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Immune check point

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661720/pd-l1-immuno-expression-assay-in-thymomas-study-of-84-cases-and-review-of-literature
#1
Prerna Guleria, Nuzhat Husain, Saumya Shukla, Sunil Kumar, Rajinder Parshad, Deepali Jain
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), an immune check point inhibitor, is known to be expressed in several malignancies and is being considered as a prognostic factor and a potential immunotherapeutic target. The aim of this study was to characterize PD-L1 expression in thymomas and to determine correlation with clinicopathological features and previously published studies in the literature. METHODS: Tissue microarrays were prepared from selected blocks of thymomas and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for PD-L1 was performed...
April 4, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656755/the-burden-of-lung-cancer-in-latin-america-and-challenges-in-the-access-to-genomic-profiling-immunotherapy-and-targeted-treatments
#2
REVIEW
Luis E Raez, Andrés F Cardona, Edgardo S Santos, Heath Catoe, Christian Rolfo, Gilberto Lopes, Carlos Barrios, Luis A Mas, Carlos Vallejos, Zyanya Lucia Zatarain-Barrón, Christian Caglevic, Oscar Arrieta
Lung cancer is a public health problem worldwide and Latin America (LATAM) cannot escape this reality. This malignant disease has not only a high prevalence in the region, but is also the main cause of cancer related deaths, and in other emerging countries, the incidence rates are still on the rise. Interestingly in most LATAM countries, lung cancer mortality has been decreasing in men but not in women, reflecting smoking patterns in countries such as Chile, Bolivia, and Brazil. Despite the fact that these issues are well known to government agencies, physicians and patients in the region, current efforts still fall behind those needed in order to face this problem of epidemic proportions...
May 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642597/immune-response-against-alk-in-children-with-alk-positive-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma
#3
REVIEW
Serena Stadler, Vijay Kumar Singh, Fabian Knörr, Christine Damm-Welk, Wilhelm Woessmann
Patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) mount a humoral and cellular immune response against ALK. More than 90% of children and adolescents with ALK-positive ALCL have detectable anti-ALK antibodies in serum or plasma, and the antibody titer inversely correlates with the risk of relapse. ALK-specific CD8 and CD4 T cell responses have been described in patients with ALK-positive ALCL. Vaccination with ALK DNA led to protection against lymphoma growth in a murine model...
April 10, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593888/immunotherapy-in-previously-treated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#4
REVIEW
Ticiana A Leal, Suresh S Ramalingam
Treatment with immunotherapy has made a significant impact in the outcomes for those individuals diagnosed with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its use is currently an established treatment modality. In light of recent advances in immunotherapy, improved survival, particularly for patients with stage IV NSCLC, has been reported with durable and prolonged responses in a subset of patients. Immune check point inhibitors, which include nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab, are standard treatment options in the salvage setting...
February 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571945/trophoblast-cd200-expression-in-successful-human-pregancies-and-missed-abortions
#5
David A Clark, M Elizabeth McCready, Kate Harris, Leslie Malloy, Jorge L Arredondo
Presence of the CD200 immune check-point inhibitor at the feto-maternal interface is linked to prevention of spontaneous abortion in mice and humans. In human missed abortions (MA), absence of Th17-driven inflammation has been attributed to expression of villus trophoblast CD200 quantified using immunohistochemistry. While rapid aneuploidy (QF-PCR) testing linked low CD200 to pregnancy failure, data showing normal VT CD200 in first trimester normal pregnancy and in abortion of chromosomally abnormal embryos has not been demonstrated...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566951/composition-of-the-immune-microenvironment-differs-between-carcinomas-metastatic-to-the-lungs-and-primary-lung-carcinomas
#6
Wijendra Senarathne, Semir Vranic, Joanne Xiu, Inga Rose, Peggy Gates, Zoran Gatalica
Lungs are among the most common sites for development of both primary and metastatic carcinomas. Tumor cells expression (TC) of PD-L1 is an important predictor of the of response to immune check-point inhibition in NSCLC, while the composition of the immune cells (IC) in the tumor microenvironment including PD-L1+ cells is believed to predict responses in tumors of some other primary sites. Total mutational load (TML) and microsatellite instability (MSI) also play a role in response to the immune checkpoint blockade...
April 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565139/smart-nano-reactors-for-ph-responsive-tumor-homing-mitochondria-targeting-and-enhanced-photodynamic-immunotherapy-of-cancer
#7
Guangbao Yang, Ligeng Xu, Jun Xu, Rui Zhang, Guosheng Song, Yu Chao, Liangzhu Feng, Fengxuan Han, Ziliang Dong, Bin Li, Zhuang Liu
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an oxygen-dependent light-triggered non-invasive therapeutic method showing many promising aspects in cancer treatment. For effective PDT, nanoscale carriers are often needed to realize tumor-targeted delivery of photosensitizers, which ideally should further target specific cell organelles that are most vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Secondly, as oxygen is critical for PDT-induced cancer destruction, overcoming hypoxia existing in majority of solid tumors is important for optimizing PDT efficacy...
