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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933671/causal-inference-in-obesity-research
#1
REVIEW
P W Franks, N Atabaki-Pasdar
Obesity is a risk factor for a plethora of severe morbidities and premature death. Most supporting evidence comes from observational studies that are prone to chance, bias and confounding. Even data on the protective effects of weight loss from randomized controlled trials will be susceptible to confounding and bias if treatment assignment cannot be masked, which is usually the case with lifestyle and surgical interventions. Thus, whilst obesity is widely considered the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, its causes and consequences are often difficult to determine...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933575/-fast-acting-insulin-new-developments-towards-more-flexibility-for-the-patient
#2
Gerhard W Schmeisl, Yasmin Kretzschmar
BACKGROUND: Post-prandial insulin secretion occurs under physiological conditions very fast and in adequate concentrations. This mechanism is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe increases of postprandial glucose levels may occur. In order to achieve physiological conditions and to avoid postprandial hyperglycemia, exogenous insulin and insulin analogues should be absorbed very fast and appropriate maximum concentrations should be reached very quickly. METHOD: Overview RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The development of new bolus insulins is focused on improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties...
December 2016: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933333/discriminatory-ability-of-simple-ogtt-based-beta-cell-function-indices-for-prediction-of-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-the-codam-study
#3
Louise J C J den Biggelaar, Simone J S Sep, Simone J P M Eussen, Andrea Mari, Ele Ferrannini, Marleen M J van Greevenbroek, Carla J H van der Kallen, Casper G Schalkwijk, Coen D A Stehouwer, Pieter C Dagnelie
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The hyperglycaemic clamp technique and the frequently sampled IVGTT are unsuitable techniques to assess beta cell function (BCF) in large cohorts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminatory ability of simple OGTT-based BCF indices for prediction of prediabetes (meaning impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Glucose metabolism status was assessed by 2 h 75 g OGTT at baseline (n = 476, mean age 59...
December 8, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933201/association-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-liver-histology-among-nafld-patients-without-diabetes
#4
Pushpjeet Kanwar, James E Nelson, Katherine Yates, David E Kleiner, Aynur Unalp-Arida, Kris V Kowdley
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this observational study was to examine the relationship of MetS and a diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients without diabetes in the NASH Clinical Research Network (CRN). METHODS: Clinical, demographic, histological, laboratory and anthropometric data were collected on 356 adult patients without diabetes with NAFLD. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933189/insulin-resistance-of-protein-anabolism-accompanies-that-of-glucose-metabolism-in-lean-glucose-tolerant-offspring-of-persons-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
Sergio A Burgos, Vikram Chandurkar, Michael A Tsoukas, Stéphanie Chevalier, José A Morais, Marie Lamarche, Errol B Marliss
OBJECTIVE: To test whether protein anabolic resistance is an early defect in type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven lean, normoglycemic T2D offspring (T2D-O) and eight matched participants without family history (controls; C) underwent a 3-hour hyperinsulinemic (40 mU/m(2)/min), euglycemic (5.5 mmol/L) and isoaminoacidemic clamp. Whole-body glucose and protein kinetics were measured with d-[3-(3)H]glucose and l-[l-(13)C]leucine, respectively...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933186/effect-of-type-and-amount-of-dietary-carbohydrate-on-biomarkers-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-c-reactive-protein-in-overweight-or-obese-adults-results-from-the-omnicarb-trial
#6
Stephen P Juraschek, Edgar R Miller, Elizabeth Selvin, Vincent J Carey, Lawrence J Appel, Robert H Christenson, Frank M Sacks
OBJECTIVE: The glycemic index (GI) of dietary carbohydrate is thought to affect glucose homeostasis. Recently, the Effect of Amount and Type of Dietary Carbohydrates on Risk for Cardiovascular Heart Disease and Diabetes Study (OmniCarb) trial reported that a low-GI diet did not improve insulin sensitivity. We conducted this ancillary study of the OmniCarb trial to determine the effects of GI and carbohydrate content on glucose homeostasis and inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: OmniCarb was a randomized cross-over feeding study conducted in overweight or obese adults without diabetes (N=163)...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933175/hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemia-associated-with-insulin-antibodies-caused-by-exogenous-insulin-analog
#7
Chih-Ting Su, Yi-Chun Lin
: Insulin antibodies (IA) associated with exogenous insulin administration seldom caused hypoglycemia and had different characteristics from insulin autoantibodies (IAA) found in insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS), which was first described by Dr Hirata in 1970. The characteristic of IAS is the presence of insulin-binding autoantibodies and related fasting or late postprandial hypoglycemia. Here, we report a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus under insulin glargine and insulin aspart treatment who developed recurrent spontaneous post-absorptive hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with the cause probably being insulin antibodies induced by exogenous injected insulin...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932304/vitamin-d-and-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Paul Lips, Marelise Eekhoff, Natasja Vzn Schoor, Mirjam Oosterwerff, Renate de Jongh, Yvonne Krul-Poel, Suat Simsek
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a decreased insulin release, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. Animal studies show that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) stimulates the pancreatic β-cell to secrete insulin. The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance could develop through inflammation, as vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased inflammatory markers. In addition, genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D -related genes may predispose to impaired glycemic control and type 2 diabetes...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931981/relative-contribution-of-muscle-and-liver-insulin-resistance-to-dysglycemia-in-postmenopausal-overweight-and-obese-women-a-monet-group-study
#9
Belinda Elisha, Emmanuel Disse, Katherine Chabot, Nadine Taleb, Denis Prud'homme, Sophie Bernard, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Jean-Philippe Bastard
OBJECTIVES: The relative contribution of muscle and liver insulin resistance (IR) in the development of dysglycemia and metabolic abnormalities is difficult to establish. The present study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of muscle IR vs. liver IR to dysglycemia in non-diabetic overweight or obese postmenopausal women and to determine differences in body composition and cardiometabolic indicators associated with hepatic or muscle IR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Secondary analysis of 156 non-diabetic overweight or obese postmenopausal women...
