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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334664/methyl-dehydroabietate-counters-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis-by-modulating-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-signaling-in-mice
#1
Hiroki Yoshioka, Yuki Mizuno, Tomohiro Yamaguchi, Yoshimi Ichimaru, Koichi Takeya, Yukio Hitotsuyanagi, Tsunemasa Nonogaki, Yutaka Aoyagi
The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of methyl dehydroabietate (mDA) on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and obesity characteristics induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells was evaluated after 14 days of incubation with mDA. mDA enhanced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. For the in vivo evaluation, five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD or normal CE-2 diet (control) for eight weeks. During the experimental period, mice were administered mDA (50 mg/kg, p...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333376/anti-inflammatory-and-anti-obesity-properties-of-food-bioactive-components-effects-on-adipose-tissue
#2
REVIEW
Shasika Jayarathne, Iurii Koboziev, Oak-Hee Park, Wilna Oldewage-Theron, Chwan-Li Shen, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
Obesity is an epidemic and costly disease affecting 13% of the adult population worldwide. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperplasia, as well as pathologic endocrine alterations of adipose tissue including local and chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, this inflammation is a risk factor for both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance. Basic and clinical studies demonstrate that foods containing bioactive compounds are capable of preventing both obesity and adipose tissue inflammation, improving obesity-associated MetS in human subjects and animal models of obesity...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332545/long-noncoding-rna-h19-inhibits-cell-viability-migration-and-invasion-via-downregulation-of-irs-1-in-thyroid-cancer-cells
#3
Peng Wang, Guoqing Liu, Weimin Xu, Haixia Liu, Qingao Bu, Diwen Sun
Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine gland malignancy which exhibited rapid increased incidence worldwide in recent decades. This study was aimed to investigate the role of long noncoding RNA H19 in thyroid cancer. Long noncoding RNA H19 was overexpressed or knockdown in thyroid cancer cells SW579 and TPC-1, and the expression of long noncoding RNA H19 was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The cell viability, migration, and invasion were determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, Transwell assay, and wound healing assay, respectively...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331730/exenatide-exerts-cognitive-effects-by-modulating-the-bdnf-trkb-neurotrophic-axis-in-adult-mice
#4
Manuela Bomba, Alberto Granzotto, Vanessa Castelli, Noemi Massetti, Elena Silvestri, Lorella M T Canzoniero, Annamaria Cimini, Stefano L Sensi
Modulation of insulin-dependent signaling is emerging as a valuable therapeutic tool to target neurodegeneration. In the brain, the activation of insulin receptors promotes cell growth, neuronal repair, and protection. Altered brain insulin signaling participates in the cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer's disease patients and the aging brain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates insulin secretion and, along with GLP-1 analogues, enhances neurotrophic signaling and counteracts cognitive deficits in preclinical models of neurodegeneration...
December 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331565/saroglitazar-reduces-obesity-and-associated-inflammatory-consequences-in-murine-adipose-tissue
#5
Durgesh Kumar, Umesh Kumar Goand, Sanchita Gupta, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Abhishek Gupta, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Anurag Kumar Srivastava, Anil N Gaikwad
Prevailing knowledge links chronic low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissue to obesity and its associated metabolic complications. In this study, we evaluated immunometabolic effects of a recently launched dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α & γ agonist 'Saroglitazar' in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Body composition analysis revealed that saroglitazar treatment promoted hepatic weight gain, while attenuated epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass in DIO. In the eWAT of saroglitazar treated mice, histological analysis showed reduced adipocyte hypertrophy and matrix deposition (picrosirius red staining)...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331506/hepatocyte-estrogen-receptor-alpha-mediates-estrogen-action-to-promote-reverse-cholesterol-transport-during-western-type-diet-feeding
#6
Lin Zhu, Jeanne Shi, Thao N Luu, Joshua C Neuman, Elijah Trefts, Sophia Yu, Brian T Palmisano, David H Wasserman, MacRae F Linton, John M Stafford
OBJECTIVE: Hepatocyte deletion of estrogen receptor alpha (LKO-ERα) worsens fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in high-fat diet fed female mice. However, whether or not hepatocyte ERα regulates reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in mice has not yet been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using LKO-ERα mice and wild-type (WT) littermates fed a Western-type diet, we found that deletion of hepatocyte ERα impaired in vivo RCT measured by the removal of 3H-cholesterol from macrophages to the liver, and subsequently to feces, in female mice but not in male mice...
