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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077140/indacaterol-and-glycopyrronium-versus-indacaterol-on-body-plethysmography-measurements-in-copd-a-randomised-controlled-study
#1
Joerg Salomon, Daiana Stolz, Guido Domenighetti, Jean-Georges Frey, Alexander J Turk, Andrea Azzola, Thomas Sigrist, Jean-William Fitting, Ulrich Schmidt, Thomas Geiser, Corinne Wild, Konstantinos Kostikas, Andreas Clemens, Martin Brutsche
BACKGROUND: Dual bronchodilator therapy is recommended for symptomatic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are limited data on effects of a combination of two long-acting bronchodilators on lung function including body plethysmography. METHODS: This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, single-dose, cross-over, placebo-controlled study evaluated efficacy and safety of the free combination of indacaterol maleate (IND) and glycopyrronium bromide (GLY) versus IND alone on spirometric and body plethysmography parameters, including inspiratory capacity (IC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC) and airway resistance (Raw) in moderate-to-severe COPD patients...
January 11, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068996/non-linear-parameters-of-specific-resistance-loops-to-characterise-obstructive-airways-diseases
#2
Marko Topalovic, Vasileios Exadaktylos, Thierry Troosters, Geert Celis, Jean-Marie Aerts, Wim Janssens
BACKGROUND: Specific resistance loops appear in different shapes influenced by different resistive properties of the airways, yet their descriptive ability is compressed to a single parameter - its slope. We aimed to develop new parameters reflecting the various shapes of the loop and to explore their potential in the characterisation of obstructive airways diseases. METHODS: Our study included 134 subjects: Healthy controls (N = 22), Asthma with non-obstructive lung function (N = 22) and COPD of all disease stages (N = 90)...
January 9, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057059/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-caused-by-mucoid-serotype-3-streptococcus-pneumoniae-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Naomi Sugimoto, Yuka Yamagishi, Jun Hirai, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Among the different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotype 3 has received global attention. We report the fatal case of a 76-year-old Japanese man who had an invasive pneumococcal disease associated with pneumonia caused by serotype 3 S. pneumoniae. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient had a history of hypertension, laryngeal cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Following a cerebral arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage, he underwent surgery to remove the hematoma and began rehabilitation...
January 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046097/glucocorticoid-insensitivity-in-virally-infected-airway-epithelial-cells-is-dependent-on-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activity
#4
Yuxiu C Xia, Asmaa Radwan, Christine R Keenan, Shenna Y Langenbach, Meina Li, Danica Radojicic, Sarah L Londrigan, Rosa C Gualano, Alastair G Stewart
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are commonly associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus (RV) and influenza A virus (IAV) infection. The ensuing airway inflammation is resistant to the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids (GCs). Viral infection elicits transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activity, a growth factor we have previously shown to impair GC action in human airway epithelial cells through the activation of activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5), the type 1 receptor of TGF-β...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042952/uncoupling-protein-2-downregulation-by-hypoxia-through-repression-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-promotes-chemoresistance-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Mingxing Wang, Guoyin Li, Zhiwei Yang, Lei Wang, Lei Zhang, Ting Wang, Yimeng Zhang, Shengli Zhang, Yong Han, Lintao Jia
Hypoxic microenvironment is critically involved in the response of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to chemotherapy, the mechanisms of which remain largely unknown. Here, we found that NSCLC patients exhibited increased chemotherapeutic resistance when complicated by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a critical cause of chronic hypoxemia. The downregulation of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which is attributed to hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)-mediated suppression of the transcriptional factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), was involved in NSCLC chemoresistance, and predicted a poor survival rate of patients receiving routine chemotherapy...
December 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030992/macrolides-a-promising-pharmacologic-therapy-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Shilin Qiu, Xiaoning Zhong
Chronic inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there are no effective anti-inflammatory pharmacologic therapies available for COPD so far. Recent evidence suggests that an immunologic mechanism has a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Macrolides possess anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects may be helpful in the treatment of COPD. Several clinical studies have shown that long-term use of macrolides reduces the frequency of COPD exacerbations...
December 1, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025926/clinical-and-economic-burden-of-elevated-blood-eosinophils-in-patients-with-and-without-uncontrolled-asthma
#7
Julian Casciano, Jerry Krishnan, Zenobia Dotiwala, Chenghui Li, Shawn X Sun
BACKGROUND: The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society (ERS/ATS) published guidelines in 2014 for the evaluation and treatment of asthma. These guidelines draw attention to management of patients with asthma that remains uncontrolled despite therapy. One phenotypic characteristic of therapy-resistant asthma is eosinophil elevation. It is important to better understand the burden of care gaps in this patient subgroup in order to support improved treatment strategies in the future...
