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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044351/surgical-management-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-an-incredibly-low-birth-weight-infant-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
A Zangari, C Noviello, S Nobili, G Cobellis, C Gulia, R Piergentili, S Gigli, V Carnielli
Survival of preterm infants have dramatically improved over the last decades. Nonetheless, infants born preterm remain vulnerable to many complications, including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). The severity of the disease and the mortality rate are directly correlated with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Despite surgical treatment mortality rate remains very high in extremely premature infants, especially in newborns at the lowest limit of viability. Survival of infants of birth weight (BW) below 750 g has been increasingly reported in recent years, however the overall mortality in extremely low "BW" infants (ELBW) requiring surgery for NEC has not decreased over the past years...
September 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039454/sox4-arrests-lung-development-in-rats-with-hyperoxia%C3%A2-induced-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-by-controlling-ezh2-expression
#2
Bingting Pan, Xindong Xue, Dan Zhang, Mengyun Li, Jianhua Fu
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is currently the most common severe complication in premature infants and is characterized by the arrest of alveolar and vascular growth. Alveolar type II cells play an important role in the pathological foundation of BPD. An association of BPD with epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in type II cells exposed to hyperoxia was previously identified. SOX4, a transcription factor that is indispensable to embryogenesis, including lung development, participates in regulating EMT and cell survival, affecting tumorigenesis...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039299/factors-associated-with-passive-immunity-transfer-in-dairy-calves-combined-effect-of-delivery-time-amount-and-quality-of-the-first-colostrum-meal
#3
I Lora, A Barberio, B Contiero, P Paparella, L Bonfanti, M Brscic, A L Stefani, F Gottardo
Despite the well-known importance of an adequate colostral immunoglobulin (Ig) transfer to calf health and survival, failed transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) remains a widespread problem in dairy farming. The aim of this study was to investigate the management factors associated with FTPI in newborn calves, evaluating particularly the combined effect of delivery time, amount and quality of the first colostrum meal. The study was conducted from March to August 2014 on 21 Italian dairy farms. Farmers were asked as first to answer a farm-level questionnaire on calf management...
October 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033614/fusion-of-lower-limbs-with-severe-urogenital-malformation-in-a-newborn-a-rare-congenital-clinical-syndrome-case-report
#4
Fatemah Al Hadhoud, Abeer H Kamal, Abdulmohsen Al Anjari, Michael Fe Diejomaoh
BACKGROUND: Fused lower limbs combined with severe urogenital malformation, also known as sirenomelia, is a rare congenital clinical syndrome. The etiology is unknown, and the outcome for the affected fetus is rather uncertain. CASE REPORT: Mrs RB, a Kuwaiti woman primigravida, married to a non-consanguineous husband, had uneventful antenatal care in a private health service, until she was admitted to the Maternity Hospital, Kuwait, at 31 weeks of gestation with a 3-hour history of ruptured membranes...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032021/clinical-characteristics-and-survival-outcomes-of-terminally-ill-patients-undergoing-withdrawal-of-mechanical-ventilation
#5
Yu-Shin Hung, Shu-Hui Lee, Chia-Yen Hung, Chao-Hui Wang, Chen-Yi Kao, Hung-Ming Wang, Wen-Chi Chou