December 5, 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930697/early-antenatal-prediction-of-gestational-diabetes-in-obese-women-development-of-prediction-tools-for-targeted-intervention
#10
Sara L White, Debbie A Lawlor, Annette L Briley, Keith M Godfrey, Scott M Nelson, Eugene Oteng-Ntim, Stephen C Robson, Naveed Sattar, Paul T Seed, Matias C Vieira, Paul Welsh, Melissa Whitworth, Lucilla Poston, Dharmintra Pasupathy
All obese women are categorised as being of equally high risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) whereas the majority do not develop the disorder. Lifestyle and pharmacological interventions in unselected obese pregnant women have been unsuccessful in preventing GDM. Our aim was to develop a prediction tool for early identification of obese women at high risk of GDM to facilitate targeted interventions in those most likely to benefit. Clinical and anthropometric data and non-fasting blood samples were obtained at 15+0-18+6 weeks' gestation in 1303 obese pregnant women from UPBEAT, a randomised controlled trial of a behavioural intervention...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930694/influence-of-fasting-status-and-sample-preparation-on-metabolic-biomarker-measurements-in-postmenopausal-women
#11
Neil Murphy, Roni T Falk, Diana B Messinger, Michael Pollak, Xiaonan Xue, Juan Lin, Robin Sgueglia, Howard D Strickler, Mia M Gaudet, Marc J Gunter
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data linking metabolic markers-such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)-and adipose tissue-derived factors with cancer are inconsistent. Between-study differences in blood collection protocols, in particular participant's fasting status, may influence measurements. METHODS: We investigated the impact of fasting status and blood sample processing time on components of the insulin/IGF axis and in adipokines in a controlled feeding study of 45 healthy postmenopausal-women aged 50-75 years...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930544/adiponectin-fbg%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-fins-as-a-predictor-of-insulin-sensitivity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Xiaohui Xu, Yerui Lai, Gangyi Yang, Mengliu Yang, Ling Li, Qin Zhang, Hua Liu, Hongting Zheng, Danping Zhu
The euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp is not available in most clinical settings. An accessible and inexpensive measurement for identifying insulin resistance (IR) is necessary. Our aim is to assess whether the adiponectin (ADI) index (ADI/[FBG × FIns]) is a better surrogate index for the assessment of IR or metabolic syndrome (MetS).A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted including 100 healthy women and 99 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. The euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930438/sympathetic-neural-activity-metabolic-parameters-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-obese-youths
#13
Pau Redón, Guido Grassi, Josep Redon, Julio Álvarez-Pitti, Empar Lurbe
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this cross-sectional study is to assess the cardiac autonomic neural activity in the presence of abnormally increased body weight in youths and its relationship to metabolic risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). METHODS: Sixty-four overweight and obese patients, aged 9-17 years, of both sexes, stratified according to the international BMI cut-off, were enrolled. Continuous ECG was recorded during 15 min in resting conditions, and the heart rate variability (HRV) was measured in the time domain, frequency domain and for nonlinear dynamics...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929393/xylobiose-an-alternative-sweetener-ameliorates-diabetes-related-metabolic-changes-by-regulating-hepatic-lipogenesis-and-mir-122a-33a-in-db-db-mice
#14
Eunjin Lim, Ji Ye Lim, Eunju Kim, Yoo-Sun Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Pu Reum Seok, Sangwon Jung, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide. Xylobiose (XB) consists of two molecules of d-xylose and is a major disaccharide in xylooligosaccharides that are used as prebiotics. We hypothesized that XB could regulate diabetes-related metabolic and genetic changes via microRNA expression in db/db mice. For six weeks, C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice received 5% XB as part of the total sucrose content of their diet. XB supplementation improved glucose tolerance with reduced levels of OGTT AUC, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA-IR...
