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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782855/role-of-statins-and-mevalonate-pathway-on-impaired-hdac2-activity-induced-by-oxidative-stress-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#1
Maria Gabriella Matera, Luigino Calzetta, Giulia Gritti, Laura Gallo, Brunella Perfetto, Giovanna Donnarumma, Mario Cazzola, Paola Rogliani, Maria Donniacuo, Barbara Rinaldi
In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the inflammatory response is often steroid-resistant, likely since oxidative stress and cigarette smoking impair histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) activity. Since it has been demonstrated that statins may restore the HDAC2 activity in cultured human endothelial cells, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of statins in reversing the steroid-resistance induced by oxidative stress. We evaluated the effects of simvastatin and dexamethasone on HDAC2 expression and activity, and the role of mevalonate and Rho/ROCK pathways in A549 cells, a human lung type II epithelial cell line stressed with H2 O2 ...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775687/effects-of-bronchodilation-on-biomarkers-of-peripheral-airway-inflammation-in-copd
#2
Pierachille Santus, Dejan Radovanovic, Susanna Mascetti, Alessia Pauletti, Vincenzo Valenti, Marco Mantero, Alberto Papi, Marco Contoli
Peripheral airway inflammation and dysfunction are key elements in the pathogenesis of COPD. The exhaled alveolar fraction of nitric oxide (CANO) is an indirect biomarker of lung peripheral inflammation. We tested whether inhaled long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) can affect CANO and we evaluated correlations with lung mechanics in patients with COPD. Two-centre, randomised, double blind, crossover study including COPD patients with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction. Following a pharmacological washout, multi-flow exhaled fraction of NO (FENO), plethysmography, lung diffusion (DLCO), single breath nitrogen washout test and dyspnoea were measured in a crossover manner at baseline and 30, 60 and 180 minutes following administration of salmeterol (Sal) or formoterol fumarate (FF)...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773293/usefulness-of-the-forced-oscillation-technique-in-assessing-the-therapeutic-result-of-tracheobronchial-central-airway-obstruction
#3
Masanori Yasuo, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi, Fumiya Kinota, Makoto Kosaka, Kazuhisa Urushihata, Atsuhito Ushiki, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Satoshi Kawakami, Masayuki Hanaoka
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) comprise the traditional method for detecting central airway obstruction (CAO) and evaluating therapeutic effects, but are effort-dependent. By contrast, the forced oscillation technique (FOT) is performed during tidal breathing in an effort-independent mode and is universally used to assess respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. We used the FOT to measure airway resistance and reactance in patients with CAO before and after interventional bronchoscopy and compared the results to data obtained using PFTs...
May 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765214/tiotropium-inhibits-methacholine-induced-extracellular-matrix-production-via-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#4
Yating Huo, Lili Guan, Jiawen Xu, Luqian Zhou, Rongchang Chen
Background: Airway remodeling is an important feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is associated with disease severity and irreversible airflow limitation. An extensive alteration of the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding the airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundle is one of the pathological manifestations of airway remodeling, which contributes to the decline in lung function. Tiotropium, a long-acting inhaled muscarinic receptor antagonist, has been confirmed to play a role in preventing airway remodeling including ECM deposition beyond bronchodilation in vivo, but the relationship between ASM cell (ASMC) relaxation and ECM production remains unclear...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746142/pulmonary-vascular-involvement-in-copd-is-there-a-pulmonary-vascular-phenotype
#5
Gabor Kovacs, Alvar Agusti, Joan Albert Barberà, Bartolome Celli, Gerard Criner, Marc Humbert, Don D Sin, Norbert Voelkel, Horst Olschewski
Although often clinically unrecognized, the pulmonary circulation is frequently affected in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the presence of pulmonary vascular disease is associated with poor prognosis and frequent exacerbations. In most cases the presenting pulmonary hypertension (PH) is relatively mild, but in a subset of COPD patients, the presence of certain clinical features supports the existence of a "pulmonary vascular phenotype". Such a phenotype would be characterized by severe pre-capillary PH with strongly elevated pulmonary vascular resistance, moderate airflow limitation, severely decreased diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, normo- or hypocapnia, circulatory exercise limitation and progressive right heart failure...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742906/relationship-of-spirometric-body-plethysmographic-and-diffusing-capacity-parameters-to-emphysema-scores-derived-from-ct-scans
#6
Kathrin Kahnert, Bertram Jobst, Frank Biertz, Jürgen Biederer, Henrik Watz, Rudolf M Huber, Jürgen Behr, Philippe A Grenier, Peter Alter, Claus F Vogelmeier, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Rudolf A Jörres
Phenotyping of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with computed tomography (CT) is used to distinguish between emphysema- and airway-dominated type. The phenotype is reflected in correlations with lung function measures. Among these, the relative value of body plethysmography has not been quantified. We addressed this question using CT scans retrospectively collected from clinical routine in a large COPD cohort. Three hundred and thirty five patients with baseline data of the German COPD cohort COPD and Systemic Consequences-Comorbidities Network were included...
