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Remote Memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077515/medial-prefrontal-cortex-pontine-nuclei-projections-modulate-suboptimal-cue-induced-associative-motor-learning
#1
Guang-Yan Wu, Shu-Lei Liu, Juan Yao, Lin Sun, Bing Wu, Yi Yang, Xuan Li, Qian-Quan Sun, Hua Feng, Jian-Feng Sui
Diverse and powerful mechanisms have evolved to enable organisms to modulate learning and memory under a variety of survival conditions. Cumulative evidence has shown that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is closely involved in many higher-order cognitive functions. However, when and how the medial PFC (mPFC) modulates associative motor learning remains largely unknown. Here, we show that delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC) with the weak conditioned stimulus (wCS) but not the strong CS (sCS) elicited a significant increase in the levels of c-Fos expression in caudal mPFC...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032685/the-dynamics-of-memory-consolidation-of-landmarks
#2
Janneke van Ekert, Joost Wegman, Clemens Jansen, Atsuko Takashima, Gabriele Janzen
Navigating through space is fundamental to human nature and requires the ability to retrieve relevant information from the remote past. With the passage of time, some memories become generic, capturing only a sense of familiarity. Yet, others maintain precision, even when acquired decades ago. Understanding the dynamics of memory consolidation is a major challenge to neuroscientists. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we systematically examined the effects of time and spatial context on the neural representation of landmark recognition memory...
December 29, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025069/does-reactivation-trigger-episodic-memory-change-a-meta-analysis
#3
Iiona D Scully, Lucy E Napper, Almut Hupbach
According to the reconsolidation hypothesis, long-term memories return to a plastic state upon their reactivation, leaving them vulnerable to interference effects and requiring re-storage processes or else these memories might be permanently lost. The present study used a meta-analytic approach to critically evaluate the evidence for reactivation-induced changes in human episodic memory. Results indicated that reactivation makes episodic memories susceptible to physiological and behavioral interference. When applied shortly after reactivation, interference manipulations altered the amount of information that could be retrieved from the original learning event...
December 23, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019138/age-differences-in-perceptions-of-memory-strategy-effectiveness-for-recent-and-remote-memory
#4
Tara T Lineweaver, Michelle Horhota, Jessica Crumley, Catherine T Geanon, Jacqueline J Juett
We examined whether young and older adults hold different beliefs about the effectiveness of memory strategies for specific types of memory tasks and whether memory strategies are perceived to be differentially effective for young, middle-aged, and older targets. Participants rated the effectiveness of five memory strategies for 10 memory tasks at three target ages (20, 50, and 80 years old). Older adults did not strongly differentiate strategy effectiveness, viewing most strategies as similarly effective across memory tasks...
December 26, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997104/direct-write-fabrication-of-4d-active-shape-changing-structures-based-on-a-shape-memory-polymer-and-its-nanocomposite
#5
Hongqiu Wei, Qiwei Zhang, Yongtao Yao, Liwu Liu, Yanju Liu, Jinsong Leng
Four-dimensional (4D) active shape-changing structures based on shape memory polymers (SMPs) and shape memory nanocomposites (SMNCs) are able to be controlled in both space and time and have attracted increasing attention worldwide. However, conventional processing approaches have restricted the design space of such smart structures. Herein, 4D active shape-changing architectures in custom-defined geometries exhibiting thermally and remotely actuated behaviors are achieved by direct-write printing of ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking poly(lactic acid)-based inks...
December 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989514/the-effect-of-cortisol-on-autobiographical-memory-retrieval-depends-on-remoteness-and-valence-of-memories
#6
Juliane Fleischer, Juliane Weber, Julian Hellmann-Regen, Moritz Düsenberg, Oliver T Wolf, Christian Otte, Katja Wingenfeld
There is evidence that specificity of autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval is impaired by cortisol. However, it is unknown whether glucocorticoids differentially influence the retrieval of recent versus remote AMs. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of cortisol on AM retrieval, in terms of memory specificity, with respect to remoteness of the retrieved memories. A placebo controlled, double blind study was conducted. Thirty female and 24 male healthy participants (mean age 24...
