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Remote Memory

Yutaka Imai
It has been confirmed that clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements (HBPM) is higher than clinic BP measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring. However, several drawbacks of HBPM have also been mentioned, e.g. selection and reporting biases, difficulties of calculation of multiple measurements, difficulties of onsite judgement of numerous recordings, etc. Recent devices for HBPM incorporate memory function. This function can overcome such drawbacks of HBPM. These memorized data can transmit, storage, retrieve, be arithmetic and control, be judged based on algorithm and be got feedback...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jens G Klinzing, Björn Rasch, Jan Born, Susanne Diekelmann
Sleep is known to support the consolidation of newly encoded and initially labile memories. Once consolidated, remote memories can return to a labile state upon reactivation and need to become reconsolidated in order to persist. Here we asked whether sleep also benefits the reconsolidation of remote memories after their reactivation and how reconsolidation during sleep compares to sleep-dependent consolidation processes. In three groups, participants were trained on a visuo-spatial learning task in the presence of a contextual odor...
October 6, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Syamal S Tallury, Behnam Pourdeyhimi, Melissa A Pasquinelli, Richard J Spontak
As emerging technologies continue to require diverse materials capable of exhibiting tunable stimuli-responsiveness, shape-memory materials are of considerable significance because they can change size and/or shape in controllable fashion upon environmental stimulation. Of particular interest, shape-memory polymers (SMPs) have secured a central role in the ongoing development of relatively lightweight and remotely deployable devices that can be further designed with specific surface properties. In the case of thermally-activated SMPs, two functional chemical species must be present to provide (i) an elastic network capable of restoring the SMP to a previous strain state and (ii) switching elements that either lock-in or release a temporary strain at a well-defined thermal transition...
October 6, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Hadley C Bergstrom
Memories of threatening, fear-evoking events can persist even over a lifetime. While fear memory is widely considered to be a highly persistent and durable form of memory, its circuits are not. This article reviews the dynamic temporal representation of remote fear memory in the brain, at the level of local circuits and distributed networks. Data from the study of Pavlovian cued fear conditioning suggests memory retrieval remains amygdala-dependent, even over protracted time scales, all the while interconnected cortical and subcortical circuits are newly recruited and progressively reorganized...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Serguei V S Pakhomov, Wrenda Teeple, Anne M Mills, Michael Kotlyar
Mild-to-moderate impairment in frontally mediated functions such as sustained attention, working memory, and inhibition have been found to occur during tobacco withdrawal and may present a barrier to successful cessation. These findings have led to studies evaluating cessation treatments that target nicotine withdrawal related cognitive impairment. The instruments currently used to assess cognitive function provide detailed and specific information but have limitations including being time consuming, cumbersome, anxiety provoking, and having poor ecological validity...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jaan Tulviste, Elkhonon Goldberg, Kenneth Podell, Talis Bachmann
We test the emerging hypothesis that prefrontal cortical mechanisms involved in non-veridical decision making do not overlap with those of veridical decision making. Healthy female subjects performed an experimental task assessing free choice, agent-centered decision making (The Cognitive Bias Task) and a veridical control task related to visuospatial working memory (the Moving Spot Task). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using 1 Hz and 10 Hz (intermittent) rTMS and sham protocols...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Adam J O Dede, Christine N Smith
It is well established that patients with memory impairment have more difficulty retrieving memories from the recent past relative to the remote past and that damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a key role in this pattern of impairment. The precise role of the MTL and how it may interact with other brain regions remains an area of active research. We investigated the role of structures in a memory network that supports remembering. Our chapter focuses on two types of memory: episodic memory and semantic memory...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Rie Ishikawa, Hotaka Fukushima, Paul W Frankland, Satoshi Kida
Forgetting of recent fear memory is promoted by treatment with memantine (MEM), which increases hippocampal neurogenesis. The approaches for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using rodent models have focused on the extinction and reconsolidation of recent, but not remote, memories. Here we show that, following prolonged re-exposure to the conditioning context, enhancers of hippocampal neurogenesis, including MEM, promote forgetting of remote contextual fear memory. However, these interventions are ineffective following shorter re-exposures...
2016: ELife
Yutaka Imai
It has been confirmed that clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements (HBPM) is higher than clinic BP measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring. However, several drawbacks of HBPM have also been mentioned, e.g. selection and reporting biases, difficulties of calculation of multiple measurements, difficulties of onsite judgement of numerous recordings, etc. Recent devices for HBPM incorporate memory function. This function can overcome such drawbacks of HBPM. These memorized data can transmit, storage, retrieve, be arithmetic and control, be judged based on algorithm and be got feedback...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Wen-Te Liao, Christoph H Keitel, Adriana Pálffy
Heralded entanglement between macroscopical samples is an important resource for present quantum technology protocols, allowing quantum communication over large distances. In such protocols, optical photons are typically used as information and entanglement carriers between macroscopic quantum memories placed in remote locations. Here we investigate theoretically a new implementation which employs more robust x-ray quanta to generate heralded entanglement between two crystal-hosted macroscopical nuclear ensembles...
