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Gait apraxia

Cong Lu, Yi-Cen Zheng, Yi Dong, Hong-Fu Li
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA) are a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by early onset of gait impairment, disturbed limb coordination, dysarthria, and eye movement abnormalities, most likely due to the degeneration of cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Despite of the rarity, ARCA are both clinically and genetically heterogeneous. To date, more than 30 culprit genes have been identified in ARCA. Unraveling the specific causative mutation in cases with ARCA remains challenging so far...
2016: BMC Neurology
Richard A Armstrong
Corticobasal degeneration is a rare, progressive neurodegenerative disease and a member of the 'parkinsonian' group of disorders, which also includes Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy. The most common initial symptom is limb clumsiness, usually affecting one side of the body, with or without accompanying rigidity or tremor. Subsequently, the disease affects gait and there is a slow progression to influence ipsilateral arms and legs. Apraxia and dementia are the most common cortical signs...
August 23, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Fernando Vieira Pereira, Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira, Rodrigo Rizek Schultz, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci
OBJECTIVES: To assess correlations among gait apraxia, balance impairment and cognitive performance in mild (AD1, n = 30) and moderate (AD2, n = 30) AD. METHOD: The following evaluations were undertaken: gait apraxia (Assessment Walking Skills); balance performance (Berg Balance Scale); Clinical Dementia Rating and Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). RESULTS: While disregarding AD subgroups, Berg Balance Scale and the MMSE correlated significantly with Assessment Walking Skills and 23% of all subjects scored below its cut-off...
June 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Zeynep Tufekcioglu, Arman Cakar, Basar Bilgic, Hasmet Hanagasi, Hakan Gurvit, Murat Emre
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, which converts phenylalanine (PHE) to tyrosine. Although it is principally a childhood disorder, in rare cases, the first signs of PKU may develop in late adulthood resembling common neurological diseases. Here we report a 59-year-old, previously normal functioning man who was admitted with blurred vision, cognitive problems, and gait difficulty that began 8 months before. He had brisk reflexes and left side dominant parkinsonism...
June 2016: Neurocase
Inimioara Mihaela Cojocaru, V Ştefănescu, Daniela Traşcă, Adelina Şerban-Pereţeanu, B Chicoş, M Cojocaru
A 78-year-old Caucasian man was admitted in the Department of Neurology for visual disturbances, started two days before. The next day the patient experienced headache, fever and gait disturbances. He had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, an ischemic stroke 13 years ago, longstanding seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (17 years), polynodular goiter, right ischio-pubian fracture and right femoral vein thrombosis a year ago due to a car accident, since he is treated with oral anticoagulants associated to antiaggregant, hypotensors, statin and oral antidiabetics...
October 2015: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
Rosa Angela Fabio, Lucia Billeci, Giulia Crifaci, Emilia Troise, Gaetano Tortorella, Giovanni Pioggia
Rett syndrome (RS) is a childhood neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a primary disturbance in neuronal development. Neurological abnormalities in RS are reflected in several behavioral and cognitive impairments such as stereotypies, loss of speech and hand skills, gait apraxia, irregular breathing with hyperventilation while awake, and frequent seizures. Cognitive training can enhance both neuropsychological and neurophysiological parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate whether behaviors and brain activity were modified by training in RS...
June 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Olivier Beauchet, Cédric Annweiler, Michele L Callisaya, Anne-Marie De Cock, Jorunn L Helbostad, Reto W Kressig, Velandai Srikanth, Jean-Paul Steinmetz, Helena M Blumen, Joe Verghese, Gilles Allali
BACKGROUND: Poor gait performance predicts risk of developing dementia. No structured critical evaluation has been conducted to study this association yet. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically examine the association of poor gait performance with incidence of dementia. METHODS: An English and French Medline search was conducted in June 2015, with no limit of date, using the medical subject headings terms "Gait" OR "Gait Disorders, Neurologic" OR "Gait Apraxia" OR "Gait Ataxia" AND "Dementia" OR "Frontotemporal Dementia" OR "Dementia, Multi-Infarct" OR "Dementia, Vascular" OR "Alzheimer Disease" OR "Lewy Body Disease" OR "Frontotemporal Dementia With Motor Neuron Disease" (Supplementary Concept)...
