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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341360/comparison-of-respiratory-system-impedance-in-asthma-and-copd-a-prospective-observational-study
#1
Takahiro Kamada, Masahiro Kaneko, Hiromi Tomioka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A single assessment of within-breath variations of respiratory system reactance (Xrs) at 5 Hz (ΔX5) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has been reported to be useful for the detection of pathophysiological changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. We examined longitudinal changes in respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and Xrs during tidal breathing between stable asthma and COPD patients in order to clarify the features of changes of respiratory system impedance and airflow limitation for these conditions...
January 17, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326536/first-time-isolation-of-mycobacterium-hassiacum-from-a-respiratory-sample
#2
Stefanie Deinhardt-Emmer, Steffen Höring, Christian Mura, Doris Hillemann, Beate Hermann, Svea Sachse, Jürgen Bohnert, Bettina Löffler
We describe the first isolation of Mycobacterium hassiacum, a rapid-growing, partial acid-resistant mycobacterium, in a respiratory specimen from a patient with exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To provide therapeutic recommendation for future cases, antibiotic susceptibility testing of 3 clinical isolates was performed by broth microdilution. All strains tested showed susceptibility to clarithromycin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. The role of M hassiacum as a respiratory pathogen remains unclear and needs to be evaluated by future reports...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325856/is-insufficient-pulmonary-air-support-the-cause-of-dysphonia-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Megahed M Hassan, Mona T Hussein, Ahmed Mamdouh Emam, Usama M Rashad, Ibrahim Rezk, Al Hussein Awad
OBJECTIVE: Optimal pulmonary air support is essential pre-requisite for efficient phonation. The objective is to correlate pulmonary and vocal functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to find out whether the reduced pulmonary function per se could induce dysphonia. METHODS: In this prospective case-control study, sixty subjects with stable COPD underwent evaluation of pulmonary and vocal functions. The pulmonary functions measured include {Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF)}...
January 8, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317845/pyomyositis-in-the-setting-of-complicated-diverticulitis-case-report
#4
James Sun, David Leor Kashan, Jolita Marie Auguste, Akella Chendrasekhar
Pyomyositis is typically thought of as a disease of the tropics. However, it is becoming more prevalent in temperate regions, and may be underdiagnosed. Here, pyomyositis is encountered as a complication of perforated diverticulitis, which has not been previously reported. A 61-year-old Caucasian man initially presented in respiratory distress and was diagnosed with respiratory failure due to COPD exacerbation. The patient was taking high-dose prednisone, 60 mg daily for the past 2 years. Initially, he was afebrile, normotensive, tachycardic to 178 beats/minute and tachypneic to 28 breaths/minute, requiring noninvasive ventilation to maintain oxygenation...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317813/association-between-respiratory-impedance-measured-by-forced-oscillation-technique-and-exacerbations-in-patients-with-copd
#5
Hitomi Yamagami, Akihiko Tanaka, Yasunari Kishino, Hatsuko Mikuni, Tomoko Kawahara, Shin Ohta, Mayumi Yamamoto, Shintaro Suzuki, Tsukasa Ohnishi, Hironori Sagara
Background: It is well known that increased airflow limitation as measured by spirometry is associated with the risk of exacerbation in patients with COPD. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a noninvasive method used to assess respiratory impedance (resistance and reactance) with minimal patient cooperation required. The clinical utility of the FOT in assessing the risk of exacerbations of COPD is yet to be determined. We examined the relationship between respiratory impedance as measured by FOT and exacerbations in patients with COPD...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296080/microbiological-airway-colonization-in-copd-patients-with-severe-emphysema-undergoing-endoscopic-lung-volume-reduction
#6
Franziska C Trudzinski, Frederik Seiler, Heinrike Wilkens, Carlos Metz, Annegret Kamp, Robert Bals, Barbara Gärtner, Philipp M Lepper, Sören L Becker
Background: Endoscopic lung volume reduction (eLVR) is a therapeutic option for selected patients with COPD and severe emphysema. Infectious exacerbations are serious events in these vulnerable patients; hence, prophylactic antibiotics are often prescribed postinterventionally. However, data on the microbiological airway colonization at the time of eLVR are scarce, and there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding a rational antibiotic regimen. Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and microbiological analysis of COPD patients with advanced emphysema undergoing eLVR with endobronchial valves at a single German University hospital, 2012-2017...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288933/targeting-the-renin-angiotensin-system-as-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-pulmonary-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Wan Shun Daniel Tan, Wupeng Liao, Shuo Zhou, Dan Mei, Wai-Shiu Fred Wong
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure. RAS has also been implicated in the regulation of inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis in pulmonary diseases such as asthma, acute lung injury (ALI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Current therapeutics suffer from some drawbacks like steroid resistance, limited efficacies and side effects. Novel intervention is definitely needed to offer optimal therapeutic strategy and clinical outcome...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277688/ability-of-using-different-dry-powder-inhalers-during-copd-exacerbations
#8
Andriana I Papaioannou, Yiolanda Herodotou, Ioannis Tomos, Vasiliki Apollonatou, Galateia Verykokou, Evgenia Papathanasiou, Effrosyni D Manali, Stelios Loukides, Spyros A Papiris
BACKGROUND: Guidelines suggest that patients hospitalized for acute COPD exacerbations (AECOPD) are treated with short acting bronchodilators. Long acting bronchodilators, offer longer symptom relief but since they are usually administered via Dry Powder Inhalers (DPIs) it is considered that during AECOPD patients would not be able to achieve appropriate inspiratory flow (IF) to receive appropriate drug doses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether patients admitted to the hospital for AECOPD, are able to achieve the necessary IF using different DPIs...
