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Newborn survival

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627069/who-delivers-where-the-effect-of-obstetric-risk-on-facility-delivery-in-east-africa
#1
Sandra Virgo, Giorgia Gon, Francesca L Cavallaro, Wendy Graham, Susannah Woodd
OBJECTIVES: Skilled attendance at birth is key for the survival of pregnant women. This study investigates whether women at increased risk of maternal and newborn complications in four East African countries are more likely to deliver in a health facility than those at lower risk. METHODS: Demographic & Health Survey data for Kenya 2014, Rwanda 2014-15, Tanzania 2015-16 and Uganda 2011 were used to study women with a live birth in the three years preceding the survey...
June 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625760/multifetal-pregnancy-reduction-of-triplets-to-twins-compared-with-non-reduced-triplets-a-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Yaniv Zipori, Jigal Haas, Howard Berger, Eran Barzilay
The current systematic review and meta-analysis evaluate the perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies following multifetal pregnancy reduction (MPR) compared with non-reduced triplet pregnancies. All studies comparing perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies following MPR to non-reduced triplet pregnancies were considered. MEDLINE, non-indexed MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science were searched for relevant published articles up to August 2016. The search yielded 653 publications of which 92 were assessed for eligibility...
May 31, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623617/decrease-in-adult-neurogenesis-and-neuroinflammation-are-involved-in-spatial-memory-impairment-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-in-rats
#3
Taysa Bervian Bassani, Jéssica M Bonato, Meira M F Machado, Valentín Cóppola-Segovia, Eric L R Moura, Silvio M Zanata, Rúbia M M W Oliveira, Maria A B F Vital
Early impairments in cerebral glucose metabolism and insulin signaling pathways may participate in the pathogenesis of the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (sAD). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) are used to mimic sAD and study these alterations in rodents. Streptozotocin causes impairments in insulin signaling and has been reported to trigger several alterations in the brain, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and dysfunctions in adult neurogenesis, which may be involved in cognitive decline and are features of human AD...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622971/utilization-patterns-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-neonates-in-the-united-states-1997-2012
#4
Ashley Y Song, Hsuan-Hsiu Annie Chen, Rachel Chapman, Ameish Govindarajan, Jeffrey S Upperman, Rita V Burke, James Stein, Philippe S Friedlich, Ashwini Lakshmanan
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) remains one of the most intensive therapies for newborns in the United States. However, there is limited information on resource utilization for neonates receiving ECMO. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective data analysis of the Kids' Inpatient Database from 1997 to 2012. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was completed to identify predictors of LOS, hospital costs and mortality. Cardiac and non-cardiac diagnoses of neonates receiving ECMO were also included in the bivariate and multivariable analysis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622787/monitoring-of-the-newborn-dog-and-prediction-of-neonatal-mortality
#5
Hanna Mila, Aurélien Grellet, Marine Delebarre, Claire Mariani, Alexandre Feugier, Sylvie Chastant-Maillard
Despite the high neonatal mortality rate in puppies, pertinent criteria for health evaluation of the newborns are not defined. This study was thus designed to measure and to characterize factors of variation of six health parameters in dog neonates, and to evaluate their value as predictors of neonatal mortality. A total of 347 purebred puppies under identical conditions of housing and management were examined within the first 8h after birth and then at Day 1. The first health evaluation included Apgar score, weight, blood glucose, lactate and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration, rectal temperature and urine specific gravity (SG)...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620733/management-of-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-in-newborn-paradigm-shift-and-ethical-issues
#6
Sushmita Nitin Bhatnagar, Yogesh Kumar Sarin
Management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) begins soon after it is detected, whether antenatally or postnatally. Assessment of the severity of the condition, associated congenital anomalies, maternal health and related issues, weight of the fetus/baby, mode of delivery, timing of delivery, immediate appropriate management of the baby with CDH at birth, appropriate utilization of available treatment modalities as well as infrastructure of the treating institute have an impact on the outcome of the neonate...
June 16, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620388/trichinella-spiralis-calreticulin-binds-human-complement-c1q-as-an-immune-evasion-strategy
#7
Limei Zhao, Shuai Shao, Yi Chen, Ximeng Sun, Ran Sun, Jingjing Huang, Bin Zhan, Xinping Zhu
As a multicellular parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis regulates host immune responses by producing a variety of immunomodulatory molecules to escape from host immune attack, but the mechanisms underlying the immune evasion are not well understood. Here, we identified that T. spiralis calreticulin (Ts-CRT), a Ca(2+)-binding protein, facilitated T. spiralis immune evasion by interacting with the first component of human classical complement pathway, C1q. In the present study, Ts-CRT was found to be expressed on the surface of different developmental stages of T...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619605/the-prognostic-value-of-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-term-newborns-treated-with-therapeutic-hypothermia-following-asphyxia
#8
Paul E Sijens, Katharina Wischniowsky, Hendrik J Ter Horst
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to correlate brain metabolism assessed shortly after therapeutic hyperthermia by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS: At the age of 6.0±1.8days, brain metabolites of 35 term asphyxiated newborns, treated with therapeutic hypothermia, were quantified by multivoxel proton MRS of a volume cranial to the corpus callosum, containing both gray and white matter. At the age of 30months the Bayley Scale of Infant Development-III was performed...