June 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
José Fidel Baizabal-Carvallo, Joseph Jankovic
Deep brain stimulation represents a major advance in the treatment of several types of movement disorders. However, during stimulation new movement disorders may emerge, thus limiting the positive effects of this therapy. These movement disorders may be induced by: 1) stimulation of the targeted nucleus, 2) stimulation of surrounding tracts and nuclei, and 3) as a result of dose adjustment of accompanying medications, such as reduction of dopaminergic drugs in patients with Parkinson's disease. Various dyskinesias, blepharospasm, and apraxia of eyelid opening have been described mainly with subthalamic nucleus stimulation, whereas hypokinesia and freezing of gait have been observed with stimulation of the globus pallidus internus...
April 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Renan M Pereira, Mariane T Suguimoto, Matheus F Oliveira, Juliana B Tornai, Ricardo A Amaral, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Fernando Campos Gomes Pinto
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is characterized by the triad of gait apraxia, dementia and urinary incontinence associated with ventriculomegaly and normal pressure of cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is accomplished through the implantation of a ventricular shunt (VPS), however some complications are still frequent, like overdrainage due to siphon effect. This study analyses the performance of a valve with anti-siphon device (SPHERA®) in the treatment of patients with NPH and compares it with another group of patients with NPH who underwent the same procedure without anti-siphon mechanism (PS Medical® valve)...
January 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Florian Brugger, Marian Galovic, Bruno J Weder, Georg Kägi
BACKGROUND: Both the supplementary motor complex (SMC), consisting of the supplementary motor area (SMA) proper, the pre-SMA, and the supplementary eye field, and the rostral cingulate cortex are supplied by the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and are involved in higher motor control. The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) originates from the SMC and reflects cognitive preparation processes before volitional movements. ACA strokes may lead to impaired motor control in the absence of limb weakness and evoke an alien hand syndrome (AHS) in its extreme form...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
Matheus Fernandes de Oliveira, Rodolfo Casimiro Reis, Evelinda Marramon Trindade, Fernando Campos Gomes Pinto
INTRODUCTION: idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is characterized by gait apraxia, cognitive dysfunction and urinary incontinence. There are two main treatment options: ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) and endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). However, there are doubts about which modality is superior and what type of valve should be applied. We are summarizing the current evidence in INPH treatment. METHODS: an electronic search of the literature was conducted on the Medline, Embase, Scielo and Lilacs databases from 1966 to the present to obtain data published about INPH treatment...
May 2015: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
O Beauchet, C P Launay, M Montero-Odasso, C Annweiler, G Allali
BACKGROUND: The effects of anti-dementia drugs on gait performance in Alzheimer disease (AD) are questionable. The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the effects of anti-dementia drugs on the mean value and the coefficient of variation (CoV) of stride time among patients with AD while taking into account the type of drugs (i.e., acetylcholinesterase inhibitors [AChEIs] versus memantine) and the walking conditions (i.e., single versus dual-task). METHODS: An English and French Medline search was conducted in March 2015, with no limit of date, using the Medical Subject Headings terms "pharmaceutical preparations" combined with terms "Pharmaceutical preparations" OR "Therapeutic uses" OR "Drug substitution" OR "Drugs essential" OR "Drugs, Generic" OR "Psychotropic drugs" combined with "Delirium" OR "Dementia" OR "Amnestic" OR "Cognitive disorders" AND "Gait" OR "Gait Ataxia" OR "Gait disorders, Neurologic" OR "Gait apraxia"...
2015: Current Alzheimer Research
Raffaella Di Giacopo, Luciano Cianetti, Viviana Caputo, Ilaria La Torraca, Fiorella Piemonte, Andrea Ciolfi, Simona Petrucci, Claudio Carta, Paolo Mariotti, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Enza Maria Valente, Adele D'Amico, Annarita Bentivoglio, Enrico Bertini, Marco Tartaglia, Giuseppe Zampino
OBJECTIVE: This work investigated the molecular cause responsible for a late-onset parkinsonism-dystonia phenotype in three Italian siblings, and clinically characterize this condition. METHODS: Extensive neurophysiological and neuroradiological exams were performed on the three sibs. Most frequent late-onset metabolic diseases were ruled out through laboratory and biochemical analyses. A whole exome sequencing (WES) approach was used to identify the molecular cause underlying this condition...