December 19, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261402/oral-versus-nasal-high-flow-bronchodilator-inhalation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Jens Bräunlich, Hubert Wirtz
BACKGROUND: Nasal high flow (NHF) alters breathing patterns, stabilizes fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) during respiratory distress, helps to keep up hemostasis in the airways, and washes out the upper airways. Particularly the support of inspiratory flow and decrease in functional dead space are interesting mechanisms of action with regard to aerosol delivery. Several laboratory investigations have studied aerosol delivery via the nasal route by using NHF, whereas clinical benefits are poorly evaluated...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232988/does-antibiotic-treatment-duration-affect-the-outcomes-of-exacerbations-of-asthma-and-copd-a-systematic-review
#10
Marie Stolbrink, Jack Amiry, John D Blakey
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, primarily through exacerbations. Exacerbations are often treated with antibiotics but their optimal course duration is uncertain. Reducing antibiotic duration may influence antimicrobial resistance but risks treatment failure. The objective of this article is to review published literature to investigate whether shorter antibiotic therapy duration affects clinical outcomes in the treatment of asthma and COPD exacerbations...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229110/effects-of-two-types-of-equal-intensity-inspiratory-muscle-training-in-stable-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Weiliang Wu, Lili Guan, Xianming Zhang, Xiaoying Li, Yuqiong Yang, Bingpeng Guo, Yonger Ou, Lin Lin, Luqian Zhou, Rongchang Chen
PURPOSE: We conducted a randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of daily breathing pattern changes to stable patients with COPD excluding the confounding factors of inspiratory muscle mobilization, by ensuring the load intensities of two inspiratory training devices were equal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty patients with COPD were randomised to three groups: resistive-IMT group (T-IMT, 21 patients), threshold-IMT (R-IMT, 19 patients), and a control group (20 patients)...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227717/quercetin-restores-corticosteroid-sensitivity-in-cells-from-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
Akihisa Mitani, Aishah Azam, Chaitanya Vuppusetty, Kazuhiro Ito, Nicolas Mercado, Peter J Barnes
Corticosteroid resistance is a major barrier to the effective treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oxidative stress from cigarette smoke and chronic inflammation is likely to induce this corticosteroid insensitivity. Quercetin is a polyphenol that has been reported to be an active oxygen scavenger as well as a functional adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on corticosteroid responsiveness in COPD cells...
December 11, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224299/-correlation-analysis-of-serum-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-5-levels-with-airway-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#13
G Y Li, S J Yin, Y Liu, H Li, S Song, Z B Kong, C Zuo, H Liu, Z Zhu
Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum secreted frizzled-related protein 5(sfrp5) levels, insulin resistance, and airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Method: A total of 178 COPD patients visiting our respiratory outpatient clinic from February 2015 to January 2017 were enrolled, and 99 healthy control subjects from the same time period were selected. Serum sfrp5 levels were compared between the 2 groups. Serum sfrp5 and inflammatory cytokines in induced sputum were observed in the 4 subgroups: insulin resistant COPD group [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)≥2...