2016: Scientific Reports
Margaret A Mariano, Kerri Tang, Matthew Kurtz, Wendy R Kates
AIM: Schizophrenia and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) share similar patterns of cognitive deficits. Up to 30% of those with 22q11DS develop schizophrenia during early adulthood. As cognitive decline has recently been found to predict onset of psychosis in adolescents with 22q11DS, early interventions such as cognitive remediation (CR) during adolescence are warranted. This paper investigates the durability of a remote, computerized, CR programme for youth with 22q11DS. Our aim was to determine if the positive effects of CR persisted 6 months beyond intervention completion...
September 15, 2016: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Pasha Ghazal
: It is now established that iteration of memory circuits takes place from hippocampus to cortical regions. The recall of recent event is largely dependent on the hippocampus networks, however, with passage of time, the cortical regions become largely involved in the recall of remote events. Molecular events, specifically, the AMPA receptor regulation underlying this iteration remains largely elusive. METHOD: Separate groups of mice were fear conditioned using contextual fear conditioning paradigm...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
Erin C Schafer, Suzanne Wright, Christine Anderson, Jessalyn Jones, Katie Pitts, Danielle Bryant, Melissa Watson, Jerrica Box, Melissa Neve, Lauren Mathews, Mary Pat Reed
The goal of this study was to conduct assistive technology evaluations on 12 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to evaluate the potential benefits of remote-microphone (RM) technology. A single group, within-subjects design was utilized to explore individual and group data from functional questionnaires and behavioral test measures administered, designed to assess school- and home-based listening abilities, once with and once without RM technology. Because some of the children were unable to complete the behavioral test measures, particular focus was given to the functional questionnaires completed by primary teachers, participants, and parents...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
Giovanni Lo Iacono, Andrew A Cunningham, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Robert F Garry, Donald S Grant, Melissa Leach, Lina M Moses, Gordon Nichols, John S Schieffelin, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Colleen T Webb, James L N Wood
A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: 'spillover', i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and 'stuttering transmission', i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Alice Pavlowsky, Emma Wallace, André A Fenton, Juan Marcos Alarcon
A widely accepted notion for a process underlying memory formation is that learning changes the efficacy of synapses by the mechanism of synaptic plasticity. While there is compelling evidence of changes in synaptic efficacy observed after learning, demonstration of persistent synaptic changes accompanying memory has been elusive. We report that acquisition of a hippocampus and long-term potentiation dependent memory for places persistently changes the function of CA1 synapses. Using extracellular recordings we measured CA3-CA1 and EC-CA1 synaptic responses and found robust changes in the CA3-CA1 pathway after memory training...
August 25, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
J Neylon, Y Min, P Kupelian, D A Low, A Santhanam
PURPOSE: In this paper, a multi-GPU cloud-based server (MGCS) framework is presented for dose calculations, exploring the feasibility of remote computing power for parallelization and acceleration of computationally and time intensive radiotherapy tasks in moving toward online adaptive therapies. METHODS: An analytical model was developed to estimate theoretical MGCS performance acceleration and intelligently determine workload distribution. Numerical studies were performed with a computing setup of 14 GPUs distributed over 4 servers interconnected by a 1 Gigabits per second (Gbps) network...
August 25, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Jin-Hyung Cho, Ben S Huang, Jesse M Gray
The stable formation of remote fear memories is thought to require neuronal gene induction in cortical ensembles that are activated during learning. However, the set of genes expressed specifically in these activated ensembles is not known; knowledge of such transcriptional profiles may offer insights into the molecular program underlying stable memory formation. Here we use RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression is enriched in activated cortical ensembles labeled during associative fear learning. We first establish that mouse temporal association cortex (TeA) is required for remote recall of auditory fear memories...
2016: Scientific Reports
Joshua K Carr, Neil M Fournier, Hugo Lehmann
We examined whether increasing retrieval difficulty in a spatial memory task would promote the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) similar to what is typically observed during remote memory retrieval. Rats were trained on the hidden platform version of the Morris Water Task and tested three or 30 d later. Retrieval difficulty was manipulated by removing several prominent extra-pool cues from the testing room. Immediate early gene expression (c-Fos) in the ACC was greater following the cue removal and comparable to remote memory retrieval (30-d retention interval) levels, supporting the view of increased ACC contribution during high cognitive-demand memory processes...
September 2016: Learning & Memory
Heng Zhou, Qixin Zhou, Lin Xu
RATIONALE: Contextual fear memory depends on the hippocampus, but the role of unilateral hippocampus in this type of memory remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: Herein, pharmacological inactivation or excitotoxic lesions were used to study the role of unilateral hippocampus in the stages of contextual fear memory. RESULTS: The pharmacological experiments revealed that compared with the control groups, unilateral hippocampal blockade did not impair 1-day recent memory following learning, whereas bilateral hippocampal blockade significantly impaired this memory...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
Jim Hopkins
The main concepts of the free energy (FE) neuroscience developed by Karl Friston and colleagues parallel those of Freud's Project for a Scientific Psychology. In Hobson et al. (2014) these include an innate virtual reality generator that produces the fictive prior beliefs that Freud described as the primary process. This enables Friston's account to encompass a unified treatment-a complexity theory-of the role of virtual reality in both dreaming and mental disorder. In both accounts the brain operates to minimize FE aroused by sensory impingements-including interoceptive impingements that report compliance with biological imperatives-and constructs a representation/model of the causes of impingement that enables this minimization...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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