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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342295/empagliflozin-treatment-is-associated-with-improved-beta-cell-function-in-t2dm
#1
Hussein Al Jobori, Giuseppe Daniele, John Adams, Eugenio Cersosimo, Carolina Solis-Herrera, Curtis Triplitt, Ralph A DeFronzo, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani
Objective: To examine whether lowering the plasma glucose concentration with empagliflozin (SGLT2 inhibitor) improves beta cell function in T2DM. Research Design and Methods: 15 T2DM patients received empagliflozin (25 mg/day) for 2 weeks, and beta cell function was measured with 9-step hyperglycemic clamp (each step = +40 mg/dl) before and 48 hours and 14 days after empagliflozin. Results: Empagliflozin caused 101±10 and 117±11 grams glucosuria on days 1 and 14 and produced 25±6 and 38±8 mg/dl reduction (p<0...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342124/the-root-of-atractylodes-macrocephala-koidzumi-prevents-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance-and-increases-energy-metabolism-in-mice
#2
Mi Young Song, Soo-Kyoung Lim, Jing-Hua Wang, Hojun Kim
Targeting energy expenditure offers a strategy for treating obesity more effectively and safely. In previous studies, we found that the root of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi (Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, ARA) increased energy metabolism in C2C12 cells. Here, we investigated the effects of ARA on obesity and glucose intolerance by examining energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and brown fat in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice. ARA decreased body weight gain, hepatic lipid levels and serum total cholesterol levels, but did not modify food intake...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341404/intra-and-inter-subject-variability-for-increases-in-serum-ketone-bodies-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-treated-with-the-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-canagliflozin
#3
David Polidori, Hiroaki Iijima, Maki Goda, Nobuko Maruyama, Nobuya Inagaki, Peter A Crawford
SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with increased serum ketone bodies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis evaluated serum ketone body levels and variability in 1,278 Japanese patients with T2DM treated with canagliflozin 100 or 200 mg. Similar mean increases in ketone body concentrations of ~2-fold were seen with both canagliflozin doses. Median (interquartile range) percent change from baseline was 62% (0;180) for acetoacetate and 78% (2;236) for β-hydroxybutyrate. Approximately 2/3 of the variability in each ketone measure was attributed to intra-subject variability...
January 17, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341300/inflammatory-and-related-biomarkers-are-associated-with-post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus-in-kidney-recipients
#4
Torbjørn F Heldal, Thor Ueland, Trond Jenssen, Anders Hartmann, Anna V Reisaeter, Pål Aukrust, Annika Michelsen, Anders Åsberg
In this study we investigate the association between selected inflammatory related biomarkers and post transplant hyperglycemia in kidney transplant recipients. This retrospective analysis comprises 852 patients receiving a kidney transplant at the Norwegian national transplant centre between 2007 and 2012, all having a normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before transplantation. A diagnostic OGTT was performed 10 weeks post-transplant to examine the association between inflammation related biomarkers and two-hour plasma glucose (2HPG) by multivariable linear regression models adjusting for BMI, age, graft function, fasting insulin levels, dosage of prednisolone, and concentration of calcineurin inhibitors...
January 16, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340122/a-cross-sectional-study-of-glycemic-status-and-zinc-level-in-patients-with-beta-thalassemia-major
#5
Mohammad Ali Mashhadi, Zahra Sepehri, Zahra Heidari, Mahmoud Ali Kaykhaei, Aliyeh Sargazi, Farhad Kohan, Hanieh Heidari
Background: Endocrinopathies and diabetes mellitus are prevalent in patients with beta-thalassemia major Recently some studies demonstrate a link between low levels of serum zinc level and higher prevalence of diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucose tolerance in patients suffered from beta-thalassemia major and determine the association of Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) parameters with zinc status among these patients. Materials andMethods: In this cross sectional study, clinical data of patients who were suffered from thalassemia major, aged≥10 years were collected...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339986/seeking-optimal-nutrition-for-healthy-body-mass-reduction-among-former-athletes
#6
Dominika Maciejewska, Małgorzata Michalczyk, Maja Czerwińska-Rogowska, Marcin Banaszczak, Karina Ryterska, Karolina Jakubczyk, Jakub Piotrwski, Joanna Hołowko, Arleta Drozd, Paweł Wysokińki, Krzysztof Ficek, Krzysztof Wilk, Anna Lubkowska, Paweł Cięszczyk, Jerzy Bertrand, Ewa Stachowska
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of 6 week Mediterranean diet or 30% calorie restriction on the fatty acid profile and eicosanoids (hydroxyoctadecadienoi acids and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids) concentration. Furthermore, basic biochemical variables such as insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, and a lipid profile were estimated. The study enrolled 94 Caucasian former athletes aged 20-42, with body height of 179 ± 16.00 cm and body mass of 89.26 ± 13.25 kg who had not been active for at least 5 years...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339381/cholecystokinin-is-involved-in-triglyceride-fatty-acid-uptake-by-rat-adipose-tissue
#7
