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Remote Memory

Nannan Guo, Marta E Soden, Charlotte Herber, Michael TaeWoo Kim, Antoine Besnard, Paoyan Lin, Xiang Ma, Constance L Cepko, Larry S Zweifel, Amar Sahay
Memories become less precise and generalized over time as memory traces reorganize in hippocampal-cortical networks. Increased time-dependent loss of memory precision is characterized by an overgeneralization of fear in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or age-related cognitive impairments. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), memories are thought to be encoded by so-called 'engram-bearing' dentate granule cells (eDGCs). Here we show, using rodents, that contextual fear conditioning increases connectivity between eDGCs and inhibitory interneurons (INs) in the downstream hippocampal CA3 region...
March 12, 2018: Nature Medicine
John Prince, Siddharth Arora, Maarten De Vos
To better understand the longitudinal characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD) through the analysis of finger tapping and memory tests collected remotely using smartphones. 
 Approach: Using a large cohort (312 PD subjects and 236 controls) of participants in the mPower study, we extract clinically validated features from a finger tapping and memory test to monitor the longitudinal behaviour of study participants. We investigate any discrepancy in learning rates associated with motor and non-motor tasks between PD subjects and healthy controls...
March 8, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Zsolt Beda, Steven M Smith
Two experiments tested the red herring retrieval hypothesis, which states that fixation in creative problem solving is worse when memory for red herrings (i.e., inappropriate or incorrect solutions) is strengthened. In Experiment 1, when associations between Remote Associates Test (RAT) problem words (e.g., COTTAGE, SWISS, CAKE) and related red herring words (e.g., hut, chocolate, icing) were strengthened via repetition, an encoding variable, fixation was found to increase. In Experiment 2, when associations were formed between RAT problem contexts and red herrings, then subsequent reinstatement of problem contexts during RAT problem solving trials (as compared with showing new contexts) also worsened fixation effects...
March 7, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Jian-Xing Wu, Ping-Tzan Huang, Chia-Hung Lin, Chien-Ming Li
Blood leakage and blood loss are serious life-threatening complications occurring during dialysis therapy. These events have been of concerns to both healthcare givers and patients. More than 40% of adult blood volume can be lost in just a few minutes, resulting in morbidities and mortality. The authors intend to propose the design of a warning tool for the detection of blood leakage/blood loss during dialysis therapy based on fog computing with an array of photocell sensors and heteroassociative memory (HAM) model...
February 2018: Healthcare Technology Letters
Matthew O'Toole, David B Lindell, Gordon Wetzstein
How to image objects that are hidden from a camera's view is a problem of fundamental importance to many fields of research, with applications in robotic vision, defence, remote sensing, medical imaging and autonomous vehicles. Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) imaging at macroscopic scales has been demonstrated by scanning a visible surface with a pulsed laser and a time-resolved detector. Whereas light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems use such measurements to recover the shape of visible objects from direct reflections, NLOS imaging reconstructs the shape and albedo of hidden objects from multiply scattered light...
March 15, 2018: Nature
Ana Paula Crestani, Rodrigo Ordoñez Sierra, Adriano Machado, Josué Haubrich, Krislei Martin Scienza, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares, Jorge Alberto Quillfeldt
The requirement of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activity for memory formation is well described. However, the plasticity mechanisms for memory can be modified by experience, such that a future similar learning becomes independent of NMDARs. This effect has often been reported in learning events conducted with a few days interval. In this work, we asked whether the NMDAR-independency is permanent or the brain regions and plasticity mechanisms of experience-dependent learning may change over time. Considering that contextual memories undergo a gradual reorganization over time, becoming progressively independent from the hippocampus and dependent upon cortical regions, we investigated the brain regions mediating a new related learning conducted at a remote time-point, when the first memory was already cortically established...