September 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Akihiko Mitsutake, Tadahisa Kanemoto, Youji Suzuki, Naoki Sakai, Ken Kuriki
A 66-year-old woman presented with vertigo and deafness. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the head showed multiple cerebral infarctions involving several blood vessel regions. A diagnosis of cardiogenic embolism was made, and anticoagulation therapy was begun. The woman had no additional symptoms until suddenly developing left hemiparesis one year later. She was again found to have multiple cerebral infarctions. The hemiparesis gradually improved, but ataxic gait and apraxia appeared and progressed over two weeks...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Thomas Gregor Issac, Mirza Masoom Abbas
BACKGROUND: Apraxia is a state of inability to carry out a learned motor act in the absence of motor, sensory or cerebellar defect on command processed through the Praxis circuit. Breakdown in default networking is one of the early dysfunction in cortical dementias and result in perplexity, awkwardness, omission, substitution errors, toying behavior and unrecognizable gestures in response to command with voluntary reflex dissociation where, when unobserved patient will carry out reflex movements normally...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Farah Ayoubi, Cyrille P Launay, Cédric Annweiler, Olivier Beauchet
BACKGROUND: Fear of falling (FOF) and increased gait variability are both independent markers of gait instability. There is a complex interplay between both entities. The purposes of this study were (1) to perform a qualitative analysis of all published studies on FOF-related changes in gait variability through a systematic review, and (2) to quantitatively synthesize FOF-related changes in gait variability. METHODS: A systematic Medline literature search was conducted in May 2014 using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms "Fear" OR "fear of falling" combined with "Accidental Falls" AND "Gait" OR "Gait Apraxia" OR "Gait Ataxia" OR "Gait disorders, Neurologic" OR "Gait assessment" OR "Functional gait assessment" AND "Self efficacy" OR "Self confidence" AND "Aged" OR "Aged, 80 and over...
January 2015: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Lauren N Bowen, S H Subramony, Kenneth M Heilman
Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is associated with asymmetrical rigidity as well as asymmetrical limb-kinetic and ideomotor apraxia. Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is characterized by muscle stiffness and gait difficulties. Whereas patients with CBS have several forms of pathology, many patients with SPS have glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-ab), but these 2 disorders have not been reported to coexist. We report 2 patients with GAD-ab-positive SPS who also had signs suggestive of CBS, including asymmetrical limb rigidity associated with both asymmetrical limb-kinetic and ideomotor apraxia...
January 2015: Annals of Neurology
Luís Caldeira, Sara Varanda, Alvaro Machado, Carla Ferreira, Gisela Carneiro
In the elderly there is a high risk of inappropriate medication and adverse effects of polypharmacy. A 68 year-old female patient resorted to the Emergency Room for suspected stroke. According to the husband, in the six months prior to admission, she became progressively disorientated and dependent. She had resorted to various appointments from different specialties and was polymedicated. It was impossible to clarify the exact dosage. On neurological examination she presented disturbance in attention and memory, disorientation, constructional apraxia, myoclonus and gait imbalance...
March 2014: Acta Médica Portuguesa
O Beauchet, C P Launay, G Allali, C Annweiler
BACKGROUND: Studies have examined the effects of anti-dementia drugs on gait performance. No structured critical evaluation of these studies has been done so far. The objectives of this study were (1) to perform a qualitative analysis of all published studies on changes in stride time variability (STV) with anti-dementia drugs among patients with Alzheimer disease through a systematic review, and (2) to quantitatively synthesize anti-dementia drug-related changes in STV. METHODS: An English and French MEDLINE search was conducted on November 2013, with no limit of date, using the Medical Subject Headings term "pharmaceutical preparations" combined with "delirium", "dementia", "amnestic", "cognitive disorders" AND "gait" OR "gait disorders, neurologic" OR "gait apraxia"...
June 2014: CNS Drugs
Klas Wictorin, Björn Brådvik, Karin Nilsson, Maria Soller, Danielle van Westen, Gunnel Bynke, Peter Bauer, Ludger Schöls, Andreas Puschmann
BACKGROUND: We describe the clinical characteristics of a Swedish family with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, sensory and autonomic neuropathy, additional neurological features and unknown genetic cause. METHODS: Fourteen affected family members were identified. Their disorder was characterized by neurological examination, MRI, electroneurography, electromyography, MIBG-scintigraphy, and tilt-testing. RESULTS: The disorder presented as a balance and gait disturbance starting between 16 and 47 years of age...
July 2014: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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