BACKGROUND: Withdrawal of mechanical ventilation is an important, but rarely explored issue in Asia during end-of-life care. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and survival outcomes of terminally ill patients undergoing withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in Taiwan. METHODS: One-hundred-thirty-five terminally ill patients who had mechanical ventilation withdrawn between 2013 and 2016, from a medical center in Taiwan, were enrolled. Patients' clinical characteristics and survival outcomes after withdrawal of mechanical ventilation were analyzed...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024995/the-equity-impact-of-community-women-s-groups-to-reduce-neonatal-mortality-a-meta-analysis-of-four-cluster-randomized-trials
#6
Tanja A J Houweling, Caspar W N Looman, Kishwar Azad, Sushmita Das, Carina King, Abdul Kuddus, Sonia Lewycka, Dharma S Manandhar, Neena Sah More, Joanna Morrison, Tambosi Phiri, Shibanand Rath, Mikey Rosato, Aman Sen, Prasanta Tripathy, Audrey Prost, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in neonatal mortality are substantial in many developing countries. Little is known about how to address this problem. Trials in Asia and Africa have shown strong impacts on neonatal mortality of a participatory learning and action intervention with women's groups. Whether this intervention also reduces mortality inequalities remains unknown. We describe the equity impact of this women's groups intervention on the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) across socioeconomic strata...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021282/methionine-metabolism-is-essential-for-sirt1-regulated-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-maintenance-and-embryonic-development
#7
Shuang Tang, Yi Fang, Gang Huang, Xiaojiang Xu, Elizabeth Padilla-Banks, Wei Fan, Qing Xu, Sydney M Sanderson, Julie F Foley, Scotty Dowdy, Michael W McBurney, David C Fargo, Carmen J Williams, Jason W Locasale, Ziqiang Guan, Xiaoling Li
Methionine metabolism is critical for epigenetic maintenance, redox homeostasis, and animal development. However, the regulation of methionine metabolism remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that SIRT1, the most conserved mammalian NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, is critically involved in modulating methionine metabolism, thereby impacting maintenance of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and subsequent embryogenesis. We demonstrate that SIRT1-deficient mESCs are hypersensitive to methionine restriction/depletion-induced differentiation and apoptosis, primarily due to a reduced conversion of methionine to S-adenosylmethionine...
October 11, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021228/immune-reconstitution-and-survival-of-100-scid-patients-post-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-a-pidtc-natural-history-study
#8
Jennifer Heimall, Brent R Logan, Morton J Cowan, Luigi D Notarangelo, Linda M Griffith, Jennifer M Puck, Donald B Kohn, Michael A Pulsipher, Suhag Parikh, Caridad Martinez, Neena Kapoor, Richard O'Reilly, Michael Boyer, Sung-Yun Pai, Frederick Goldman, Lauri Burroughs, Sharat Chandra, Morris Kletzel, Monica Thakar, James Connelly, Geoff Cuvelier, Blachy Davila, Evan Shereck, Alan Knutsen, Kathleen E Sullivan, Kenneth DeSantes, Alfred Gillio, Elie Haddad, Aleksandra Petrovic, Troy Quigg, Angela R Smith, Elizabeth Stenger, Ziyan Yin, William T Shearer, Thomas Fleisher, Rebecca H Buckley, Christopher C Dvorak
The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is enrolling children with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) to a prospective natural history study. We analyzed patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from 2010-2014, including 68 with typical SCID and 32 with leaky SCID, Omenn Syndrome or Reticular Dysgenesis. Most (59%) were diagnosed by newborn screening or family history. The 2-year overall survival (OS) was 90%but was 95% for those infection-free at HCT vs...