February 28, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Hanhan Xie, Jundong Shao, Yufei Ma, Jiahong Wang, Hao Huang, Na Yang, Huaiyu Wang, Changshun Ruan, Yanfeng Luo, Qu-Quan Wang, Paul K Chu, Xue-Feng Yu
In this paper, we propose a new shape memory polymer (SMP) composite with excellent near-infrared (NIR)-photoresponsive shape memory performance and biodegradability. The composite is fabricated by using piperazine-based polyurethane (PU) as thermo-responsive SMP incorporated with black-phosphorus (BP) sheets as NIR photothermal nanofillers. Under 808 nm light irradiation, the incorporated BP sheets with concentration of only 0.08 wt% enable rapid temperature increase over the glass temperature of PU and trigger the shape change of the composite with shape recovery rate of ∼100%...
February 20, 2018: Biomaterials
Raphael Vallat, Benoit Chatard, Mark Blagrove, Perrine Ruby
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185262.].
2018: PloS One
Aijing Gao, Frances Xia, Axel Guskjolen, Adam I Ramsaran, Adam Santoro, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Throughout life neurons are continuously generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. The subsequent integration of newly-generated neurons alters patterns of dentate gyrus input and output connectivity, potentially rendering memories already stored in those circuits harder to access. Consistent with this prediction, we previously showed that increasing hippocampal neurogenesis after training induces forgetting of hippocampus-dependent memories, including contextual fear memory. However, the brain regions supporting contextual fear memories change with time, and this time-dependent memory reorganization might regulate the sensitivity of contextual fear memories to fluctuations in hippocampal neurogenesis...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Martin Marko, Igor Riečanský
Cognitive flexibility emerges from an interplay of multiple cognitive systems, of which lexical-semantic and executive are thought to be the most important. Yet this has not been addressed by previous studies demonstrating that such forms of flexible thought deteriorate under stress. Motivated by these shortcomings, the present study evaluated several candidate mechanisms implied to mediate the impairing effects of stress on flexible thinking. Fifty-seven healthy adults were randomly assigned to psychosocial stress or control condition while assessed for performance on cognitive flexibility, working memory capacity, semantic fluency, and self-reported cognitive interference...
May 2018: Cognition
Katharine S Baker, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Amit Lampit, Michael Valenzuela, Stephen J Gibson, Melita J Giummarra
Chronic pain is associated with reduced efficiency of cognitive performance, and few studies have investigated methods of remediation. We trialled a computerised cognitive training protocol to determine whether it could attenuate cognitive difficulties in a chronic pain sample. Thirty-nine adults with chronic pain (mean age = 43.3, 61.5% females) were randomised to an 8-week online course (3 sessions/week from home) of game-like cognitive training exercises, or an active control involving watching documentary videos...
January 11, 2018: Pain
Georgia Abate, Sandra Colazingari, Alessandra Accoto, David Conversi, Arturo Bevilacqua
Memory consolidation is a dynamic process that involves a sequential remodeling of hippocampal-cortical circuits. Although synaptic events underlying memory consolidation are well assessed, fine molecular events controlling this process deserve further characterization. To this aim, we challenged male C57BL/6N mice in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) paradigm and tested their memory 24 h, 7 days or 36 days later. Mice displayed a strong fear response at all time points with an increase in dendritic spine density and protein levels of the cell adhesion factor EphrinB2 in CA1 hippocampal neurons 24 h and 7 days post conditioning (p...
February 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Shuo Chen, Adam Z Weitemier, Xiao Zeng, Linmeng He, Xiyu Wang, Yanqiu Tao, Arthur J Y Huang, Yuki Hashimotodani, Masanobu Kano, Hirohide Iwasaki, Laxmi Kumar Parajuli, Shigeo Okabe, Daniel B Loong Teh, Angelo H All, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Kenji F Tanaka, Xiaogang Liu, Thomas J McHugh
Optogenetics has revolutionized the experimental interrogation of neural circuits and holds promise for the treatment of neurological disorders. It is limited, however, because visible light cannot penetrate deep inside brain tissue. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) absorb tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light and emit wavelength-specific visible light. Here, we demonstrate that molecularly tailored UCNPs can serve as optogenetic actuators of transcranial NIR light to stimulate deep brain neurons. Transcranial NIR UCNP-mediated optogenetics evoked dopamine release from genetically tagged neurons in the ventral tegmental area, induced brain oscillations through activation of inhibitory neurons in the medial septum, silenced seizure by inhibition of hippocampal excitatory cells, and triggered memory recall...