December 29, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330456/20-hete-promotes-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-in-an-autocrine-manner-through-ffar1
#7
Sorin Tunaru, Remy Bonnavion, Isabell Brandenburger, Jens Preussner, Dominique Thomas, Klaus Scholich, Stefan Offermanns
The long-chain fatty acid receptor FFAR1 is highly expressed in pancreatic β-cells. Synthetic FFAR1 agonists can be used as antidiabetic drugs to promote glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, the physiological role of FFAR1 in β-cells remains poorly understood. Here we show that 20-HETE activates FFAR1 and promotes GSIS via FFAR1 with higher potency and efficacy than dietary fatty acids such as palmitic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acid. Murine and human β-cells produce 20-HETE, and the ω-hydroxylase-mediated formation and release of 20-HETE is strongly stimulated by glucose...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330446/effect-of-puerarin-in-promoting-fatty-acid-oxidation-by-increasing-mitochondrial-oxidative-capacity-and-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-in-diabetic-rats
#8
Xiu-Fang Chen, Lei Wang, Yong-Zheng Wu, Shi-Yu Song, Hai-Yan Min, Yan Yang, Xuan He, Qiao Liang, Long Yi, Yong Wang, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by dyslipidemia and the accumulation of lipids in non-adipose tissue, including skeletal muscle. Puerarin, which is a natural isoflavonoid isolated from the root of the plant Pueraria lobata, has been shown to have antidiabetic activity. However, the lipid-reducing effect of puerarin, in particular in skeletal muscle, has not yet been addressed. METHODS: We examined the effect of puerarin on mitochondrial function and the oxidation of fatty acids in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330372/non-estrogenic-xanthohumol-derivatives-mitigate-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-impairment-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#9
Cristobal L Miranda, Lance A Johnson, Oriane de Montgolfier, Valerie D Elias, Lea S Ullrich, Joshua J Hay, Ines L Paraiso, Jaewoo Choi, Ralph L Reed, Johana S Revel, Chrissa Kioussi, Gerd Bobe, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner, Benita S Katzenellenbogen, John A Katzenellenbogen, Paul R Blakemore, Adrian F Gombart, Claudia S Maier, Jacob Raber, Jan F Stevens
Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid from hops, improves dysfunctional glucose and lipid metabolism in animal models of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, its metabolic transformation into the estrogenic metabolite, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), poses a potential health concern for its use in humans. To address this concern, we evaluated two hydrogenated derivatives, α,β-dihydro-XN (DXN) and tetrahydro-XN (TXN), which showed negligible affinity for estrogen receptors α and β, and which cannot be metabolically converted into 8-PN...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330302/controlled-dimerization-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-insulin-receptors-reveal-shared-and-distinct-activities-of-holo-and-hybrid-receptors
#10
Jingci Chen, Alison M Nagle, Yu-Fen Wang, David N Boone, Adrian V Lee
Breast cancer development and progression is influenced by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1R) and insulin receptor (InsR) signaling that drive cancer phenotypes such as cell growth, proliferation, and migration. IGF1R and InsR form IGF1R/InsR hybrid receptors (HybR) consisting of one molecule of IGF1R and one molecule of InsR. The specific signaling and functions of HybR are largely unknown as HybR is activated by both IGF1 and insulin, and no cellular system expresses HybR in the absence of holo-IGF1R or holo-InsR...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330294/establishment-of-the-first-well-differentiated-human-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-model
#11
Daniel Benten, Yasmin Behrang, Ludmilla Unrau, Victoria Weissmann, Gerrit Wolters-Eisfeld, Susanne Burdak-Rothkamm, Felix R Stahl, Martin Anlauf, Patricia Grabowski, Markus Möbs, Jan Dieckhoff, Bence Sipos, Martina Fahl, Corinna Eggers, Daniel Perez, Maximilian Bockhorn, Jakob R Izbicki, Ansgar W Lohse, Joerg Schrader
Clinical options for systemic therapy of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are limited. Development of new drugs requires suitable representative in vitro and in vivo model systems. So far, the unavailability of a human model with a well-differentiated phenotype and typical growth characteristics has impaired pre-clinical research in NET. Herein, we establish and characterize a lymph node-derived cell line (NT-3) from a male patient with well-differentiated pancreatic NET. Neuroendocrine differentiation and tumor biology was compared to existing NET cell lines BON and QGP-1...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330196/higher-prevalence-of-lymph-node-metastasis-in-prostate-cancer-in-patients-with-diabetes