October 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018332/the-beneficial-effects-of-melatonin-administration-following-hypoxia-ischemia-in-preterm-fetal-sheep
#9
Tamara Yawno, Mawin Mahen, Jingang Li, Michael C Fahey, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Melatonin (MLT) is an endogenous hormone that controls circadian cycle. MLT has additional important properties that make it appealing as a neuroprotective agent-it is a potent anti-oxidant, with anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. MLT is safe for administration during pregnancy or to the newborn after birth, and can reduce white matter brain injury under conditions of chronic fetal hypoxia. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined whether an intermediate dose of MLT could restore white matter brain development when administered after an acute hypoxic ischemic (HI) insult in preterm fetal sheep...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992728/use-of-ex-utero-intrapartum-treatment-procedure-in-fetal-neck-and-high-airway-anomalies-report-of-four-clinical-cases
#10
Jakub Kornacki, Jarosław Szydłowski, Jana Skrzypczak, Małgorzata Szczepańska, Marcin Rajewski, Agnieszka Koziołek, Michał Gaca, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska
We have presented four different cases of fetal neck or airway pathology which were indications for ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT), at our department. In three cases of fetal neck tumors, the primary precise antenatal diagnoses of tumors were confirmed after birth. The airways of all three fetuses were properly secured during EXIT by laryngologist. All these newborns survived. In the fourth case, a primary, antenatal diagnosis of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome due to severe trachea obstruction was not confirmed after birth...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984196/multitype-bellman-harris-branching-model-provides-biological-predictors-of-early-stages-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#11
Biao Li, Amanda Sierra, Juan Jose Deudero, Fatih Semerci, Andrew Laitman, Marek Kimmel, Mirjana Maletic-Savatic
BACKGROUND: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the process of formation of new neurons, occurs throughout life in the hippocampus. New neurons have been associated with learning and memory as well as mood control, and impaired neurogenesis has been linked to depression, schizophrenia, autism and cognitive decline during aging. Thus, understanding the biological properties of adult neurogenesis has important implications for human health. Computational models of neurogenesis have attempted to derive biologically relevant knowledge, hard to achieve using experimentation...
October 3, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983658/newborn-screening-for-biliary-atresia-in-the-united-states
#12
Cat Goodhue, Michael Fenlon, Kasper S Wang
Despite advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA), BA remains the most common cause of end-stage liver disease in children and the leading indication for pediatric liver transplantation. Age at time of Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE), performed to provide bile drainage, strongly correlates with transplant-free survival, mostly due to progression of intrahepatic fibrosis to cirrhosis. Unfortunately, challenges remain in recognizing that a jaundiced infant may have BA. To better diagnose infants with BA at an earlier age, population-based screening programs in countries such as Taiwan, Japan, and China have utilized stool color cards...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983455/long-term-cognitive-and-somatic-outcomes-of-enzyme-replacement-therapy-in-untransplanted-hurler-syndrome
#13
Julie B Eisengart, Jeanine Jarnes, Alia Ahmed, Igor Nestrasil, Richard Ziegler, Kathleen Delaney, Elsa Shapiro, Chester Whitley
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) was added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborn screening in 2016, highlighting recognition that early treatment of MPS I is critical to stem progressive, irreversible disease manifestations. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is an approved treatment for all MPS I phenotypes, but because the severe form (MPS IH, Hurler syndrome) involves rapid neurocognitive decline, the impermeable blood-brain-barrier is considered an obstacle for ERT. Instead, hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has long been recommended, as it is believed to be the only therapy that arrests neurocognitive decline...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981764/south-africa-goodstart-iii-trial-community-based-maternal-and-newborn-care-economic-analysis
#14
Emmanuelle Daviaud, Lungiswa Nkonki, Petrida Ijumba, Tanya Doherty, Joy E Lawn, Helen Owen, Debra Jackson, Mark Tomlinson
In light of South Africa's generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic coupled with high infant mortality, we undertook a cluster Randomized Control Trial (2008-10) assessing the effect of Community Health Worker (CHW) antenatal and postnatal home visits on, amongst other indicators, levels of HIV-free survival, and exclusive and appropriate infant feeding at 12 weeks. Cost and time implications were calculated, by assessing the 15 participating CHWs, using financial records, mHealth and interviews. Sustainability and scalability were assessed, enabling identification of health system issues...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981762/malawi-three-district-evaluation-community-based-maternal-and-newborn-care-economic-analysis
#15
Giulia Greco, Emmanuelle Daviaud, Helen Owen, Reuben Ligowe, Emmanuel Chimbalanga, Tanya Guenther, Nathalie Gamache, Evelyn Zimba, Joy E Lawn
Malawi is one of few low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa to have met the fourth Millennium Development Goal for child survival (MDG 4). To accelerate progress towards MDGs, the Malawi Ministry of Health's Reproductive Health Unit - in partnership with Save the Children, UNICEF and others - implemented a Community Based Maternal and Newborn Care (CBMNC) package, integrated within the existing community-based system. Multi-purpose Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) already employed by the local government were trained to conduct five core home visits...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975407/isolated-single-umbilical-artery-poses-neonates-at-increased-risk-of-long-term-respiratory-morbidity
#16
Ofer Beharier, Eyal Sheiner, Ruslan Sergienko, Daniela Landau, Irit Szaingurten-Solodkin, Asnat Walfisch
PURPOSE: To investigate whether children born with isolated single umbilical artery (iSUA) at term are at an increased risk for long-term pediatric hospitalizations due to respiratory morbidity. METHODS: Design: a population-based cohort study compared the incidence of long-term, pediatric hospitalizations due to respiratory morbidity in children born with and without iSUA at term. SETTING: Soroka University Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: all singleton pregnancies of women who delivered between 1991 and 2013...