December 5, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928958/short-and-long-term-effects-of-a-dpp-4-inhibitor-versus-bedtime-nph-insulin-as-add-on-therapy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Giordana Maluf da Silva, Katia Camarano Nogueira, Rosa Tsuneshiro Fukui, Marcia Regina Soares Correia, Rosa Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria Elizabeth Rossi da Silva
BACKGROUND: We conducted a comparison between the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4(DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin versus NPH insulin as an add-on therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) failing oral medications. The objective was to ascertain the better indication in long-duration diabetes. METHODS: thirty-five T2D patients inadequately controlled with metformin plus glyburide were randomized to receive sitagliptin (n=18) or bedtime NPH insulin (n=17) for 12 months...
December 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928721/clinical-and-metabolic-response-to-selenium-supplementation-in-pregnant-women-at-risk-for-intrauterine-growth-restriction-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Elaheh Mesdaghinia, Azam Rahavi, Fereshteh Bahmani, Nasrin Sharifi, Zatollah Asemi
Data on the effects of selenium supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic profiles in women at risk for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are scarce. This study was designed to assess the effects of selenium supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic status in pregnant women at risk for IUGR. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 60 women at risk for IUGR according to abnormal uterine artery Doppler waveform. Participants were randomly assigned to intake either 100 μg selenium supplements as tablet (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 10 weeks between 17 and 27 weeks of gestation...
December 7, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928704/antioxidant-effects-of-curcuminoids-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Yunes Panahi, Nahid Khalili, Ebrahim Sahebi, Soha Namazi, Maryam Saberi Karimian, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has a key role in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its vascular complications. Antioxidant therapy has been suggested as a potential approach to blunt T2DM development and progression. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with curcuminoids, which are natural polyphenolics from turmeric, on oxidative indices in diabetic individuals. METHODS: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 118 subjects with T2DM were randomized to curcuminoids (1000 mg/day co-administered with piperine 10 mg/day) or matching placebo for a period of 8 weeks...
December 7, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927868/diabetes-and-insulin-therapy-are-associated-with-increased-risk-of-hospitalization-for-infection-but-not-mortality-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#18
John P Donnelly, Sunil Nair, Russell Griffin, John W Baddley, Monika M Safford, Henry E Wang, Nathan I Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that individuals with diabetes are at increased risk of infection. We sought to examine the association of diabetes and insulin therapy with hospitalization for infection and 28-day mortality. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study using data from 30,239 community-dwelling participants aged ≥45 years enrolled in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. We defined diabetes as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/L (or glucose ≥200 mg/L for those not fasting), the use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, or self-reported history...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927601/probiotic-supplementation-in-diabetic-hemodialysis-patients-has-beneficial-metabolic-effects
#19
Alireza Soleimani, Malihe Zarrati Mojarrad, Fereshteh Bahmani, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Mohammad Ramezani, Maryam Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Parvaneh Jafari, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Zatollah Asemi
This study determined the effects of probiotic supplementation on glycemic control, lipid concentrations, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in 60 diabetic patients on hemodialysis in a parallel randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants were initially matched based on sex, duration of dialysis and diabetes, body mass index and age. Subsequently, they were randomly divided into two groups to take either a capsule containing the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum or placebo for 12 weeks...
December 4, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927080/red-ginseng-powder-fermented-with-probiotics-exerts-antidiabetic-effects-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-mouse-diabetes-model
#20
Sun-Hee Jang, Jisang Park, Sae-Hae Kim, Kyung-Min Choi, Eun-Sil Ko, Jeong-Dan Cha, Young-Ran Lee, Hyonseok Jang, Yong-Suk Jang
CONTEXT: Red ginseng (heat-processed Panax ginseng) is a well-known alternative medicine with pharmacological antidiabetic activity. It exerts pharmacological effects through the transformation of saponin into metabolites by the intestinal microbiota. Given that intestinal conditions and intestinal microflora vary among individuals, the pharmacological effects of orally administered red ginseng likely may vary among individuals. OBJECTIVE: To overcome this variation and produce homogeneously effective red ginseng, we evaluated the antidiabetic effects of probiotic-fermented red ginseng in a mouse model...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
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