz, Karin Taube, Kirsten Lehmann, Helgo Magnussen, Christian Büchel, Andreas von Leupoldt
Background: Dyspnea is the impairing cardinal symptom in COPD, but the underlying brain mechanisms and their relationships to clinical patient characteristics are widely unknown. This study compared neural responses to the perception and anticipation of dyspnea between patients with stable moderate-to-severe COPD and healthy controls. Moreover, associations between COPD-specific brain activation and clinical patient characteristics were examined. Methods: During functional magnetic resonance imaging, dyspnea was induced in patients with stable moderate-to-severe COPD (n = 17) and healthy control subjects (n = 21) by resistive-loaded breathing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858033/cardiorespiratory-responses-to-short-bouts-of-resistance-training-exercises-in-individuals-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-comparison-of-exercise-intensities
#4
Priscila Robles, Tamara Araujo, Dina Brooks, Karl Zabjek, Tania Janaudis-Ferreira, Susan Marzolini, Roger Goldstein, Sunita Mathur
PURPOSE: Resistance training is recommended in pulmonary rehabilitation for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, the acute cardiorespiratory responses to different intensities of resistance training are not known. We compared acute cardiorespiratory responses with high-intensity versus low-intensity resistance exercises in persons with COPD and healthy, matched controls. This research may assist in developing training parameters in COPD. METHODS: Participants (n = 10 per group) performed 1 set of 10 repetitions of leg extension and arm elevation at 2 intensities: 40% (low) and 80% (high) of 1-repetition maximum...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830839/the-potential-for-targeted-rewriting-of-epigenetic-marks-in-copd-as-a-new-therapeutic-approach
#5
REVIEW
Dan-Dan Wu, Juan Song, Sabine Bartel, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Marianne G Rots, Machteld N Hylkema
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an age and smoking related progressive, pulmonary disorder presenting with poorly reversible airflow limitation as a result of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The prevalence, disease burden for the individual, and mortality of COPD continues to increase, whereas no effective treatment strategies are available. For many years now, a combination of bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory corticosteroids has been most widely used for therapeutic management of patients with persistent COPD...
August 19, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814848/pathophysiological-mechanism-of-long-term-noninvasive-ventilation-in-stable-hypercapnic-patients-with-copd-using-functional-respiratory-imaging
#6
Bita Hajian, Jan De Backer, Claire Sneyers, Francisca Ferreira, Katherine C Barboza, Glenn Leemans, Wim Vos, Wilfried De Backer
INTRODUCTION: Patients with severe COPD often develop chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Their prognosis worsens and they are more likely to develop exacerbations. This has major influence on the health-related quality of life. Currently, there is no information about the success of long-term noninvasive ventilation (NIV) among patients who receive NIV in acute settings. Also, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanism of NIV. METHODS: Ten Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease stage III and IV COPD patients with respiratory failure who were hospitalized following acute exacerbation were treated with NIV using a Synchrony BiPAP device for 6 months...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801120/establishment-of-valnemulin-susceptibility-breakpoint-against-clostridium-perfringens-in-rabbits
#7
Meng-Ting Tao, Yu-Feng Zhou, Jian Sun, Ya-Hong Liu, Xiao-Ping Liao
Susceptibility breakpoints provide fundamental information for rational administration of antibiotics. The present investigation reports the first valnemulin susceptibility breakpoint (MIC<0.25 μg/mL) against Clostridium perfringens infections in rabbits based on the wild-type cutoff (COWT) and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) cutoff (COPD). The established susceptibility breakpoint of valnemulin might be useful in resistance surveillance of pleuromutilins and development of clinical breakpoints...