March 22, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556048/combining-immune-check-point-blockade-and-cryoablation-in-an-immunocompetent-hormone-sensitive-murine-model-of-prostate-cancer
#8
Benjamin Benzon, Stephanie A Glavaris, Brian W Simons, Robert M Hughes, Kamyar Ghabili, Patrick Mullane, Rebecca Miller, Katriana Nugent, Brian Shinder, Jeffrey Tosoian, Ephraim J Fuchs, Phuoc T Tran, Paula J Hurley, Milena Vuica-Ross, Edward M Schaeffer, Charles G Drake, Ashley E Ross
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. Immune check point blocking antibodies have revolutionized treatment of multiple solid tumors, but results in prostate cancer remain marginal. Previous reports have suggested that local therapies, in particular cryoablation might increase tumor immunogenicity. In this work, we examine potential synergism between tumor cryoabalation and check point blocking antibodies. METHODS: FVB/NJ mice were injected subcutaneously into each flank with either 1 × 106 or 0...
March 20, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535979/immunotherapy-in-merkel-cell-carcinoma-role-of-avelumab
#9
REVIEW
Amruth R Palla, Donald Doll
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare skin cancer, is associated with high mortality, especially in a metastatic setting. Though conventional chemotherapy with platinum and etoposide has had high response rates, many of the patients have had early relapse without any effective therapy thereafter. Recently, immune check point inhibitors have shown very good durable responses, leading to the approval of a programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor Avelumab for these patients. We briefly review the epidemiology and immune basis of the pathogenesis of MCC, which therefore explains the excellent response to check point inhibitors, and throw light on future directions of immunotherapy for this cancer...
2018: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530393/chemotherapy-and-targeted-therapy-in-the-management-of-cervical-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Lalit Kumar, P Harish, Prabhat S Malik, S Khurana
Management of cervical cancer has undergone refinement in the past two decades; concurrent chemo-radiation (CCRT) (with cisplatin alone or in combination) is currently the standard treatment approach for patients with locally advanced disease (FIGO stage IIB-IVA). About 30%-40% of such patients fail to achieve complete response; alternative approaches are needed to improve outcome for them. Treatment with bevacizumab (an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor) along with chemotherapy is associated with improved survival in patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer...
February 3, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526974/adjuvant-immunotherapy-for-cancer-both-dendritic-cell-priming-and-check-point-inhibitor-blockade-are-required-for-immunotherapy
#11
Tsukasa Seya, Yohei Takeda, Ken Takashima, Sumito Yoshida, Masahiro Azuma, Misako Matsumoto
The immune system eliminates advanced cancer when treated with programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) blockade, but PD-1 therapy is effective in only ∼20% of patients with solid cancer. The PD-1 antibody mainly acts on the effector phase of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in tumors but induces no activation of the priming phase of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). It is reasonable that both DC-priming and PD-1/L1 blocking are mandatory for efficient CTL-mediated tumor cytolysis...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525401/targeting-immune-checkpoints-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Andrea Bianco, Umberto Malapelle, Danilo Rocco, Fabio Perrotta, Gennaro Mazzarella
Cancers have the ability to disrupt immune response by interfering with adaptive immunity. Blocking checkpoint pathways has become a target for pharmacological research in lung cancer with particular focus on peptides PD-1 and CTLA-4. A number of immune check-point inhibitors (ICIs) targeting both PD-1 and CTLA-4 pathways are under investigation within clinical trials, of which Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab and Atezolizumab have already been approved for lung cancer treatment by both FDA and EMA. Employed as single-agents in current practice for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) ICIs have exhibited advantages in terms of overall survival and response rate with some responses being durable...
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520483/immune-cell-landscape-in-therapy-na%C3%A3-ve-squamous-cell-and-adenocarcinomas-of-the-lung
#13
Luka Brcic, Stefanie Stanzer, Dagmar Krenbek, Ulrike Gruber-Moesenbacher, Gudrun Absenger, Franz Quehenberger, Arschang Valipour, Joerg Lindenmann, Herbert Stoeger, Mohamed Al Effah, Melanie Fediuk, Marija Balic, Helmut H Popper
Squamous cell and adenocarcinomas of the lung develop different mechanisms during carcinogenesis to evade attacks of the immune system. Besides the well-known check-point control programmed death 1 and its ligand, many more mechanisms, acting either tumoricidal or in favor of tumor progression, exist. Analysis of the immune cell profiles in resected tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage samples and correlation between them and with overall survival data was performed. In all tumor samples in this study, cells of the immune system expressed a tumor-cooperating phenotype...