January 1, 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740931/antimicrobial-prescription-in-patients-dying-from-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
John Taverner, Lauren Ross, Claire Bartlett, M Luthe, J Ong, Louis Irving, Natasha Smallwood
INTRODUCTION: Despite rising antimicrobial resistance, treatment guidelines for COPD exacerbations are frequently ignored. Patients with terminal conditions are often prescribed antimicrobials despite the goal of care to reduce burdensome treatments. The appropriateness of antimicrobials in patients dying from an exacerbation of COPD is unknown. AIM: To review antimicrobial prescription at the time of death in patients who died from COPD. METHODS: A retrospective medical record audit was performed for 475 patients who died over twelve years (2004-2015)...
May 9, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727214/hemodynamic-effects-of-incremental-lung-hyperinflation
#8
William Spencer Cheyne, Jinelle C M Gelinas, Neil Derek Eves
Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) is common in COPD and is associated with dyspnea and exercise intolerance. DH also has adverse cardiac effects, though the magnitude of DH and the mechanisms responsible for the hemodynamic impairment remain unclear. We hypothesized that incrementally increasing DH would systematically reduce left-ventricular (LV) end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and stroke volume (LVSV) due to direct ventricular interaction (DVI). Twenty-three healthy subjects (22{plus minus}2yrs) were exposed to varying degrees of expiratory loading to induce DH such that inspiratory capacity (IC) was decreased by 25, 50, 75 and 100%, (100% DH = IC of resting tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume ≈0...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725304/coupled-immunological-and-biomechanical-model-of-emphysema-progression
#9
Mario Ceresa, Andy L Olivares, Jérôme Noailly, Miguel A González Ballester
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disabling respiratory pathology, with a high prevalence and a significant economic and social cost. It is characterized by different clinical phenotypes with different risk profiles. Detecting the correct phenotype, especially for the emphysema subtype, and predicting the risk of major exacerbations are key elements in order to deliver more effective treatments. However, emphysema onset and progression are influenced by a complex interaction between the immune system and the mechanical properties of biological tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724381/pulmonary-deposition-of-fluticasone-propionate-formoterol-in-healthy-volunteers-asthmatics-and-copd-patients-with-a-novel-breath-triggered-inhaler
#10
Dominik Kappeler, Knut Sommerer, Claudius Kietzig, Bärbel Huber, Jo Woodward, Mark Lomax, Prashant Dalvi
INTRODUCTION: A combination of fluticasone propionate/formoterol fumarate (FP/FORM) has been incorporated within a novel, breath-triggered device, named K-haler® . This low resistance device requires a gentle inspiratory effort to actuate it, triggering at an inspiratory flow rate of approximately 30 L/min; thus avoiding the need for coordination of inhalation with manual canister depression. The aim of the study was to evaluate total and regional pulmonary deposition of FP/FORM when administered via the K-haler device...
May 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719037/provider-variation-in-antibiotic-prescribing-and-outcomes-of-respiratory-tract-infections
#11
Mahesh Manne, Abhishek Deshpande, Bo Hu, Aditi Patel, Glen B Taksler, Anita D Misra-Hebert, Stacey E Jolly, Andrei Brateanu, Robert W Bales, Michael B Rothberg
OBJECTIVES: Inappropriate antibiotic use for respiratory tract infection (RTI) is an ongoing problem linked to the emergence of drug resistance and other adverse effects. Less is known about the prescribing practices of individual physicians or the impact of physician prescribing habits on patient outcomes. We studied the prescribing practices of providers for acute RTIs in an integrated health system, identified patient factors associated with receipt of an antibiotic and assessed the relation between providers' adjusted prescribing rates and a number of patient outcomes...
April 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705781/the-respiratory-overlap-syndrome-efficacy-and-usefulness-of-the-combined-double-bronchodilation
#12
Albino Petrone, Filippo Luca Fimognari, Francesco Mormile, Leonello Fuso, Michela Quartieri, Ludovico Petrone, Francesco Romano
The coexistence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a single patient is known as "overlap syndrome," and worsens the prognosis of the affected subjects. A marked bronchodilation may be useful for the treatment of this condition. In fact, as stated in the GOLD 2017 guidelines, the combination of indacaterol/glycopyrronium may exert positive synergistic effects on smooth muscle cell and airway resistance, with a more pronounced efficiency in reducing lung hyperinflation...
2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692381/current-status-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
REVIEW
De-Shun Liu, Xiu-Di Han, Xue-Dong Liu
Objective: Worldwide, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infection that occurs in older adults, who may have pulmonary comorbidities, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there have been clinical studies on the coexistence of CAP with COPD, there remain some controversial findings. This review presents the current status of COPD in CAP patients, including the disease burden, clinical characteristics, risk factors, microbial etiology, and antibiotic treatment...