Adrian Plaza, Beatriz Merino, Victoria Cano, Gema Domínguez, Javier Pérez-Castells, Maria S Fernandez-Alfonso, Coralie Sengenès, Julie A Chowen, Mariano Ruiz-Gayo
The incorporation of plasma triglyceride (TG) fatty acids to white adipose tissue (WAT) depends on lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which is regulated by angiopoietin-like protein-4 (ANGPTL-4), an unfolding molecular chaperone that converts active LPL dimers into inactive monomers. The production of ANGPTL-4 is promoted by fasting and repressed by feeding. We hypothesized that the postprandial hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) facilitates the storage of dietary TG fatty acids in WAT by regulating the activity of the LPL/ANGPTL-4 axis and that it does so by acting directly on CCK receptors in adipocytes...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339315/insulin-sensitivity-predicts-brain-network-connectivity-following-a-meal
#8
John P Ryan, Helmet T Karim, Howard J Aizenstein, Nicole L Helbling, Frederico G S Toledo
There is converging evidence that insulin plays a role in food-reward signaling in the brain and has effects on enhancing cognition. Little is known about how these effects are altered in individuals with insulin resistance. The present study was designed to identify the relationships between insulin resistance and functional brain connectivity following a meal. Eighteen healthy adults (7 male, 11 female, age: 41-57 years-old) completed a frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to quantify insulin resistance...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338714/the-effects-of-metformin-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Selvihan Beysel, Ilknur Ozturk Unsal, Muhammed Kizilgul, Mustafa Caliskan, Bekir Ucan, Erman Cakal
BACKGROUND: This retrospective study investigated the effect of adding metformin to pharmacologic insulin dosing in type 1 diabetics on insulin therapy 1 year after treatment compared with patients on insulin therapy alone. METHODS: Twenty-nine adults with type 1 diabetes who had metformin added to their insulin therapy for 12 months were compared with 29 adults with type 1 diabetes who remained on insulin-alone therapy. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with C peptide negative-type 1 diabetics (26 females, mean age: 29...
January 16, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338697/additional-dexamethasone-in-chemotherapies-with-carboplatin-and-paclitaxel-could-reduce-the-impaired-glycometabolism-in-rat-models
#10
Yanxiu Guo, Haoxia Zeng, Xiaohong Chang, Chaohua Wang, Heng Cui
BACKGROUND: Side-effects have been considered as the limitation of the chemotherapy agents' administration and life quality in patients with ovarian cancers. In order to explore the influence of the chemotherapy agents commonly used in ovarian cancer patients on the blood glucose metabolism in rat models, we conducted this study which simulated the conditions of clinical protocols. METHODS: Eighty clean-grade female Wistar rats were randomized into 8 groups: Group 1 (Negative control), Group 1' (Dexamethasone), Group 2 (Carboplatin), Group 2' (Carboplatin-plus-dexamethasone), Group 3 (Paclitaxel), Group 3' (Paclitaxel-plus-dexamethasone), Group 4 (Combined therapy), Group 4' (Combined-therapy-plus-dexamethasone)...
January 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338526/associations-of-abdominal-subcutaneous-and-visceral-fat-with-insulin-resistance-and-secretion-differ-between-men-and-women-the-netherlands-epidemiology-of-obesity-study
#11
Renée de Mutsert, Karin Gast, Ralph Widya, Eelco de Koning, Ingrid Jazet, Hildo Lamb, Saskia le Cessie, Albert de Roos, Jan Smit, Frits Rosendaal, Martin den Heijer
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity is a well-established risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, sex differences may exist. We aimed to investigate the associations of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, fasting and postprandial concentrations of glucose and insulin were measured and abdominal fat depots were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in 2253 participants (53% women)...
January 17, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337071/lower-protein-and-higher-carbohydrate-intake-is-related-with-altering-metabolic-syndrome-components-in-elderly-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Hellen C G Nabuco, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Paulo Junior Sugihara, Rodrigo Dos Reis Fernandes, Edilaine F Cavalcante, Melissa Antunes, Roberto Carlos Burini, Danielle Venturini, Décio S Barbosa, Analiza Mônica Silva, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is an energy-disturbance disease associated with insulin resistance. Hence, the intake of energy-rich macronutrients might affect some MetS components. The aim of this study was to explore the association of ingested macronutrients with MetS components in older women. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in 245 older women (≥60 years). Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess total body fat, percentage body fat (absolute and relative), and skeletal muscle mass...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337019/prediabetes-is-associated-with-microalbuminuria-reduced-kidney-function-and-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-general-population-the-kora-cooperative-health-research-in-the-augsburg-region-f4-study
#13
M R P Markus, T Ittermann, S E Baumeister, C Huth, B Thorand, C Herder, M Roden, U Siewert-Markus, W Rathmann, W Koenig, M Dörr, H Völzke, S Schipf, C Meisinger
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We investigated the associations of serum fasting (FG) and 2-h postload (2HG) glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed cross-sectional analyses of 2713 subjects (1429 women; 52.7%) without known type 2 diabetes, aged 31-82 years, from the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region) F4-Study...