August 9, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795606/hydrogen-rich-saline-inhibits-tobacco-smoke-induced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-by-alleviating-airway-inflammation-and-mucus-hypersecretion-in-rats
#8
Zibing Liu, Wenye Geng, Chuanwei Jiang, Shujun Zhao, Yong Liu, Ying Zhang, Shucun Qin, Chenxu Li, Xinfang Zhang, Yanhong Si
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced by tobacco smoke has been regarded as a great health problem worldwide. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline, a novel antioxidant, on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and explore the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were made chronic obstructive pulmonary disease models via tobacco smoke exposure for 12 weeks and the rats were treated with 10 ml/kg hydrogen-rich saline intraperitoneally during the last 4 weeks...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790283/-postoperative-atelectasis-and-pneumonia-after-general-thoracic-surgery
#9
Yasushi Hoshikawa, Daisuke Tochii
Atelectasis and pneumonia are common postoperative complications occurred in patients undergoing general thoracic surgery. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications including these 2 disorders consist of smoking cessation, optimization of underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( COPD), adequate pain control, intensive oral care, and so on. Preoperative treatments for patients with COPD are the same as those for COPD patients being not about to have surgery, which mainly consist of long-acting bronchodilators and pulmonary rehabilitation...
July 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780877/-identification-of-risk-factors-of-multiresistant-infections-on-two-intensive-care-units
#10
Marcell Szabó, Noémi Kanász, Katalin Darvas, János Gál
INTRODUCTION: Intensive care units are favourable environment for infections, many of them are caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. AIM: Identifying risk factors of ICU-acquired multiresistant infections. METHOD: We performed observational study on two academic intensive care units (a multidisciplinary and a surgical ICU) between 01/09/2014 and 30/11/2015. Patients with a first infection caused by predefined organisms (P. aeruginosa, E...
August 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765494/effects-of-expiratory-positive-airway-pressure-on-exercise-tolerance-dynamic-hyperinflation-and-dyspnea-in-copd
#11
Ricardo Gass, Pietro Merola, Mariane B Monteiro, Dannuey M Cardoso, Dulciane N Paiva, Paulo Jz Teixeira, Marli M Knorst, Danilo C Berton
INTRODUCTION: The application of expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) in patients with COPD during exercise may reduce dynamic hyperinflation, while, on the other hand, it can increase the resistive work of breathing. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of 2 intensities of EPAP during exercise on tolerance, dynamic hyperinflation, and dyspnea in subjects with moderate to very severe COPD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional, experimental, 4-visit study...
August 1, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762839/new-treatment-options-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#12
Bela Kocsis, Dora Szabo
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are among the most frequent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). They represent an increased morbidity and mortality rate in adults. Areas covered: This review describes recent advances regarding solithromycin, zabofloxacin and delafoxacin antibacterial agents that have been recently developed for treatment of CAP and in AECOPD. All of them have been introduced into phase III clinical trials. We will be summarising chemical structures, pharmacokinetics, antibacterial efficacy and toxicity of these agents...
September 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729396/acute-volume-loading-exacerbates-direct-ventricular-interaction-in-a-model-of-copd
#13
William Spencer Cheyne, Alexandra Mackenzie Williams, Megan I Harper, Neil Derek Eves
Volume loading increases left ventricular (LV) stroke volume (LVSV) through series interaction but may paradoxically reduce LVSV in the presence of large increases in right ventricular (RV) afterload due to direct ventricular interaction (DVI). RV afterload is often increased in COPD as a result of pathological changes to respiratory mechanics, namely increased negative intrathoracic pressure (nITP), dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) and increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). These hallmarks of COPD negatively impact LV hemodynamics in normovolemia...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702855/n-chlorotaurine-a-promising-future-candidate-for-topical-therapy-of-fungal-infections
#14
Markus Nagl, Roland Arnitz, Michaela Lackner
N-Chlorotaurine (NCT) is a mild long-lived oxidant that can be applied to sensitive body regions as an endogenous antiseptic. Enhancement of its microbicidal activity in the presence of proteinaceous material because of transchlorination, a postantibiotic/postantifungal effect and antitoxic activity renders it interesting for treatment of fungal infections, too. This is confirmed by first case applications in skin and mucous membranes of different body sites. Recent findings of good tolerability of inhaled NCT suggest further investigations of this substance for treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases, where microorganisms play a role, particularly multi-resistant ones...