December 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220595/dose-dependent-effects-of-tadalafil-and-roflumilast-on-ovalbumin-induced-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-guinea-pigs
#14
Anna Urbanova, Ivana Medvedova, Martin Kertys, Pavol Mikolka, Petra Kosutova, Daniela Mokra, Juraj Mokrý
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive diseases of airways associated with cough and/or airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness are usually treated with bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently, selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitors have been introduced into the therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several studies have demonstrated their ability to influence the airway reactivity and eosinophilic inflammation by increasing the intracellular cAMP concentrations also in bronchial asthma...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215200/mir-424-5p-reduces-ribosomal-rna-and-protein-synthesis-in-muscle-wasting
#15
Martin Connolly, Richard Paul, Roser Farre-Garros, Samantha A Natanek, Susannah Bloch, Jen Lee, Jose P Lorenzo, Harnish Patel, Cyrus Cooper, Avan A Sayer, Stephen J Wort, Mark Griffiths, Michael I Polkey, Paul R Kemp
BACKGROUND: A loss of muscle mass occurs as a consequence of a range of chronic and acute diseases as well as in older age. This wasting results from an imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation with a reduction in synthesis and resistance to anabolic stimulation often reported features. Ribosomes are required for protein synthesis, so changes in the control of ribosome synthesis are potential contributors to muscle wasting. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known regulators of muscle phenotype and have been shown to modulate components of the protein synthetic pathway...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206641/comparison-of-exercise-training-responses-in-copd-patients-with-and-without-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#16
Inga Jarosch, Wolfgang Hitzl, Andreas Rembert Koczulla, Marion Wencker, Tobias Welte, Rainer Gloeckl, Sabina Janciauskiene, Klaus Kenn
BACKGROUND: The benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on fatigue-resistant skeletal muscle fibre type I have been found to be smaller in COPD patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) than in those without AATD. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) augmentation therapy was suggested as a potential factor of influence. Whether this finding mirrors different improvements in 6-min walk distance (6MWD) between both groups remains unknown. METHODS: 140 patients with AATD-related COPD (phenotype PiZZ, FEV1: 31 ± 8%pred...
September 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202450/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-defines-matrikine-regulated-inflammation-and-fibrosis
#17
Philip J O'Reilly, Qiang Ding, Samia Akthar, Guoqiang Cai, Kristopher R Genschmer, Dhiren F Patel, Patricia L Jackson, Liliana Viera, Mojtaba Roda, Morgan L Locy, Ellen A Bernstein, Clare M Lloyd, Kenneth E Bernstein, Robert J Snelgrove, J Edwin Blalock
The neutrophil chemoattractant proline-glycine-proline (PGP) is generated from collagen by matrix metalloproteinase-8/9 (MMP-8/9) and prolyl endopeptidase (PE), and it is concomitantly degraded by extracellular leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) to limit neutrophilia. Components of cigarette smoke can acetylate PGP, yielding a species (AcPGP) that is resistant to LTA4H-mediated degradation and can, thus, support a sustained neutrophilia. In this study, we sought to elucidate if an antiinflammatory system existed to degrade AcPGP that is analogous to the PGP-LTA4H axis...
November 16, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200842/hemodynamic-and-gas-exchange-effects-of-inhaled-iloprost-in-patients-with-copd-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#18
Lan Wang, Yuan-Zhe Jin, Qin-Hua Zhao, Rong Jiang, Wen-Hui Wu, Su-Gang Gong, Jing He, Jin-Ming Liu, Zhi-Cheng Jing
Studies have shown that vasodilators such as iloprost can be useful for treating pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, in patients with COPD, vasodilators may inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and impair gas exchange. The efficacy and safety of iloprost inhalation was assessed in 67 patients with PH associated with COPD (COPD-PH), diagnosed by right heart catheterization. Of these, 37 patients had severe PH (mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mPAP] >35 mmHg or mPAP 25-35 mmHg with low cardiac index [<2...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186145/respective-impact-of-implementation-of-prevention-strategies-colonization-with-multiresistant-bacteria-and-antimicrobial-use-on-the-risk-of-early-and-late-onset-vap-an-analysis-of-the-outcomerea-network
#19
Wafa Ibn Saied, Bertrand Souweine, Maité Garrouste-Orgeas, Stéphane Ruckly, Michael Darmon, Sébastien Bailly, Yves Cohen, Elie Azoulay, Carole Schwebel, Aguila Radjou, Hatem Kallel, Christophe Adrie, Anne-Sylvie Dumenil, Laurent Argaud, Guillaume Marcotte, Samir Jamali, Laurent Papazian, Dany Goldgran-Toledano, Lila Bouadma, Jean-Francois Timsit
RATIONALE: The impact of prevention strategies and risk factors for early-onset (EOP) versus late-onset (LOP) ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are still debated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in a multicenter cohort, the risk factors for EOP and LOP, as the evolution of prevention strategies. METHODS: 7,784 patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) for at least 48 hours were selected into the multicenter prospective OUTCOMEREA database (1997-2016)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184823/a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study-theophylline-on-oxidative-stress-and-steroid-sensitivity-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#20
R Ranjani, A T Sathiya Vinotha
Objective: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Corticosteroid fails to suppress inflammation and oxidative stress due to steroid resistance. Theophylline has an effect on histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and improves steroid sensitivity in COPD. Given changes in oxidative stress associated with diminished corticosteroid effects, a clinical study in which antioxidants and free radicals are estimated can suggest a correlation between antioxidants, theophylline, and corticosteroid sensitivity...
July 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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