May 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671943/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-context-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Giuseppe Bronte, Sara Bravaccini, Enrico Bronte, Marco Angelo Burgio, Christian Rolfo, Angelo Delmonte, Lucio Crinò
The identification of oncogenic driver mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to the development of targeted drugs. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) target lung tumours bearing EGFR-activating mutations. This new therapeutic strategy has greatly improved tumour response rates. However, drug resistance invariably occurs during TKI-based treatment. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the resistance mechanisms identified in EGFR-mutated NSCLC treated with TKIs...
April 19, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658361/myd88-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-inflammatory-lung-diseases
#15
Franco Di Padova, Valerie F J Quesniaux, Bernhard Ryffel
Introduction Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) is a critical adaptor protein involved in Toll-like and IL-1 receptor family signaling controlling innate immune responses and inflammation. Genetic deletion of MyD88 function results in profound suppression of inflammation and reduced resistance of the host to pathogens indicating non-redundant roles of MyD88. The TIR domain is critical for MyD88 dimerization and signaling for TLR and IL-1R family receptor. Areas covered Emerging evidence suggests that chemical disruption of the TIR domain attenuates cell activation and inhibits in vivo MyD88-dependent inflammation...
April 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657040/left-ventricular-volume-and-wall-stress-are-linked-to-lung-function-impairment-in-copd
#16
Peter Alter, Rudolf A Jörres, Henrik Watz, Tobias Welte, Sven Gläser, Holger Schulz, Robert Bals, Annika Karch, Emiel F M Wouters, Jørgen Vestbo, David Young, Claus F Vogelmeier
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular comorbidities are common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We examined the association between airflow limitation, hyperinflation and the left ventricle (LV). METHODS: Patients from the COPD cohort COSYCONET underwent evaluations including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), effective airway resistance (Reff ), intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV), and echocardiographic LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), stroke volume (LVSV), end-systolic volume (LVESV), and end-diastolic and end-systolic LV wall stress...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628896/inflammatory-and-metabolic-responses-to-different-resistance-training-on-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-randomized-control-trial
#17
Bruna S de Alencar Silva, Fábio S Lira, Fabrício E Rossi, Dionei Ramos, Juliana S Uzeloto, Ana P C F Freire, Fabiano F de Lima, Luís A Gobbo, Ercy M C Ramos
Background: Low-grade inflammation can be present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which may affect the regulation of muscle protein and body metabolism. Regular exercise show improvement in muscle strength and dyspnea in patients with COPD, however, the response to training on inflammatory and metabolic disorders is unclear. In this study, we compared the effects of resistance training using weight machines and elastic resistance (bands and tubes) on the inflammatory and metabolic responses in patients with COPD...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618675/prevalence-of-escherichia-coli-resistant-to-beta-lactam-antibiotics-among-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-urinary-tract-infection
#18
Emilija Nikolić, Tijana Brandmajer, Vesna Bokan, Maria Ulyashova, Maya Rubtsova
Urinary tract infection (UTI), which is typically caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli), is an insufficiently recognized co-morbidity among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Adequate treatment can be complicated by resistance of the causative pathogen to beta-lactam antibiotics, which often produce beta-lactamase enzymes that destroy the antibiotic. The beta-lactamase family of enzymes is extremely diverse, including different types of enzyme and mutant forms. In this study, we analyzed 580 patients with COPD (236 females and 344 males) and thus found 218 patients with co-morbid UTIs, including 58 patients with UTI caused by E...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617698/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-adaptation-to-innate-immune-clearance-mechanisms-in-the-lung
#19
Sebastian A Riquelme, Danielle Ahn, Alice Prince
Many different species of gram-negative bacteria are associated with infection in the lung, causing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), and ventilator-associated pneumonias. These airway pathogens must adapt to common host clearance mechanisms that include killing by antimicrobial peptides, antibiotics, oxidative stress, and phagocytosis by leukocytes. Bacterial adaptation to the host is often evident phenotypically, with increased extracellular polysaccharide production characteristic of some biofilm-associated organisms...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617415/emergence-of-mycobacterium-simiae-a-retrospective-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-lebanon
#20
Amal Hamieh, Ralph Tayyar, Houssam Tabaja, Saeed E L Zein, Pierre Bou Khalil, Nathalie Kara, Zeina A Kanafani, Nadim Kanj, Imad Bou Akl, George Araj, Ghina Berjaoui, Souha S Kanj
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe the clinical significance of Mycobacterium simiae at a major tertiary care center in Lebanon. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with positive cultures for M. simiae isolated between 2004 and 2016 at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. RESULTS: This study included 103 M. simiae isolates recovered from 51 patients. Their mean age was 62.7 years. The majority were males and smokers...
2018: PloS One
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