December 15, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981535/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-provides-neuroprotection-impact-on-ketamine-induced-neuroapoptosis-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#7
W Ma, Y-Y Cao, S Qu, S-S Ma, J-Z Wang, L-Q Deng, W-J Yuan, J-H Meng
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated that the commonly used anesthetic ketamine can acutely increase apoptosis and have long-lasting detrimental effects on cognitive function as the animal matures. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been confirmed to have a cerebral protective role in animal models of brain damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RIPC can protect the developing brain from anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the protective properties of RIPC, 60 new-born Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly allocated into four groups: ketamine (20 mg/kg was diluted in saline, six times at an interval of 2 hours); RIPC (left hind row ischemia 5 min, reperfusion 5 min, a total of four cycles); ketamine + RIPC: RIPC was induced at postnatal day 5 and rats underwent the same treatment with the ketamine group after 48 hours; and saline (group vehicle)...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980075/effects-of-context-preexposure-and-delay-until-anxiety-retrieval-on-generalization-of-contextual-anxiety
#8
Marta Andreatta, Dorothea Neueder, Evelyn Glotzbach-Schoon, Andreas Mühlberger, Paul Pauli
Animal studies suggest that time delay between acquisition and retrieval of contextual anxiety increases generalization. Moreover, such generalization is prevented by preexposure to the context (CTX), presumably due to an improved representation of such context. We investigated whether preexposure and time-passing modulate generalization of contextual anxiety, in humans. On Day 1, 42 participants (preexposure group) explored two virtual offices, while 41 participants (no-preexposure group) explored a virtual stadium...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960195/propositional-density-in-spoken-and-written-language-of-czech-speaking-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Filip Smolík, Hana Stepankova, Martin Vyhnálek, Tomáš Nikolai, Karolína Horáková, Štepán Matejka
Purpose: Propositional density (PD) is a measure of content richness in language production that declines in normal aging and more profoundly in dementia. The present study aimed to develop a PD scoring system for Czech and use it to compare PD in language productions of older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and control participants matched on age, gender, and education. Method: Groups of patients with aMCI and cognitively healthy control participants (N = 20 each) provided short spoken and written language samples...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940145/m1-muscarinic-receptors-are-necessary-for-retrieval-of-remote-context-fear-memory
#10
Rafael Rodisanski Patricio, Juliana Carlota Kramer Soares, Maria Gabriela Menezes Oliveira
Several studies have investigated the transition of consolidation of recent memory to remote memory in aversively motivated tasks, such as contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and inhibitory avoidance (IA). However, the mechanisms that serve the retrieval of remote memories, has not yet been fully understood. Some evidences suggest that the central cholinergic system appears be involved in the modulation of these processes. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of a pre-test administration of dicyclomine, a high-affinity M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist, on the retrieval of remote memories in fear conditioning and IA tasks...
February 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936848/memory-inhibition-as-a-critical-factor-preventing-creative-problem-solving
#11
Carlos J Gómez-Ariza, Francesco Del Prete, Laura Prieto Del Val, Tania Valle, M Teresa Bajo, Angel Fernandez
The hypothesis that reduced accessibility to relevant information can negatively affect problem solving in a remote associate test (RAT) was tested by using, immediately before the RAT, a retrieval practice procedure to hinder access to target solutions. The results of 2 experiments clearly showed that, relative to baseline, target words that had been competitors during selective retrieval were much less likely to be provided as solutions in the RAT, demonstrating that performance in the problem-solving task was strongly influenced by the predetermined accessibility status of the solutions in memory...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935906/cognitive-dysfunctions-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-syndrome-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-kathmandu
#12
S Adhikari, M Rana, S Shakya, S P Ojha
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol dependence is a chronic disorder, accompanied by neuropsychological deficits. Patients with alcohol dependence were evaluated to identify the cognitive dysfunctions. METHODS: The study followed descriptive design and recruited participants (N=62) from inpatient services of the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health by convenient sampling. Participants were evaluated with the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, Frontal Assessment Battery and PGI Memory Scale for the severity of alcohol dependence, executive impairments and memory dysfunctions respectively once they had completed alcohol detoxification...
January 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934764/gliogenic-ltp-spreads-widely-in-nociceptive-pathways
#13
M T Kronschläger, R Drdla-Schutting, M Gassner, S D Honsek, H L Teuchmann, J Sandkühler
Learning and memory formation involve long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength. A fundamental feature of LTP induction in the brain is the need for coincident pre- and postsynaptic activity. This restricts LTP expression to activated synapses only (homosynaptic LTP) and leads to its input specificity. In the spinal cord, we discovered a fundamentally different form of LTP that is induced by glial cell activation and mediated by diffusible, extracellular messengers, including d-serine and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and that travel long distances via the cerebrospinal fluid, thereby affecting susceptible synapses at remote sites...