October 3, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974122/activation-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-in-rat-brain-after-perinatal-anoxia-role-of-body-temperature
#17
Hanna Kletkiewicz, Malwina Hyjek, Krzysztof Jaworski, Anna Nowakowska, Justyna Rogalska
Transcriptional hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays the fundamental role in adaptive processes in response to hypoxia. Specific HIF-1α target genes are involved in glycolysis, erythropoiesis and angiogenesis to promote survival. In our previous study we have demonstrated that naturally low body temperature of newborn rats protects them against damage due to perinatal hypoxia. Therefore, our experiments aimed at checking the effects of body temperature during simulated perinatal anoxia on subsequent changes of expression of HIF-1α and its specific target genes such as VEGF and EPO in the rat brain...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973344/effect-of-inhaled-nitric-oxide-on-survival-without-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Shabih U Hasan, Jim Potenziano, Girija G Konduri, Jose A Perez, Krisa P Van Meurs, M Whit Walker, Bradley A Yoder
Importance: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) occurs in approximately 40% of infants born at younger than 30 weeks' gestation and is associated with adverse pulmonary and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Objective: To test whether administration of inhaled nitric oxide to preterm infants requiring positive pressure respiratory support on postnatal days 5 to 14 improves the rate of survival without BPD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This intent-to-treat study was a randomized clinical trial performed at 33 US and Canadian neonatal intensive care units...
September 25, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963059/caps2-deficiency-affects-environmental-enrichment-induced-adult-neurogenesis-and-differentiation-survival-of-newborn-neurons-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus
#19
Kaori Yagishita, Ritsuko Suzuki, Shota Mizuno, Ritsuko Katoh-Semba, Tetsushi Sadakata, Yoshitake Sano, Teiichi Furuichi, Yo Shinoda
Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is observed in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG), and is associated with hippocampal memory formation and several psychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) is a candidate gene related to ASD, and is highly expressed in the hippocampal DG region, with Caps2 knockout (KO) mice exhibiting ASD-like behavior. Accordingly, CAPS2 is potentially associated with hippocampal adult neurogenesis, the relationship between CAPS2 and adult neurogenesis has not yet been investigated...
September 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960296/comparative-anatomy-of-neonates-of-the-three-major-mammalian-groups-monotremes-marsupials-placentals-and-implications-for-the-ancestral-mammalian-neonate-morphotype
#20
Kirsten Ferner, Julia A Schultz, Ulrich Zeller
The existing different modes of reproduction in monotremes, marsupials and placentals are the main source for our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the mammalian reproduction. The reproductive strategies and, in particular, the maturity states of the neonates differ remarkably between the three groups. Monotremes, for example, are the only extant mammals that lay eggs and incubate them for the last third of their embryonic development. In contrast, marsupials and placentals are viviparous and rely on intra-uterine development of the neonates via choriovitelline (mainly marsupials) and chorioallantoic (mainly placentals) placentae...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
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