#12
Stefan Zoltán Lutz, Tilman Todenhöfer, Robert Wagner, Jörg Hennenlotter, Jana Marlene Ferchl, Marcus Oliver Scharpf, Peter Martus, Harald Staiger, Andreas Fritsche, Arnulf Stenzl, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Martin Heni
Extract: Prostate cancer (PCa) and type 2 diabetes mellitus are under the most frequent diseases in men with a tremendous impact on morbidity and mortality (Giovannucci, et al. 2010). Incidence of many common types of cancer is known to be higher in diabetes (Giovannucci et al. 2010). However, studies reported that incidence of PCa is not increased in men with type 2 diabetes, some studies even found reduced prevalence (Kasper, et al. 2009). In contrast, PCa survival is markedly reduced in patients with coincident type 2 diabetes (Chen, et al...
January 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330151/interleukin-22-reverses-human-islet-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-triggered-by-hyperglycemia-and-light
#13
Shadab Abadpour, Bente Halvorsen, Afaf Sahraoui, Olle Korsgren, Pål Aukrust, Hanne Scholz
Interleukin (IL)-22 has recently been suggested as an anti-inflammatory cytokine that could protect the islet cells from inflammation- and glucose-induced toxicity. We have previously shown that the tumor necrosis factor family member, LIGHT can impair human islet function at least partly via pro-apoptotic effects. Herein, we aimed to investigate the protective role of IL-22 on human islets exposed to the combination of hyperglycemia and LIGHT. First, we found up-regulation of LIGHT receptors (LTβR and HVEM) in engrafted human islets exposed to hyperglycemia (>11 mM) for 17 days post transplantation by using a double islet transplantation mouse model as well as in human islets cultured with high glucose (HG) (20mM glucose) + LIGHT in vitro and this latter effect was attenuated by IL-22...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330027/selective-estrogen-receptor-modulator-ormeloxifene-suppresses-embryo-implantation-via-inducing-mir-140-and-targeting-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-in-rat-uterus
#14
Vijay K Sirohi, Kanchan Gupta, Rohit Kumar, Vinay Shukla, Anila Dwivedi
Ormeloxifene, the non-steroidal SERM contraceptive, inhibits endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation via countering nidatory estrogen. However, the molecular mechanism of ormeloxifene action responsible for its contraceptive efficacy still remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to identify the miRNAs modulated under the influence of ormeloxifene and to explore their role in endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. By doing microRNA sequencing analysis, a total of 168 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in uterine tissue of ormeloxifene-treated rats, on day 5 (10:00 h) of pregnancy i...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329354/palmitate-induced-er-stress-and-inhibition-of-protein-synthesis-in-cultured-myotubes-does-not-require-toll-like-receptor-4
#15
Ben D Perry, Jill A Rahnert, Yang Xie, Bin Zheng, Myra E Woodworth-Hobbs, S Russ Price
Saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, are elevated in metabolically dysfunctional conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus. Palmitate has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity and suppress protein synthesis while upregulating proteolytic systems in skeletal muscle. Increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response may contribute to the palmitate-induced impairment of muscle protein synthesis. In some cell types, ER stress occurs through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329158/expression-of-gastrin-family-peptides-in-pancreatic-islets-and-their-role-in-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-survival
#16
Dawood Khan, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Nigel Irwin, Peter R Flatt
OBJECTIVES: Modulation of cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors has been shown to influence pancreatic endocrine function. METHODS: We assessed the impact of the CCKA and CCKB receptor modulators, (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 and gastrin-17, respectively, on β-cell secretory function, proliferation and apoptosis and glucose tolerance, and investigating alterations of CCK and gastrin islet expression in diabetes. RESULTS: Initially, the presence of CCK and gastrin, and expression of their receptors were evidenced in β-cell lines and mouse islets...