December 2, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929507/evaluation-of-digital-radiography-practice-using-exposure-index-tracking
#14
Alexander W Scott, Yifang Zhou, Janet Allahverdian, Jessica L Nute, Christina Lee
Some digital radiography (DR) detectors and software allow for remote download of exam statistics, including image reject status, body part, projection, and exposure index (EI). The ability to have automated data collection from multiple DR units is conducive to a quality control (QC) program monitoring institutional radiographic exposures. We have implemented such a QC program with the goal to identify outliers in machine radiation output and opportunities for improvement in radiation dose levels. We studied the QC records of four digital detectors in greater detail on a monthly basis for one year...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918283/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-act-in-synergy-to-facilitate-learning-and-memory
#15
Katherine Leaderbrand, Helen J Chen, Kevin A Corcoran, Anita L Guedea, Vladimir Jovasevic, Jurgen Wess, Jelena Radulovic
Understanding how episodic memories are formed and retrieved is necessary if we are to treat disorders in which they malfunction. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the hippocampus and cortex underlie memory formation, but there is conflicting evidence regarding their role in memory retrieval. Additionally, there is no consensus on which mAChR subtypes are critical for memory processing. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we found that (1) encoding and retrieval of contextual memory requires mAChR in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), (2) memory formation requires hippocampal M3 and cooperative activity of RSC M1 and M3, and (3) memory retrieval is more impaired by inactivation of multiple M1-M4 mAChR in DH or RSC than inactivation of individual receptor subtypes...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905080/a-neural-model-of-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-consolidation-adaptively-timed-conditioning-hippocampus-amnesia-neurotrophins-and-consciousness
#16
Daniel J Franklin, Stephen Grossberg
How do the hippocampus and amygdala interact with thalamocortical systems to regulate cognitive and cognitive-emotional learning? Why do lesions of thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex have differential effects depending on the phase of learning when they occur? In particular, why is the hippocampus typically needed for trace conditioning, but not delay conditioning, and what do the exceptions reveal? Why do amygdala lesions made before or immediately after training decelerate conditioning while those made later do not? Why do thalamic or sensory cortical lesions degrade trace conditioning more than delay conditioning? Why do hippocampal lesions during trace conditioning experiments degrade recent but not temporally remote learning? Why do orbitofrontal cortical lesions degrade temporally remote but not recent or post-lesion learning? How is temporally graded amnesia caused by ablation of prefrontal cortex after memory consolidation? How are attention and consciousness linked during conditioning? How do neurotrophins, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), influence memory formation and consolidation? Is there a common output path for learned performance? A neural model proposes a unified answer to these questions that overcome problems of alternative memory models...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886529/autobiographical-and-episodic-memory-deficits-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Jeffrey D Wammes, Tyler J Good, Myra A Fernandes
Those who have suffered a concussion, otherwise known as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), often complain of lingering memory problems. However, there is little evidence in the behavioral literature reliably demonstrating memory deficits. Thus, in the present study, cognitive profiles including measures of general executive functioning and processing speed, as well as episodic and semantic memory were collected in younger and older adult participants with or without a remote (>1year prior to testing) mTBI...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886166/generation-of-single-photons-with-highly-tunable-wave-shape-from-a-cold-atomic-ensemble
#18
Pau Farrera, Georg Heinze, Boris Albrecht, Melvyn Ho, Matías Chávez, Colin Teo, Nicolas Sangouard, Hugues de Riedmatten
The generation of ultra-narrowband, pure and storable single photons with widely tunable wave shape is an enabling step toward hybrid quantum networks requiring interconnection of remote disparate quantum systems. It allows interaction of quantum light with several material systems, including photonic quantum memories, single trapped ions and opto-mechanical systems. Previous approaches have offered a limited tuning range of the photon duration of at most one order of magnitude. Here we report on a heralded single photon source with controllable emission time based on a cold atomic ensemble, which can generate photons with temporal durations varying over three orders of magnitude up to 10 μs without a significant change of the readout efficiency...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847490/neural-correlates-of-learning-from-induced-insight-a-case-for-reward-based-episodic-encoding
#19
Jasmin M Kizilirmak, Hannes Thuerich, Kristian Folta-Schoofs, Björn H Schott, Alan Richardson-Klavehn
Experiencing insight when solving problems can improve memory formation for both the problem and its solution. The underlying neural processes involved in this kind of learning are, however, thus far insufficiently understood. Here, we conceptualized insight as the sudden understanding of a novel relationship between known stimuli that fits into existing knowledge and is accompanied by a positive emotional response. Hence, insight is thought to comprise associative novelty, schema congruency, and intrinsic reward, all of which are separately known to enhance memory performance...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829317/personal-semantic-and-episodic-autobiographical-memories-in-korsakoff-syndrome-a-comparison-of-interview-methods
#20
Yvonne C M Rensen, Roy P C Kessels, Ellen M Migo, Arie J Wester, Paul A T M Eling, Michael D Kopelman
OBJECTIVE: The temporal gradient in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome has been of particular interest in the literature, as many studies have found evidence for a steep temporal gradient, but others have observed more uniform remote memory impairment across all past time periods. Inconsistencies might be the result of the nature of remote memory impairment under study (i.e., nonpersonal or autobiographical memory) and of methodological differences in the examination of remote memory loss...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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