January 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024507/-correlation-of-thrombosis-and-prothrombotic-state-with-coagulation-factor-v-gene-polymorphism-and-apcr-hhcy
#8
Li-Xia Gao, Qiu-Lan Ding, Ke-Xiong Wu, Jun Hu, Xue-Feng Wang, Chuan-Ling Dong, Qin Dai, Bing Zhang, Jin Dai, Ping He, Xue-Ping Zhang, Yun-Xia Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation of patients with thrombosis or prothrombotic status with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), activated protein C-resistance(APCR) and gene polymorphism of coagulation factor V. METHODS: Three hundred healthy voluteers were selected as controls, 223 cases of thrombosis (80 cases of cerebral infarction of CT, the MI of 82 cases of myocardial infarction, venous thrombosis of VTE 61 cases), 270 cases of patients with prothrombotic state (76 cases of pregnancy disease of PIH, 62 cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 60 cases of diabetes(DM) and 72 cases of cancer) were enrolled in this study...
December 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005680/resistance-training-with-ankle-weight-cuffs-is-feasible-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-copd
#9
Linette Marie Kofod, Martin Døssing, Johnna Steentoft, Morten Tange Kristensen
PURPOSE: Quadriceps muscle weakness is a serious complication of physical inactivity following hospitalization due to acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Preventing strength loss during AECOPD is therefore a high priority. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of progressive knee-extension resistance training, using ankle weight cuffs on patients with AECOPD, based on prespecified criteria for feasibility. METHODS: Thirty-four patients (18 men, mean age 74 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second = 33% predicted) with AECOPD participated in daily knee-extension strength training...
January 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997332/delivering-on-antimicrobial-resistance-agenda-not-possible-without-improving-fungal-diagnostic-capabilities
#10
David W Denning, David S Perlin, Eavan G Muldoon, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Malcolm D Richardson, Tania C Sorrell
Antimicrobial resistance, a major public health concern, largely arises from excess use of antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Lack of routine diagnostic testing for fungal diseases exacerbates the problem of antimicrobial drug empiricism, both antibiotic and antifungal. In support of this contention, we cite 4 common clinical situations that illustrate this problem: 1) inaccurate diagnosis of fungal sepsis in hospitals and intensive care units, resulting in inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs in patients with invasive candidiasis; 2) failure to diagnose chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis; 3) misdiagnosis of fungal asthma, resulting in unnecessary treatment with antibacterial drugs instead of antifungal drugs and missed diagnoses of life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and 4) overtreatment and undertreatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive patients...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997251/changes-of-respiratory-mechanics-in-copd-patients-from-stable-state-to-acute-exacerbations-with-respiratory-failure
#11
Piero Ceriana, Michele Vitacca, Annalisa Carlucci, Mara Paneroni, Lara Pisani, Stefano Nava
Symptoms, clinical course, functional and biological data during an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EXCOPD) have been investigated, but data on physiological changes of respiratory mechanics during a severe exacerbation with respiratory acidosis requiring noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) are scant. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes of respiratory mechanics in COPD patients comparing data observed during EXCOPD with those observed during stable state in the recovery phase...
December 20, 2016: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995132/distal-airway-dysfunction-identifies-pulmonary-inflammation-in-asymptomatic-smokers
#12
Kenneth I Berger, Deepak R Pradhan, Roberta M Goldring, Beno W Oppenheimer, William N Rom, Leopoldo N Segal
Smoking induced inflammation leads to distal airway destruction. However, the relationship between distal airway dysfunction and inflammation remains unclear, particularly in smokers prior to the development of airway obstruction. Seven normal controls and 16 smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were studied. Respiratory function was assessed using the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Abnormal FOT was defined as elevated resistance at 5 Hz (R5). Parameters reflecting distal lung function included frequency dependence of resistance (R5-20) and dynamic elastance (X5)...
October 2016: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940287/fast-onset-of-action-of-glycopyrronium-compared-with-tiotropium-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-copd-a-randomised-multicentre-crossover-trial
#13
Henrik Watz, Claudia Mailänder, Christoph May, Monika Baier, Anne-Marie Kirsten
BACKGROUND: Long-acting bronchodilators, including anticholinergics glycopyrronium and tiotropium, are central to symptomatic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In patients with moderate to severe COPD, glycopyrronium has demonstrated comparable efficacy to open-label and single-blinded tiotropium, but with faster onset of bronchodilation. The FAST study assessed the efficacy of glycopyrronium compared with tiotropium in serial spirometry and body plethysmography assessments to further characterize the earlier onset of action associated with glycopyrronium...