March 8, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520474/cancer-immunotherapy-in-patients-with-brain-metastases
#14
REVIEW
Salvatore Caponnetto, Arianna Draghi, Troels Holz Borch, Marianna Nuti, Enrico Cortesi, Inge Marie Svane, Marco Donia
The exclusion of "real-world" patients from registration clinical trials of cancer immunotherapy represents a significant emerging issue. For instance, a large fraction of cancer patients develops brain metastases during the course of the disease, but results from large prospective clinical trials investigating this considerable proportion of the cancer patient population are currently lacking. To provide a useful tool for the clinician in a "real-world" setting, we have reviewed the available literature regarding the safety and efficacy of immune check-point inhibitors in patients with cancer metastatic to the brain...
March 8, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482895/bispecific-antibody-based-therapeutics-strengths-and-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Archana Thakur, Manley Huang, Lawrence G Lum
Monoclonal antibody-based targeted therapy has greatly improved treatment options for patients. However, long-term efficacy of such antibodies is limited by resistance mechanisms. New insights into the mechanisms by which tumors evade immune control have driven innovative therapeutic strategies to eliminate cancer by re-directing immune cells to tumors. Advances in protein engineering technology have generated multiple bispecific antibody (BsAb) formats capable of targeting multiple antigens as a single agent...
February 20, 2018: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476012/t-reg-cells-limit-ifn-%C3%AE-production-to-control-macrophage-accrual-and-phenotype-during-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#16
Marisella Panduro, Christophe Benoist, Diane Mathis
Skeletal muscle regeneration is a highly orchestrated process that depends on multiple immune-system cell types, notably macrophages (MFs) and Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T (Treg ) cells. This study addressed how Treg cells rein in MFs during regeneration of murine muscle after acute injury with cardiotoxin. We first delineated and characterized two subsets of MFs according to their expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules, i.e., their ability to present antigens. Then, we assessed the impact of Treg cells on these MF subsets by punctually depleting Foxp3+ cells during the regenerative process...
February 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463302/the-impact-of-pd-l1-on-survival-and-value-of-the-immune-check-point-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-proposal-policies-and-perspective
#17
Helmy M Guirgis
BACKGROUND: The impact of programmed death receptor-ligand1 (PD-L1) on costs and value of the immune check point inhibitors (ICPI) has received minimal attention. OBJECTIVES: 1- Design a sliding scale to grade survival in 2nd-line non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 2- Compare costs and value of Nivolumab (Nivo), Atezolizumab (Atezo) and Pembrolizumab (Pembro) vs. Docetaxel (Doc). METHODS: Previously reported median overall survival (OS) and prices posted by parent company were utilized...
February 20, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441072/fatal-necrotizing-encephalopathy-after-treatment-with-nivolumab-for-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Markus Leitinger, Mihael V Varosanec, Slaven Pikija, Romana E Wass, Dave Bandke, Serge Weis, Michael Studnicka, Susanne Grinzinger, Mark R McCoy, Larissa Hauer, Johann Sellner
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are antibodies, which enhance cellular and humoral immune responses and are approved for the treatment of various tumors. Immune-related adverse events (irAE) involving different organs and systems are, however, among the side-effects. Recent reports of severe persistent neurological deficits and even fatal cases underpin the need for better understanding of the exact pathomechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. To our knowledge, we report the first biopsy-proven case of fatal necrotizing encephalopathy after treatment with nivolumab...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438373/anlotinib-as-a-third-line-therapy-in-patients-with-refractory-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-multicentre-randomised-phase-ii-trial-alter0302
#19
Baohui Han, Kai Li, Yizhuo Zhao, Baolan Li, Ying Cheng, Jianying Zhou, You Lu, Yuankai Shi, Zhehai Wang, Liyan Jiang, Yi Luo, Yiping Zhang, Cheng Huang, Qiang Li, Guoming Wu
BACKGROUND: Anlotinib (AL3818) is a novel multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibiting tumour angiogenesis and proliferative signalling. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of third-line anlotinib for patients with refractory advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (RA-NSCLC). METHODS: Eligible patients were randomised 1 : 1 to receive anlotinib (12 mg per day, per os; days 1-14; 21 days per cycle) or a placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS)...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433584/ipilimumab-induced-digital-vasculitis
#20
Amrita Padda, Elena Schiopu, Justin Sovich, Vincent Ma, Ajjai Alva, Leslie Fecher
BACKGROUND: Immune check point inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as a new therapeutic paradigm for a variety of malignancies including metastatic melanoma. As the use of ICIs expand, immune-mediated adverse events are becoming a common occurrence. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the first reported patient with small vessel vasculitis, manifested by digital ischemia, following treatment with high dose Ipilimumab for resected stage IIIB/C melanoma. This patient received high dose steroids, five-day intravenous (IV) Epoprostenol protocol, botulinum toxin injections, and Rituximab 375 mg/m2 weekly for four cycles...
February 12, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
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