June 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612523/-protective-effects-of-intraventricular-transplanted-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damages-in-rats
#9
Xue Fan, Xiao-Hong Bai, Juan Chen, Qian Wan, Qiang Chen, De-Zhi Mu
OBJECTIVES: To determine the therapeutic effect and protective mechanism of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) on newborn rats with hypoxia ischemic brain damage (HIBD). METHODS: Umbilical cord (3-4 cm) was collected from a healthy male infant for preparation of hUC-MSCs using explants technique. The hUC-MSCs were cultured and labeled with BrdU. The differentiation function of MSCs was identified. Healthy SPF grade neonatal SD rats were randomly divided into sham (n =30), HIBD (n =36) and hUC-MSCs treated HIBD (n =32) groups...
March 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611114/notch1-deficiency-in-postnatal-neural-progenitor-cells-in-the-dentate-gyrus-leads-to-emotional-and-cognitive-impairment
#10
Shufang Feng, Tianyao Shi, Jiangxia Qiu, Haihong Yang, Yan Wu, Wenxia Zhou, Wei Wang, Haitao Wu
It is well known that Notch1 signaling plays a crucial role in embryonic neural development and adult neurogenesis. The latest evidence shows that Notch1 also plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity in hippocampal mature neurons. So far, deeper insights into the function of Notch1 signaling during the different steps of adult neurogenesis are still lacking, and the mechanisms by which Notch1 dysfunction is associated with brain disorders are also poorly understood. In the current study, we found that Notch1 was highly expressed in the adult-born immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus...
June 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591145/successful-implementation-of-helping-babies-survive-and-helping-mothers-survive-programs-an-utstein-formula-for-newborn-and-maternal-survival
#11
Hege L Ersdal, Nalini Singhal, Georgina Msemo, Ashish Kc, Santorino Data, Nester T Moyo, Cherrie L Evans, Jeffrey Smith, Jeffrey M Perlman, Susan Niermeyer
Globally, the burden of deaths and illness is still unacceptably high at the day of birth. Annually, approximately 300.000 women die related to childbirth, 2.7 million babies die within their first month of life, and 2.6 million babies are stillborn. Many of these fatalities could be avoided by basic, but prompt care, if birth attendants around the world had the necessary skills and competencies to manage life-threatening complications around the time of birth. Thus, the innovative Helping Babies Survive (HBS) and Helping Mothers Survive (HMS) programs emerged to meet the need for more practical, low-cost, and low-tech simulation-based training...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588456/activity-dependent-modulation-of-granule-cell-survival-in-the-accessory-olfactory-bulb-at-puberty
#12
Livio Oboti, Sara Trova, Roberta Schellino, Marilena Marraudino, Natalie R Harris, Olubukola M Abiona, Mojca Stampar, Weihong Lin, Paolo Peretto
The vomeronasal system (VNS) is specialized in the detection of salient chemical cues triggering social and neuroendocrine responses. Such responses are not always stereotyped, instead, they vary depending on age, sex, and reproductive state, yet the mechanisms underlying this variability are unclear. Here, by analyzing neuronal survival in the first processing nucleus of the VNS, namely the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), through multiple bromodeoxyuridine birthdating protocols, we show that exposure of female mice to male soiled bedding material affects the integration of newborn granule interneurons mainly after puberty...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588354/pax6-binds-to-promoter-sequence-elements-associated-with-immunological-surveillance-and-energy-homeostasis-in-brain-of-aging-mice
#13
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
BACKGROUND: Patients having mutations of Pax6 bear phenotypes that match age-associated neurological disorders. Mutations affect most cellular functions such as cell division, growth, differentiation, and cell death in brain, eyes, pituitary, pineal, and pancreas. The progressive reduction in the level of Pax6 during aging has also been observed. However, information about downstream targets of Pax6 in brain is unclear. Therefore, it is presumed that age-dependent alterations of Pax6 may also affect cascades of promoter sequence recognition in brain during aging...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583603/influence-of-prenatal-maternal-corticosteroid-therapy-on-clinical-and-metabolic-features-and-pulmonary-function-of-preterm-newborn-puppies
#14
F M Regazzi, L C G Silva, C F Lúcio, G A L Veiga, D S R Angrimani, D Kishi, M M M Barbosa, C I Vannucchi
Although the effects of antenatal corticosteroid therapy in clinical improvement and pulmonary maturation in preterm have been described, little is known on premature newborn puppies. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal administration of a single dose of prenatal betamethasone on lung function of preterm newborn puppies in the first hours of life, especially from the clinical point of view and acid-base balance. A prospective study was conducted involving 21 puppies allocated into three experimental groups: Term Group (63 days post-ovulation), Preterm-Treated Group (57 days post-ovulation and maternal administration of a single dose of 0...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580610/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-endovascular-debanding-of-pulmonary-arteries-in-a-swine-model
#15
Michael Perez, Tk Susheel Kumar, Deepthi Hoskoppal, Yada Akkhawattanangkul, Kimberly Allen, Christopher J Knott-Craig, Benjamin Rush Waller, Shyam Sathanandam
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate that pulmonary artery (PA) debanding via cardiac catheterization using balloon angioplasty is feasible and safe in swine. The secondary objectives were to determine the acute and long-term effects of this therapy. DESIGN: This is a chronic survival experimental study in newborn swine. BACKGROUND: PA bands are used in infants for transient palliation of congenital heart defects with excessive pulmonary blood flow...