December 8, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932874/bronchodilator-response-of-advanced-lung-function-parameters-depending-on-copd-severity
#14
Linnea Jarenbäck, Göran Eriksson, Stefan Peterson, Jaro Ankerst, Leif Bjermer, Ellen Tufvesson
BACKGROUND: COPD is defined as partly irreversible airflow obstruction. The response pattern of bronchodilators has not been followed in advanced lung function parameters. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate bronchodilator response pattern in advanced lung function parameters in a continuous fashion along forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percent predicted (%p) in COPD patients and controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-one smokers/ex-smokers (41 controls and 40 COPD) performed spirometry, body plethysmography, impulse oscillometry and single-breath helium dilution carbon monoxide diffusion at baseline, after salbutamol inhalation and then after an additional inhalation of ipratropium...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924468/whether-a-novel-drug-delivery-system-can-overcome-the-problem-of-biofilms-in-respiratory-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Kamal Dua, Shakti D Shukla, Rakesh K Tekade, Philip M Hansbro
Biofilm comprises a community of microorganisms which form on medical devices and can lead to various threatening infections. It is a major concern in various respiratory diseases like cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. The treatment strategies for such infections are difficult due to the resistance of the microflora existing in the biofilms against various antimicrobial agents, thus posing threats to the patient population. The present era witnesses the beginning of research to understand the biofilm physiology and the associated microfloral diversity by applying -omics approaches...
December 6, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917591/the-pde4-inhibitor-roflumilast-reduces-weight-gain-by-increasing-energy-expenditure-and-leads-to-improved-glucose-metabolism
#16
Julia Möllmann, Florian Kahles, Corinna Lebherz, Ben Kappel, Christer Baeck, Frank Tacke, Christian Werner, Massimo Federici, Nikolaus Marx, Michael Lehrke
AIMS: The PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast is a clinically approved anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, roflumilast was found to reduce body weight and improve glucose metabolism by a yet unknown mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Metabolic effects of roflumilast were investigated in C57BL/6J mice on high fat western-type diet treated with or without roflumilast for a period of 12 weeks. RESULTS: Roflumilast led to a marked reduction of body weight gain, which became apparent in the second week following treatment initiation and was attributable to a pronounced increase of energy expenditure...
December 5, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884766/mechanisms-of-vascular-dysfunction-in-copd-and-effects-of-a-novel-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitor-in-smokers
#17
Lucy Yang, Joseph Cheriyan, David D Gutterman, Ruth J Mayer, Zsuzsanna Ament, Jules L Griffin, Aili L Lazaar, David E Newby, Ruth Tal-Singer, Ian B Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the pathogenesis may involve endothelial dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that endothelium-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET)-mediated endothelial function is impaired in patients with COPD, and a novel sEH inhibitor GSK2256294 attenuates EET-mediated endothelial dysfunction in human resistance vessels both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Endogenous and stimulated endothelial release of EETs was assessed in 12 COPD patients, 11 overweight smokers, and 2 matched control groups, using forearm plethysmography with intra-arterial infusions of fluconazole, bradykinin, and the combination...
November 21, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871083/work-of-breathing-in-fixed-and-pressure-relief-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-c-flex%C3%A2-a-post-hoc-analysis
#18
Lukas Jerrentrup, Sebastian Canisius, Susanne Wilhelm, Karl Kesper, Thomas Ploch, Claus Vogelmeier, Timm Greulich, Heinrich F Becker
BACKGROUND: Expiratory pressure relief continuous positive airway pressure (pressure relief CPAP; C-Flex™) causes increases in inspiratory duty cycle and shortening of expiratory time. It has been suggested that these changes are caused by an increase in work of breathing. OBJECTIVES: We studied the effects of C-Flex on work of breathing and intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure as compared to fixed CPAP. METHODS: Work of breathing was analyzed in 24 patients with obstructive sleep apnea during treatment with fixed CPAP and C-Flex with 3 different pressure relief settings in a randomized order during rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep...
2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867553/using-a-chemiresistor-based-alkane-sensor-to-distinguish-exhaled-breaths-of-lung-cancer-patients-from-subjects-with-no-lung-cancer
#19
Jiunn-Liang Tan, Zheng-Xin Yong, Chong-Kin Liam
BACKGROUND: Breath alkanes are reported to be able to discriminate lung cancer patients from healthy people. A simple chemiresistor-based sensor was designed to respond to alkanes by a change in resistance measured by a digital multimeter connected to the sensor. In preclinical experiments, the sensor response was found to have a strong positive linear relationship with alkane compounds and not responsive to water. This study aimed to determine the ability of the alkane sensor to distinguish the exhaled breaths of lung cancer patients from that of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and control subjects without lung cancer...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854516/evasion-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-by-respiratory-pathogens
#20
Daniel M L Storisteanu, Joanna M Pocock, Andrew S Cowburn, Jatinder K Juss, Angalee Nadesalingam, Victor Nizet, Edwin R Chilvers
The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a major immune mechanism intended to capture pathogens. These histone and protease-coated DNA structures are released by neutrophils in response to a variety of stimuli, including respiratory pathogens, and have been identified in the airways of patients with respiratory infection, cystic fibrosis, acute lung injury, primary graft dysfunction and COPD. NET production has been demonstrated in the lungs of mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aspergillus fumigatus...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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