February 9, 2018: Science
Anna R Egbert, Bharat Biswal, Keerthana Karunakaran, Suril Gohel, Agnieszka Pluta, Tomasz Wolak, Bogna Szymańska, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Marta Sobańska, Natalia Gawron, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Anna Ścińska-Bieńkowska, Robert Bornstein, Stephen Rao, Emilia Łojek
This study examined the effects of age and HIV infection on the resting state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) of the brain and cognitive functioning. The objective was to evaluate the moderating role of age and HIV on the relationship between RS-FC and cognition. To examine RS-FC we implemented the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Regional Homogeneity (ReHo). Neurocognition was evaluated with comprehensive battery of standardized neuropsychological tests. Age and HIV were entered as the independent variables...
February 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Dilip Verma, Ramon Tasan, Guenther Sperk, Hans-Christian Pape
The anterior bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is involved in reinstatement of extinguished fear, and neuropeptide Y2 receptors influence local synaptic signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that Y2 receptors in anteroventral BNST (BNSTav) interfere with remote fear memory and that previous fear extinction is an important variable. C57BL/6NCrl mice were fear-conditioned, and a Y2 receptor-specific agonist (NPY3-36) or antagonist (JNJ-5207787) was applied in BNSTav before fear retrieval at the following day...
February 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Xuan Li, Guang-Yan Wu, Juan Yao, Yi Yang, Jian-Ning Ye, Jian-Feng Sui
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been widely investigated for its roles in learning and memory. The present study investigated the time-limited involvement of the caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) of the mPFC in the retrieval process for a simple associative motor learning, trace eyeblink conditioning (tEBC), using a 75 dB or 100 dB tone as the conditioned stimulus (CS). The GABAA receptor agonist muscimol was injected into the cACC of guinea pigs at 1 day or 4 weeks after tEBC acquisition. When muscimol was administered 1 day after tEBC acquisition, the conditioned response (CR) of the 75 dB group was severely impaired, whereas the CR of the 100 dB group exhibited no significant change relative to the control...
2018: PloS One
Zimbul Albo, Johannes Gräff
Long-lasting memories form the basis of our identity as individuals and lie central in shaping future behaviours that guide survival. Surprisingly, however, our current knowledge of how such memories are stored in the brain and retrieved, as well as the dynamics of the circuits involved, remains scarce despite seminal technical and experimental breakthroughs in recent years. Traditionally, it has been proposed that, over time, information initially learnt in the hippocampus is stored in distributed cortical networks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Amy J Mikolajewski, Michael S Scheeringa
Previous studies have examined the concurrent relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a range of psychophysiological variables, including respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). However, there is a lack of research examining the prospective development of trauma symptomatology, and the directionality of the association between RSA level and PTSD has yet to be determined. The current study is the first prospective study to examine whether RSA level and RSA reactivity are risk factors for PTSD symptoms in children...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Tim A M Bouwens van der Vlis, Olaf E M G Schijns, Frédéric L W V J Schaper, Govert Hoogland, Pieter Kubben, Louis Wagner, Rob Rouhl, Yasin Temel, Linda Ackermans
Despite the use of first-choice anti-epileptic drugs and satisfactory seizure outcome rates after resective epilepsy surgery, a considerable percentage of patients do not become seizure free. ANT-DBS may provide for an alternative treatment option in these patients. This literature review discusses the rationale, mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ANT-DBS in drug-resistant epilepsy patients. A review using systematic methods of the available literature was performed using relevant databases including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library pertaining to the different aspects ANT-DBS...
January 6, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Anna Schorr, Christy Carter, Warren Ladiges
Physical resilience is the ability of an organism to respond to stressors that acutely disrupt normal physiological homeostasis. By definition, resilience decreases with increasing age, while frailty, defined as a decline in tissue function, increases with increasing age. Assessment of resilience could therefore be an informative early paradigm to predict healthy aging compared to frailty, which measures late life dysfunction. Parameters for resilience in the laboratory mouse are not yet well defined, and no single standardized stress test exists...
2018: Pathobiology of Aging & Age related Diseases
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