May 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577987/alcar-promote-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-by-regulating-cell-survival-and-cell-death-related-signals-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-like-phenotypes
#16
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sandeep Kumar Mishra, Shubha Shukla
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway that leading to progressive motor and nonmotor symptoms. The formation of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus is affected by many factors such as anxiety, depression and impairment in learning and memory that are commonly observed nonmotor symptoms in PD, indicating the role of adult neurogenesis in PD pathophysiology. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR), regulate mitochondrial metabolism and has been reported to improve cognitive functions in different neurodegenerative disorders through an unknown mechanism...
May 31, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560797/the-effects-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-deprivation-during-late-pregnancy-on-newborns-sleep
#17
B S Aswathy, Velayudhan M Kumar, Kamalesh K Gulia
Sleep deprivation during pregnancy is an emerging concern, as it can adversely affect the development of the offspring brain. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of deprivation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep during the third term of pregnancy on the sleep-wake profiles of neonates in the Wistar rat model. Sleep-wake patterns were assessed through electrophysiological measures and behavioural observations during postnatal days 1-21 on pups born to REM sleep-deprived dams and control rats. Pups of REM sleep-deprived dams had active sleep that was not only markedly higher in percentage during all the days studied, but also had reduced latency during later postnatal days 15-21...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555949/end-to-side-anastomosis-of-the-left-ventral-colon-to-the-small-colon-in-a-neonatal-foal-with-segmental-agenesis-of-the-large-colon
#18
S Biasutti, A J Dart, C M Dart, E Uquillas, L B Jeffcott
CASE REPORT: A newborn foal was referred for evaluation because it had not passed meconium, despite the administration of four enemas. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasound scans showed generalised gaseous distension of the intestine and there was no observable meconium in the colon. Positive contrast colography showed contrast medium extending to the transverse colon. An exploratory laparotomy confirmed the absence of the left and right dorsal colon and the pelvic and diaphragmatic flexures...
June 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555078/tau-dependent-suppression-of-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-stressed-hippocampus
#19
C Dioli, P Patrício, R Trindade, L G Pinto, J M Silva, M Morais, E Ferreiro, S Borges, A Mateus-Pinheiro, A J Rodrigues, N Sousa, J M Bessa, L Pinto, I Sotiropoulos
Stress, a well-known sculptor of brain plasticity, is shown to suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult brain; yet, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly investigated. Previous studies have shown that chronic stress triggers hyperphosphorylation and accumulation of the cytoskeletal protein Tau, a process that may impair the cytoskeleton-regulating role(s) of this protein with impact on neuronal function. Here, we analyzed the role of Tau on stress-driven suppression of neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus (DG) using animals lacking Tau (Tau-knockout; Tau-KO) and wild-type (WT) littermates...
May 30, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534763/paper-based-diagnostics-rethinking-conventional-sickle-cell-screening-to-improve-access-to-high-quality-health-care-in-resource-limited-settings
#20
Nathaniel Z Piety, Sergey S Shevkoplyas
Every year, hundreds of thousands of children worldwide are born with sickle cell disease, a genetic disorder that impacts the hemoglobin molecules in blood. If left undiagnosed and untreated, most affected children will die before reaching the age of five. However, highly accurate diagnostic methods and effective treatment regimens for sickle cell disease have been known for many years, and children who receive early diagnosis and subsequent comprehensive care survive well into adulthood-as evidenced by the tremendous success of universal newborn screening programs in North America and Europe...
May 2017: IEEE Pulse
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