January 12, 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328495/fucoidan-downregulates-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-receptor-levels-in-ht-29-human-colon-cancer-cells
#17
In-Hye Kim, Taek-Jeong Nam
Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide present in brown seaweed, has demonstrated anticancer activity in lung, breast, liver and colon cells. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway regulates growth in HT-29 cells through the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) and Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether fucoidan downregulates the IGF-IR signaling pathway in HT-29 human colon cancer cells...
January 4, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327400/a-vitamin-b12-conjugate-of-exendin-4-improves-glucose-tolerance-without-associated-nausea-or-hypophagia-in-rodents
#18
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Claudia G Liberini, Jayme L Workinger, Ron L Bonaccorso, Tito Borner, David J Reiner, Kieran Koch-Laskowski, Lauren E McGrath, Rinzin Lhamo, Lauren M Stein, Bart C De Jonghe, George G Holz, Christian L Roth, Robert P Doyle, Matthew R Hayes
AIMS: While pharmacological glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are FDA-approved for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity, a major side effect is nausea/malaise. We recently developed a conjugate of vitamin B12 bound to the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), which displays enhanced proteolytic stability and retention of GLP-1R agonism. Here, we evaluate whether the conjugate (B12-Ex4) can improve glucose tolerance without producing anorexia and malaise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of systemic B12-Ex4 and unconjugated Ex4 on food intake and body weight change, oral glucose tolerance, and nausea/malaise in male rats, and on intraperitoneal glucose tolerance in mice...
January 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325711/effects-of-cortisol-and-lipopolysaccharide-on-expression-of-select-growth-stress-and-immune-related-genes-in-rainbow-trout-liver
#19
Brian S Shepherd, Allyn R Spear, Anju M Philip, Douglas W Leaman, Carol A Stepien, Osvaldo J Sepulveda-Villet, Debra E Palmquist, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Many studies have shown that stress-induced cortisol levels negatively influence growth and immunity in finfish. Despite this knowledge, few studies have assessed the direct effects of cortisol on liver immune function in finfish. Using real-time PCR, the expression of three cortisol-responsive genes (GR: glucocorticoid receptor, IGF-1: insulin-like growth factor-I and SOCS-1: suppressor of cytokine signaling-I), genes involved with innate and adaptive immunity (IL-1β: interleukin-1 beta, IgM: immunoglobin-M and Lyz: lysozyme), and liver-specific antimicrobial peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2A: liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2A) were studied in vitro using rainbow trout liver slices...
January 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325553/sitagliptin-improved-glucose-assimilation-in-detriment-of-fatty-acid-utilization-in-experimental-type-ii-diabetes-role-of-glp-1-isoforms-in-glut4-receptor-trafficking
#20
E Ramírez, B Picatoste, A González-Bris, M Oteo, F Cruz, A Caro-Vadillo, J Egido, J Tuñón, M A Morcillo, Ó Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: The distribution of glucose and fatty-acid transporters in the heart is crucial for energy consecution and myocardial function. In this sense, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhancer, sitagliptin, improves glucose homeostasis but it could also trigger direct cardioprotective actions, including regulation of energy substrate utilization. METHODS: Type-II diabetic GK (Goto-Kakizaki), sitagliptin-treated GK (10 mg/kg/day) and wistar rats (n = 10, each) underwent echocardiographic evaluation, and positron emission tomography scanning for [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG)...
January 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
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