December 22, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335275/interplay-between-chrebp-and-srebp-1c-coordinates-postprandial-glycolysis-and-lipogenesis-in-livers-of-mice
#14
Albert G Linden, Shili Li, Hwa Y Choi, Fei Fang, Masashi Fukasawa, Kosaku Uyeda, Robert E Hammer, Jay D Horton, Luke J Engelking, Guosheng Liang
Lipogenesis in liver is highest in the postprandial state; insulin activates SREBP-1c, which transcriptionally activates genes involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis, whereas glucose activates ChREBP, which activates both glycolysis and FA synthesis. Whether SREBP-1c and ChREBP act independently of one another is unknown. Here, we characterized mice with liver-specific deletion of ChREBP (L-Chrebp-/- mice). Hepatic ChREBP deficiency resulted in reduced mRNA levels of glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes, particularly in response to sucrose refeeding following fasting, a dietary regimen that elicits maximal lipogenesis...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335013/fit-for-function-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Julie Richardson, Ada Tang, Gordon Guyatt, Lehana Thabane, Feng Xie, Demetrios Sahlas, Robert Hart, Rebecca Fleck, Genevieve Hladysh, Louise Macrae
BACKGROUND: The current state of evidence suggests that community-based exercise programs are beneficial in improving impairment, function, and health status, and are greatly needed for persons with stroke. However, limitations of these studies include risk of bias, feasibility, and cost issues. METHODS/DESIGN: This single-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 216 participants with stroke will compare the effectiveness of a 12-week YMCA community-based wellness program (FIT for FUNCTION) specifically designed for community-dwelling persons with stroke to persons who receive a standard YMCA membership...
January 15, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334664/methyl-dehydroabietate-counters-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis-by-modulating-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-signaling-in-mice
#16
Hiroki Yoshioka, Yuki Mizuno, Tomohiro Yamaguchi, Yoshimi Ichimaru, Koichi Takeya, Yukio Hitotsuyanagi, Tsunemasa Nonogaki, Yutaka Aoyagi
The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of methyl dehydroabietate (mDA) on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and obesity characteristics induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells was evaluated after 14 days of incubation with mDA. mDA enhanced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. For the in vivo evaluation, five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD or normal CE-2 diet (control) for eight weeks. During the experimental period, mice were administered mDA (50 mg/kg, p...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334345/arm-crank-ergometry-improves-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-and-community-mobility-independent-of-body-composition-in-high-motor-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#17
James J Bresnahan, Gary J Farkas, Jody L Clasey, James W Yates, David R Gater
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise using arm crank ergometry (ACE) in high motor complete (ISNCSCI A/B) spinal cord injury (SCI) as primarily related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and functional mobility and secondarily to body composition and metabolic profiles. DESIGN: Longitudinal interventional study at an academic medical center. METHODS: Ten previously untrained participants (M8/F2, Age 36.7 y ± 10.1, BMI 24...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333102/an-amino-acids-mixture-attenuates-glycemic-impairment-but-not-affects-adiposity-development-in-rats-fed-with-ages-containing-diet
#18
Yi-Hung Liao, Chung-Yu Chen, Chiao-Nan Chen, Chia-Ying Wu, Shiow-Chwen Tsai
Background: Unhealthy western dietary patterns lead to over-consumption of fat and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and these account for the developments of obesity, diabetes, and related metabolic disorders. Certain amino acids (AAs) have been recently demonstrated to improve glycemia and reduce adiposity. Therefore, our primary aims were to examine whether feeding an isoleucine-enriched AA mixture (4.5% AAs; Ile: 3.0%, Leu: 1.0%, Val: 0.2%, Arg: 0.3% in the drinking water) would affect adiposity development and prevent the impairments of glycemic control in rats fed with the fat/AGE-containing diet (FAD)...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333050/improvement-of-insulin-secretion-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-treated-with-aloe-vera-extract
#19
Ayesha Noor, S Gunasekaran, M A Vijayalakshmi
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Plant extracts and their products are being used as an alternative system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Aloe vera has been traditionally used to treat several diseases and it exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing effects. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Wistar diabetic rats were used in this study to understand the potential protective effect of A. vera extract on the pancreatic islets...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332012/classical-adiponectin-leptin-resistin-and-new-chemerin-vaspin-omentin-adipocytokines-in-patients-with-prediabetes
#20
Antoaneta Gateva, Yavor Assyov, Adelina Tsakova, Zdravko Kamenov
Background In the last decade, there has been an increased interest toward fat tissue as an endocrine organ that secretes many cytokines and bioactive mediators that play a role in insulin sensitivity, inflammation, coagulation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate classical (adiponectin, leptin, resistin) and new (chemerin, vaspin, omentin) adipocytokine levels in subjects with prediabetes [impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)] and obese subjects with normoglycemia...
January 15, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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