July 12, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696280/nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-releases-dna-and-dnabii-proteins-via-a-t4ss-like-complex-and-come-of-the-type-iv-pilus-machinery
#15
Joseph A Jurcisek, Kenneth L Brockman, Laura A Novotny, Steven D Goodman, Lauren O Bakaletz
Biofilms formed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) are central to the chronicity, recurrence, and resistance to treatment of multiple human respiratory tract diseases including otitis media, chronic rhinosinusitis, and exacerbations of both cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and associated DNABII proteins are essential to the overall architecture and structural integrity of biofilms formed by NTHI and all other bacterial pathogens tested to date. Although cell lysis and outer-membrane vesicle extrusion are possible means by which these canonically intracellular components might be released into the extracellular environment for incorporation into the biofilm matrix, we hypothesized that NTHI additionally used a mechanism of active DNA release...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693067/-chinese-expert-consensus-for-non-antiinfective-effects-and-clinical-use-of-macrolides
#16
J T Lin, Y M Zhang, X Zhou, C Z Wang, M Huang, C T Liu, C G Wu, H Y Wan, W C Yu, Y R Dai
Important/potential value of macrolides has been proved in the management of chronic respiratory diseases by increasing basic and clinical trials.Through three face-to-face discussions, 10 experts examined important data and drafted this consensus related to macrolides: (1) mechanism of non-antiinfective effects; (2) clinical use in chronic respiratory diseases; (3) cautions of long-term use.The mechanism out of non-antiinfective effects includes anti-inflammatory effect, modifying airway secretion, immune-regulation related to antibacterial effect, corticoid saving effect and anti-viral effect...
July 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684161/vitamin-e-isoform-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-protects-against-emphysema-in-cigarette-smoke-induced-copd
#17
Hong Yong Peh, W S Daniel Tan, Tze Khee Chan, Chen Wei Pow, Paul S Foster, W S Fred Wong
Inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to emphysema in COPD. Although corticosteroids are the standard of care for COPD, they do not reduce oxidative stress, and a subset of patients is steroid-resistant. Vitamin E isoform γ-tocotrienol possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties that may protect against emphysema. We aimed to establish the therapeutic potential of γ-tocotrienol in cigarette smoke-induced COPD models in comparison with prednisolone. BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 weeks or 2 months...
July 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681941/the-respiratory-threat-posed-by-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#18
REVIEW
Ana Rodrigo-Troyano, Oriol Sibila
Respiratory infections are a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. In recent years, an increased incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) has been described. Microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Acinetobacter baumannii have been identified as causative pathogens of different respiratory tract infections. Several studies have detected MDR-GNB in patients with community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Furthermore, MDR-GNB have also been isolated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis having acute or chronic bronchial infection...
July 6, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680574/chronic-use-of-pah-specific-therapy-in-world-health-organization-group-iii-pulmonary-hypertension-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Kurt W Prins, Sue Duval, Jeremy Markowitz, Marc Pritzker, Thenappan Thenappan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD-PH) and interstitial lung disease (ILD-PH) (World Health Organization [WHO] Group III PH) increases medical costs and reduces survival. Despite limited data, many clinicians are using pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-specific therapy to treat WHO Group III PH patients. To further investigate the utility of PAH-specific therapy in WHO Group III PH, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Relevant studies from January 2000 through May 2016 were identified in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE electronic databases and www...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678314/lung-characteristics-in-elderly-males-and-females-patients-with-copd-differences-and-optimal-use-of-dry-powder-inhalers-dpis
#20
C Terzano, F Oriolo
OBJECTIVE: We have measured peak inspiratory flow (PIF), inspiratory capacity (IC), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and other functional parameters in COPD patients to investigate which PIF's patients generate with maximal effort, through three different resistances, representing Diskus, Nexthaler and Turbuhaler. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty patients with COPD were enrolled in this study. All patients were examined: pulmonary function tests, including flow/volume spirometry and N2-wash out, were conducted...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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